2022 Vol. 21 No. 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Crop Science
    Plant Protection
    Animal Science · Veterinary Medicine
    Agro-ecosystem & Environment
    Agricultural Economics and Management
    Short Communication

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    Response of leaf stomatal and mesophyll conductance to abiotic stress factors
    LI Sheng-lan, TAN Ting-ting, FAN Yuan-fang, Muhammad Ali RAZA, WANG Zhong-lin, WANG Bei-bei, ZHANG Jia-wei, TAN Xian-ming, CHEN Ping, Iram SHAFIQ, YANG Wen-yu, YANG Feng
    2022, 21(10): 2787-2804.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.036
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    Plant photosynthesis assimilates CO2 from the atmosphere, and CO2 diffusion efficiency is mainly constrained by stomatal and mesophyll resistance.  The stomatal and mesophyll conductance of plants are sensitive to abiotic stress factors, which affect the CO2 concentrations at carboxylation sites to control photosynthetic rates.  Early studies conducted relevant reviews on the responses of stomatal conductance to the environment and the limitations of mesophyll conductance by internal structure and biochemical factors.  However, reviews on the abiotic stress factors that systematically regulate plant CO2 diffusion are rare.  Therefore, in this review, the rapid and long-term responses of stomatal and mesophyll conductance to abiotic stress factors (such as light intensity, drought, CO2 concentration and temperature) and their physiological mechanisms are summarized.  Finally, future research trends are also investigated.

    Crop Science
    Genetic dissection of the grain filling rate and related traits through linkage analysis and genome-wide association study in bread wheat
    YU Hai-xia, DUAN Xi-xian, SUN Ai-qing, SUN Xiao-xiao, ZHANG Jing-juan, SUN Hua-qing, SUN Yan-yan, NING Tang-yuan, TIAN Ji-chun, WANG Dong-xue, LI Hao, FAN Ke-xin, WANG Ai-ping, MA Wu-jun, CHEN Jian-sheng
    2022, 21(10): 2805-2817.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.032
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    Wheat grain yield is generally sink-limited during grain filling.  The grain-filling rate (GFR) plays a vital role but is poorly studied due to the difficulty of phenotype surveys.  This study explored the grain-filling traits in a recombinant inbred population and wheat collection using two highly saturated genetic maps for linkage analysis and genome-wide association study (GWAS).  Seventeen stable additive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified on chromosomes 1B, 4B, and 5A.  The linkage interval between IWB19555 and IWB56078 showed pleiotropic effects on GFR1, GFRmax, kernel length (KL), kernel width (KW), kernel thickness (KT), and thousand kernel weight (TKW), with the phenotypic variation explained (PVE) ranging from 13.38% (KW) to 33.69% (TKW).  198 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) were distributed across most chromosomes except for 3D and 4D.  The major associated sites for GFR included IWB44469 (11.27%), IWB8156 (12.56%) and IWB24812 (14.46%).  Linkage analysis suggested that IWB35850, identified through GWAS, was located in approximately the same region as QGFRmax2B.3-11, where two high-confidence candidate genes were present.  Two important grain weight (GW)-related QTLs colocalized with grain-filling QTLs.  The findings contribute to understanding the genetic architecture of the GFR and provide a basic approach to predict candidate genes for grain yield trait QTLs.

    Expression profiling of transgenes (Cry1Ac and Cry2A) in cotton genotypes under different genetic backgrounds
    Kashif NOOR, Hafiza Masooma Naseer CHEEMA, Asif Ali KHAN, Rao Sohail Ahmad KHAN
    2022, 21(10): 2818-2832.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.033
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    Transgenic cotton carrying the Cry1Ac gene has revolutionized insect pest control since its adoption, although the development of resistance in insect pests has reduced its efficacy.  After 10 years of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton with a single Cry1Ac gene, growers are on the verge of adopting Bt cotton that carries the double gene (Cry1Ac+Cry2A) due to its better effectiveness against insect pests.  Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the role of each gene in the effectiveness of Bt cotton carrying the double gene.  The expression levels of the Cry1Ac and Cry2A genes were evaluated in the leaves of 10 genotypes (2 parents and 8 F1 hybrids) at 30 days after sowing (DAS), while samples of leaves, bolls and flowers were taken from the upper and lower canopies at 70 and 110 DAS.  The F1 hybrids were developed through reciprocal crosses between two Bt (CKC-1, CKC-2) and two non-Bt (MNH-786, FH-942) parents.  The differential expression of transgenes was evaluated through Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA).  The results showed that the MNH786×CKC-1 hybrid had the highest concentrations of Cry1Ac gene at 30 DAS (3.08 µg g–1) and 110 DAS (1.01 µg g–1) in leaves.  In contrast, the CKC-2×MNH-786 hybrid showed the lowest concentrations of Cry1Ac gene at 30 DAS (2.30 µg g–1) and 110 DAS (0.86 µg g–1).  The F1 hybrid FH-942×CKC-2 showed the highest concentrations of Cry2A gene at 30 DAS (8.39 µg g–1) and 110 DAS (7.74 µg g–1) in leaves, while the CKC-1×MNH-786 hybrid expressed the lowest concentrations of Cry2A gene at 30 DAS (7.10 µg g–1) and 110 DAS (8.31 µg g–1).  A comparison between the two stages of plant growth showed that leaves had the highest concentrations at 30 DAS, whereas the lowest concentrations were observed at 110 DAS for both genes in leaves.  When the expression pattern was compared between various plant parts in genotype CKC-2, it was found that leaves had higher concentrations of Cry1Ac (3.12 µg g–1) and Cry2A (8.31 µg g–1) at 70 DAS, followed by bolls (Cry1Ac (1.66 µg g–1) and Cry2A (8.15 µg g–1)) and flowers (Cry1Ac (1.07 µg g–1) and Cry2A (7.99 µg g–1)).  The genotype CKC-2 had higher concentrations of Cry1Ac (3.12 µg g–1) and Cry2A (8.31 µg g1) in the upper canopy but less accumulation (2.66 µg g–1 of Cry1Ac, 8.09 µg g–1 of Cry2A) in the lower canopy at 70 DAS.  Similarly, at 110 DAS, the expression levels of Cry1Ac and Cry2A in upper and lower canopy leaves were 1.52 and 7.92 µg g–1, and 0.99 and 7.54 µg g–1, respectively.  Hence, the current study demonstrates that different genotypes showed variable expression for both of the Cry1Ac and Cry2A genes during plant growth due to different genetic backgrounds.  The Cry2A gene had three-fold higher expression than Cry1Ac with significant differences in expression in different plant parts.  The findings of this study will be helpful for breeding insect-resistant double-gene genotypes with better gene expression levels of Cry1Ac and Cry2A for sustainable cotton production worldwide.

    Linkage and association mapping of wild soybean (Glycine soja) seeds germinating under salt stress
    SHI Mei-qi, LIAO Xi-liang, YE Qian, ZHANG Wei, LI Ya-kai, Javaid Akhter BHAT, KAN Gui-zhen, YU De-yue
    2022, 21(10): 2833-2847.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.031
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    Salinity threatens soybean germination, growth and production.  The germination stage is a key period in the life of soybean.  Wild soybean contains many genes related to stress resistance that are valuable resources for the genetic improvement of soybean.  To identify the genetic loci of wild soybean that are active during seed germination under salt stress, two populations, a soybean interspecific hybrid population comprising 142 lines and a natural population comprising 121 wild soybean accessions, were screened for three germination-related traits in this study.  By using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with three salt tolerance indices, 25 quantitative trait loci (QTLs), 21 significant SNPs (–log10(P)≥4.0) and 24 potential SNPs (3.5<–log10(P)<4.0) were detected by linkage mapping and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in two environments.  The key genetic region was identified based on these SNPs and QTLs.  According to the gene functional annotations of the W05 genome and salt-induced gene expression qRT-PCR analysis, GsAKR1 was selected as a candidate gene that responded to salt stress at the germination stage in the wild soybean.  These results could contribute to determining the genetic networks of salt tolerance in wild soybean and will be helpful for molecular marker-assisted selection in the breeding of salt-tolerant soybean.

    Genome-wide identification, expression and functional analysis of sugar transporters in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) 
    XIAO Qian-lin, LI Zhen, WANG Ya-yun, HOU Xian-bin, WEI Xi-mei, ZHAO Xiao, HUANG Lei, GUO Yan-jun, LIU Zhi-zhai
    2022, 21(10): 2848-2864.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.034
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    Sugar transporters are essential for osmotic process regulation, various signaling pathways and plant growth and development.  Currently, few studies are available on the function of sugar transporters in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.).  In this study, we performed a genome-wide survey of sugar transporters in sorghum.  In total, 98 sorghum sugar transporters (SSTs) were identified via BLASTP.  These SSTs were classified into three families based on the phylogenetic and conserved domain analysis, including six sucrose transporters (SUTs), 23 sugars will eventually be exported transporters (SWEETs), and 69 monosaccharide transporters (MSTs).  The sorghum MSTs were further divided into seven subfamilies, including 24 STPs, 23 PLTs, two VGTs, four INTs, three pGlcT/SBG1s, five TMTs, and eight ERDs.  Chromosomal localization of the SST genes showed that they were randomly distributed on 10 chromosomes, and substantial clustering was evident on the specific chromosomes.  Twenty-seven SST genes from the families of SWEET, ERD, STP, and PLT were found to cluster in eight tandem repeat event regions.  In total, 22 SSTs comprising 11 paralogous pairs and accounting for 22.4% of all the genes were located on the duplicated blocks.  The different subfamilies of SST proteins possessed the same conserved domain, but there were some differences in features of the motif and transmembrane helices (TMH).  The publicly-accessible RNA-sequencing data and real-time PCR revealed that the SST genes exhibited distinctive tissue specific patterns.  Functional studies showed that seven SSTs were mainly located on the cell membrane and membrane organelles, and 14 of the SSTs could transport different types of monosaccharides in yeast.  These findings will help us to further elucidate their roles in the sorghum sugar transport and sugar signaling pathways.

    Inhibition of miR397 by STTM technology to increase sweetpotato resistance to SPVD
    LI Chen, LIU Xuan-xuan, ABOUELNASR Hesham, MOHAMED HAMED Arisha, KOU Meng, TANG Wei, YAN Hui, WANG Xin, WANG Xiao-xiao, ZHANG Yun-gang, LIU Ya-ju, GAO Run-fei, MA Meng, LI Qiang
    2022, 21(10): 2865-2875.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.054
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    As a critical food crop, sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) is widely planted all over the world, but it is deeply affected by Sweetpotato Virus Disease (SPVD).  The present study utilized short tandem target mimic (STTM) technology to effectively up-regulate the expression of laccase (IbLACs) by successfully inhibiting the expression of miR397.  The upstream genes in the lignin synthesis pathway were widely up-regulated by feedback regulation, including phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), 4-coumarate-CoAligase (4CL), hydroxycinnamoyl CoA:shikimatetransferase (HTC), caffeicacid O-methyltransferase (COMT), and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD).  Meanwhile, the activities of PAL and LAC increased significantly, finally leading to increased lignin content.  Lignin deposition in the cell wall increased the physical defence ability of transgenic sweetpotato plants, reduced the accumulation of SPVD transmitted by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and promoted healthy sweetpotato growth.  The results provide new insights for disease resistance breeding and green production of sweetpotato. 

    Comprehensive analysis of YABBY gene family in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and functional characterization of SiDL
    GUO Jie, ZHOU Xu-tao, DAI Ke-li, YUAN Xiang-yang, GUO Ping-yi, SHI Wei-ping, ZHOU Mei-xue
    2022, 21(10): 2876-2887.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.052
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    YABBY genes are plant-specific transcription factors (TF) that function in plant growth and development.  To investigate the functions of the YABBY genes in plants’ stress tolerance, we analyzed the YABBY genes in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and investigated their functions on plant growth and responses to different stresses.  Eight YABBY genes were identified on five chromosomes. These genes showed strong relationships with YABBY genes in other monocot species.  Phylogenetical SiYABs were classified into four clades: FIL/YAB3, YAB2, INO, and CRC.  No monocot YABBY member was classified into the YAB5 clade.  Four conserved motifs were identified and motif 1 constituted the YABBY domain, whereas motifs 2 and 3 formed the C2-C2 region. SiYAB genes were highly expressed in reproductive tissues.  Among all the SiYABs, SiDL was selected to be overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana to check the functions of the YABBY genes.  Overexpression of SiDL in Arabidopsis thaliana caused delayed flowering, leaf curling, and reduced seed size.  In addition, SiDL acted as a negative regulator in plant response to salt stress. Our study provides information to assist the study of YABBY gene function in S. italica.

    Grain yield and lodging-related traits of ultrashort-duration varieties for direct-seeded and double-season rice in Central China
    WANG Xin-yu, XU Le, LI Xiao-xiao, YANG Guo-dong, WANG Fei, PENG Shao-bing
    2022, 21(10): 2888-2899.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.035
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Lodging is the most common constraint on grain yield of direct-seeded rice.  There is limited information about lodging resistance and its related plant traits in direct-seeded and double-season rice (DDR) in Central China.  This study aims  to identify the plant traits that achieve high lodging resistance in ultrashort-duration varieties (about 95 days) of DDR.  Field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Wuxue County, Hubei Province, China, with four ultrashort-duration varieties grown under two nitrogen (N) rates.  Lodging-related traits were measured on the 15th day after heading, and yield and yield attributes were measured at maturity.  The grain yield of the four varieties ranged from 4.59 to 7.61 t ha–1 across the two N rates, with a total growth duration of 85 to 97 days.  Varietal differences in lodging index were mainly explained by the bending moment, which was closely related to plant height.  Breaking resistance did not affect the lodging index significantly.  Shortening plant height from 95.4 to 80.5 cm decreased the lodging index by 22.4% but did not reduce grain yield.  Our results suggested that reducing plant height was effective in improving the lodging resistance of ultrashort-duration varieties of DDR.  Lodging resistance should be enhanced by improving breaking resistance rather than reducing plant height to increase DDR grain yield further.
    Effect of various combinations of temperature during different phenolgical stages on indica rice yield and quality in Yangtze River Basin in China
    TU De-bao JIANG Yang, ZHANG Li-juan, CAI Ming-li, LI Cheng-fang, CAO Cou-gui
    2022, 21(10): 2900-2909.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.056
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Rice grain yield and quality declines are due to unsuitable temperatures from wide regions and various sowing dates.  This study aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature on rice yield and quality at different phenological periods and obtain suitable temperatures for phenological periods in the Yangtze River Basin, China.  This study conducted experiments on different sowing dates under different areas in the Yangtze River Basin to observe and compare the differences in rice growth, yield, and quality, controlling for regional varieties.  The results showed significant differences in rice growth, yield, and quality among sowing dates and areas, which were related to the average daily temperature during the vegetative period (VT) and the first 20 days of the grain-filling period (GT20).  In addition, there was a smaller variation in the average daily temperature in the reproductive period (RT) than in the two phenological periods.  Therefore, according to the VT and GT20 thresholds of different yields and qualities, the experimental results were divided into four scenarios (I, II, III, and IV) in this study.  In Scenario I, high head rice production (rice grain yield multiplied by head rice rate) and rice quality could be obtained.  The head rice production of Scenarios III and IV was lower than that of Scenario I, by 30.1 and 27.6%, respectively.  In Scenario II, the head rice production increased insignificantly while the chalky grain rate and chalkiness were 50.6 and 56.3% higher than those of Scenario I.  In conclusion, the Scenario I combination with VT ranges of 22.8–23.9°C and GT20 ranges of 24.2–27.0°C or the combination with VT ranges of 23.9–25.3°C and GT20 ranges of 24.2–24.9°C, which can be obtained by adjusting sowing date and selecting rice varieties with suitable growth periods, is recommended to achieve high levels of rice grain yield and quality in the Yangtze River Basin. 
    QTL-seq analysis of seed size trait in grape provides new molecular insight on seedlessness
    WANG Li, ZHANG Song-lin, JIAO Chen, LI Zhi, LIU Chong-huai, WANG Xi-ping
    2022, 21(10): 2910-2925.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.047
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    Seedlessness in grape (Vitis vinifera) is an important commercial trait for both the fresh and drying markets.  However, despite numerous studies, the mechanisms and key genes regulating grape seedlessness are mostly unknown.  In this study, we sequenced the genomes of the V. vinifera seeded cultivar ‘Red Globe’, the seedless cultivar ‘Centennial Seedless’, and the derived hybrids.  Nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified by genome sequencing and analyzed using published transcriptome data.  Nonsynonymous SNPs occurred in genes related to seed development, which were identified as protein kinases, transcription factors, and cytochrome P450s and showed differential expression during ovule development in both seeded and seedless grapes.  These nonsynonymous SNP-associated genes were mainly involved in biological processes such as hormone balance, seed coat and endosperm development, reproductive organ development, oxidation and reduction, senescence and cell death.  A potential quantitative trait locus (QTL) region associated with seed size was characterized based on the SNP-index, and expression analysis of candidate genes in the QTL region during ovule development in multiple seeded and seedless grape cultivars were conducted.  Three SNPs were further subjected to SNaPshot analysis and one SNP in G8 showed 67.5% efficiency in the grape progeny validation.  Overall, the data obtained in this study shed light on the differences in seed development between seeded and seedless progeny at the genomic level, which provides valuable resources for future functional studies and grape breeding.

    Comparative transcriptomic analysis of Rosa sterilis inflorescence branches with different trichome types reveals an R3-MYB transcription factor that negatively regulates trichome formation
    MA Wen-tao, LU Min, AN Hua-ming, YI Yin
    2022, 21(10): 2926-2942.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.050
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    Rosa sterilis S. D. Shi is an important economic tree in China that produces fruits with high nutritional and medicinal value.  Many of Rsterilis’ organs are covered with different types of trichomes or prickles that directly affect fruit appearance and plant management.  This study used RNA sequencing technology to analyze the transcriptomes of two parts of the inflorescence branch, namely inflorescence stems with flagellated trichomes and pedicels with both flagellated and glandular trichomes.  Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed that many transcription factors (TFs) are potentially involved in the formation and development of trichomes.  The accumulation of RsETC1, a TF of the R3-MYB family, was significantly higher in inflorescence stems than in pedicels; quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) verified that its expression was significantly higher in inflorescence stems than in pedicels during the first three development stages, indicating its inhibitory action on the initiation of glandular trichomes in Rsterilis.  The mRNA level of RsETC1 accumulated to significantly higher levels in trichomeless tissues than in tissues with trichromes, suggesting that this gene may inhibit the formation of trichomes in Rsterilis.  Over-expression of RsETC1 in Arabidopsis resulted in glabrous phenotypes, and the expression of trichome-related endogenous genes, except for TTG1, was markedly reduced.  In addition, the contents of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA), gibberellin A3 (GA3), and cytokinins (CKs) in pedicels were significantly higher than those in inflorescence stems, and the expression patterns of the genes related to hormone biosynthesis and signal transduction presented consistent responses, suggesting that the transduction of these hormones might be crucial for trichome initiation and development.  These data provide a new perspective for revealing the molecular mechanism of trichome formation in Rsterilis.

    Plant Protection
    Dispersal routes of Cercospora zeina causing maize gray leaf spot in China
    DUAN Can-xing, ZHAO Li-ping, WANG Jie, LIU Qing-kui, YANG Zhi-huan, WANG Xiao-ming
    2022, 21(10): 2943-2956.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.042
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    The gray leaf spot caused by Cercospora zeina has become a serious disease in maize in China.  The isolates of C. zeina from Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Hubei, Chongqing, Gansu, and Shaanxi were collected.  From those, 127 samples were used for genetic diversity analysis based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and 108 samples were used for multi-gene sequence analysis based on five gene fragments.  The results indicated that populations of C. zeina were differentiated with a relatively high genetic level and were classified into two major groups and seven subgroups.  The intra-population genetic differentiation of C. zeina is the leading cause of population variation in China, and inter-population genetic similarity is closely related to the colonization time and spread direction.  The multi-gene sequence analysis of C. zeina isolates demonstrated that there were nine haplotypes.  Genetic diversity and multi-gene sequence revealed that Yunnan population of C. zeina, the earliest colonizing in China, had the highest genetic and haplotype diversity and had experienced an expansion event.  With the influence of the southwest monsoon in the Indian Ocean, C. zeina from Yunnan gradually moved to Sichuan, Guizhou, Shaanxi, Gansu, and Chongqing.  Meanwhile, C. zeina was transferred directly from the Yunnan into the Hubei Province via seed and then came into Shaanxi, Henan, and Chongqing along with the wind from Hubei.

    The peroxisomal matrix shuttling receptor Pex5 plays a role of FB1 production and virulence in Fusarium verticillioides
    YU Wen-ying, LIN Mei, YAN Hui-juan, WANG Jia-jia, ZHANG Sheng-min, LU Guo-dong, WANG Zong-hua, Won-Bo SHIM
    2022, 21(10): 2957-2972.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.044
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    The peroxisomal matrix oxidase, catalase and peroxidase are imported peroxisomes through the shuttling receptors, which regulates the cellular oxidative homeostasis and function.  Here, we report that PTS1 shuttling receptor FvPex5 is involved in the localization of PTS1, utilization of carbon sources and lipids, elimination ROS, cell wall stress, conidiation, fumonisin B1 (FB1) production, and virulence in maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.  Significantly, differential expression of PTS1-, PTS2-, PEX- and FB1 toxin-related genes in wild type and ΔFvpex5 mutant were examined by RNA-Seq analyses and confirmed by RT-PCR assay.  In addition, different expression of PTS1 and PTS2 genes of the ΔFvpex5 mutant were enriched in diverse biochemical pathways, such as carbon metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, lipid metabolism and the oxidation balance by combining GO and KEGG annotations.  Overall, we showed that FvPex5 is involved in the regulation of genes associated with PTS, thereby affecting the oxidation balance, FB1 and virulence in Fverticillioides.  The results help to clarify the functional divergence of Pex5 orthologs, and may provide a possible target for controlling Fverticillioides infections and FB1 biosynthesis.

    A fragment of a 70-kDa Heterodera glycines heat shock protein (HgHSP70) interacts with soybean cyst nematode-resistant protein GmSHMT08
    LIU Zhi, ZHANG Liu-ping, ZHAO Jie, JIAN Jin-zhuo, PENG Huan, HUANG Wen-kun, KONG Ling-an, PENG De-liang, LIU Shi-ming
    2022, 21(10): 2973-2983.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.048
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines is considered as the major constraint to soybean production.  GmSHMT08 at Rhg4 locus on chromosome 08, encoding a serine hydroxylmethyltransferase, is a major gene underlying resistance against Hglycines in Peking-type soybeans.  However, the molecular mechanism underpinning this resistance is less well characterized, and whether GmSHMT08 could interact with proteins in Hglycines remains unclear.  In this study, yeast two-hybrid screening was conducted using GmSHMT08 as a bait protein, and a fragment of a 70-kDa heat shock protein (HgHSP70) was screened from Hglycines that exhibited interaction with GmSHMT08.  This interaction was verified by both GST pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays.  Our finding reveals HgHSP70 could be applied as a potential candidate gene for further exploring the mechanism on GmSHMT08-mediated resistance against SCN Hglycines.

    Biosynthesis of artemisinic acid in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its attraction to the mirid bug Apolygus lucorum
    TENG Dong, LIU Dan-feng, Khashaveh ADEL, SUN Pei-yao, GENG Ting, ZHANG Da-wei, ZHANG Yong-jun
    2022, 21(10): 2984-2994.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.040
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    Artemisia annua is an important preferred host of the mirid bug Apolygus lucorum in autumn.  Volatiles emitted from Aannua attract Alucorum.  Volatile artemisinic acid of Aannua is a precursor of artemisinin that has been widely investigated in the Chinese herbal medicine field.  However, little is known at this point about the biological roles of artemisinic acid in regulating the behavioral trends of Alucorum.  In this study, we collected volatiles from Aannua at the seedling stage by using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME).  Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that approximately 11.03±6.00 and 238.25±121.67 ng h–1 artemisinic acid were detected in volatile samples and milled samples, respectively.  Subsequently, a key gene for artemisinic acid synthesis, the cytochrome P450 gene cyp71av1, was expressed in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to catalyze the production of artemisinic acid.  After the addition of exogenous artemisinic alcohol or artemisinic aldehyde, artemisinic acid was identified as the product of the expressed gene.  In electroantennogram (EAG) recordings, 3-day-old adult Alucorum showed significant electrophysiological responses to artemisinic alcohol, artemisinic aldehyde and artemisinic acid.  Furthermore, 3-day-old female bugs were significantly attracted by artemisinic acid and artemisinic alcohol at a concentration of 10 mmol L–1, whereas 3-day-old male bugs were attracted significantly by 10 mmol L–1 artemisinic acid and artemisinic aldehyde.  We propose that artemisinic acid and its precursors could be used as potential attractant components for the design of novel integrated pest management strategies to control Alucorum.

    Diamide derivatives containing a trifluoromethylpyridine skeleton: Design, synthesis, and insecticidal activity
    XU Fang-zhou, WANG Yan-yan, GUO Sheng-xin, DAI A-li, WU Jian
    2022, 21(10): 2995-3003.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.046
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    Diamide derivatives are biologically active molecules that have been widely applied in recent years in research on pesticides, especially insecticides.  Using a simple and environmentally friendly scheme, a series of new diamide derivatives containing a trifluoromethylpyridine skeleton was designed, synthesized, and confirmed by 1H, 19F and 13C NMR, and HR-MS.  Their insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera were measured and the relationship between structure and activity was investigated.  Eight of the title compounds (D2, D5, D10, D21, D28, D29, D30 and D33) showed 100% activity against Pxylostella at 500 mg L–1.  One compound, D33, still showed 100% activity against Pxylostella at 100 mg L–1 and had the lowest LC50 (lethal concentration 50%, 3.7 mg L–1) among the synthesized compounds.  Molecular docking analysis revealed that D33 could be thoroughly embedded in the active pocket of the ryanodine receptor via hydrogen bonding in a manner similar to the commercial insecticide chlorantraniliprole.

    Animal Science · Veterinary Medicine
    MiR-140 downregulates fatty acid synthesis by targeting transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) in bovine mammary epithelial cells
    CHU Shuang-feng, ZHAO Tian-qi, Abdelaziz Adam Idriss ARBAB, YANG Yi, CHEN Zhi, YANG Zhang-ping
    2022, 21(10): 3004-3016.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.039
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    Fat is an indispensable nutrient and basic metabolite for sustaining life, and milk is particularly rich in fatty acids, including a variety of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.  MicroRNA (miRNA) and mRNA play an important role in the regulation of milk fat metabolism in mammary gland tissue.  It has been shown that lipid metabolism has a complex transcriptional regulation, but the mechanism by which milk fat synthesis is regulated through miRNA–mRNA interactions is poorly understood.  In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing with bovine mammary gland tissue in the late lactation (270 and 315 days after parturition) to identify the key gene that regulating milk fat metabolism.  A total of 1 207 differentially coexpressed genes were selected, 828 upregulated genes and 379 downregulated genes were identified.  The transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) gene was selected as the target gene, and luciferase reporter assay, Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used for further study.  The results demonstrated that miR-140 was an upstream regulator of TGFA, and miR-140 could inhibit (P<0.01) unsaturated fatty acid and triglyceride (TAGs) production in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs).  In contrast, TGFA promoted (P<0.01) unsaturated fatty acid and TAG production.  Rescue experiments further indicated the miR-140/TGFA regulatory mechanism.  Taken together, these results suggest that the miR-140/TGFA pathway can inhibit (P<0.01) milk fat metabolism and improve milk quality by genetic means.

    Regulation of bone phosphorus retention and bone development possibly by BMP and MAPK signaling pathways in broilers
    LIAO Xiu-dong, CAO Su-mei, LI Ting-ting, SHAO Yu-xin, ZHANG Li-yang, LU Lin, ZHANG Ri-jun, HOU Shui-sheng, LUO Xu-gang
    2022, 21(10): 3017-3025.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.037
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways play an important role in regulation of bone formation and development, however, it remains unclear that the effect of dietary different levels of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) on these signaling pathways and their correlations with bone phosphorus (P) retention and bone development in broilers.  Therefore, this experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary P supplementation on BMP and MAPK signaling pathways and their correlations with bone P retention and bone development in broilers.  A total of 800 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with 8 replicates in a completely randomized design.  The 5 treatments of dietary NPP levels were 0.15, 0.25, 0.35, 0.45 and 0.55% or 0.15, 0.22, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.43% for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age or 22 to 42 days of age, respectively.  The results showed that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) mRNA expression in the tibia of broilers on days 14 and 28, phosphorylated-ERK1 (p-ERK1) on day 14, and BMP2 protein expression on days 28 and 42 decreased linearly (P<0.04), while c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) mRNA expression on day 42 increased linearly (P<0.02) with the increase of dietary NPP level.  At 14 days of age, total P accumulation in tibia ash (TPTA), bone mineral concentration (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone breaking strength (BBS) and tibia ash were negatively correlated (r=–0.726 to –0.359, P<0.05) with ERK1 and JNK1 mRNA as well as p-ERK1; tibia alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone gal protein (BGP) were positively correlated (r=0.405 to 0.665, P<0.01) with ERK1 mRNA and p-ERK1.  At 28 days of age, TPTA, BMC, BMD, BBS and tibia ash were negatively correlated (r=–0.518 to –0.370, P<0.05) with ERK1 mRNA and BMP2 protein, while tibia ALP was positively correlated (r=0.382 to 0.648, P<0.05) with them.  The results indicated that TPTA, BMC, BMD, BBS or tibia ash had negative correlations, while tibia ALP and BGP had positive correlations with ERK1 and JNK1 mRNAs, BMP2 protein and p-ERK1, suggesting that bone P retention and bone development might be regulated by BMP and MAPK signaling pathways in broiler chickens.

    Chinese herbal formulae defend against Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection
    WANG Ying-jie, LIANG Ya-xi, HU Fu-li, SUN Ying-fei, ZOU Meng-yun, LUO Rong-long, PENG Xiu-li
    2022, 21(10): 3026-3036.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.038
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum HS strain (MG-HS) is a pathogen that causes chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chicken, which is characterized by host respiratory inflammatory damage, brings huge economic losses to the poultry industry.  Recently, emerging Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) have been used to treat CRD.  This study was aimed to investigate the preventive and therapeutic effects and their potential mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicinal formulae (CHMF), which consisted of 10 kinds of Chinese herbal medicine including Scutellaria, Houttuynia cordate and licorice, on MG-induced CRD in chickens.  With respect to the preventive effect, the results showed that CHMF could effectively recover the MG-induced decrease on body weight and feed conversion ratio.  Histopathological analysis showed that both prevention and treatment of CHMF could significantly alleviate the severe respiratory inflammation induced by MG infection.  Moreover, compared with the MG infection group, both the prevention groups and the treatment groups of CHMF could effectively reduce the expression of MG adhesion protein (pMGA1.2) to inhibit the proliferation of MG, and thus effectively inhibit the expression of MG-induced inflammatory factors interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).  In summary, these findings confirm that CHMF can protect chickens from various tissue damage caused by MG infection and has no adverse effects on the performance of chickens in the short term.  And its efficacy against MG is equal to or better than that of tiamulin.

    Agro-ecosystem & Environment
    Partial organic substitution weakens the negative effect of chemical fertilizer on soil micro-food webs
    LIU Han-wen, ZHANG Xiao-ke, ZHANG Gui-zong, KOU Xin-chang, LIANG Wen-ju
    2022, 21(10): 3037-3050.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.043
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Soil biotic communities play vital roles in enhancing soil nutrient cycling and soil fertility.  Long-term excessive nitrogen (N) application is disadvantageous to the stability of soil food webs and affects arable soil health and sustainable utilization.  Proper organic substitution is essential to improve soil health and alleviate the disadvantages of excessive chemical fertilization.  However, the biological effects of various organic amendments on soil micro-food webs are poorly understood.  In order to explore the effects of various organic amendments including stover, biochar and manure on soil micro-food webs (microbial and nematode communities), a field plot experiment with maize having five treatments viz., 100% urea (100% N), 70% urea (70% N), 70% urea plus stover (Stover), 70% urea plus cattle manure (Manure) and 70% urea plus biochar (Biochar) was conducted.  Manure treatment increased the carbon (C) to N use efficiency of soil microbes, which contributed to the retention of soil C, while Biochar treatment elevated soil organic C (SOC) and soil pH.  Additionally, Biochar treatment mitigated the negative effects of soil acidification on the soil micro-food web and reduced the abundance of plant parasites.  Overall, the biological effect of organic amendments was distinguished from chemical fertilization (100% N and 70% N) through principal co-ordinates analysis.  Negative relationships among soil properties, microbial and nematode biomass in the 100% N treatment were diminished in treatments where chemical fertilizer was reduced.  The bottom-up effects on soil food webs were observed in organic substitution treatments.  In conclusion, organic amendments improved soil fertility by regulating soil microbial and nematode communities in the cropland ecosystem, alleviated the negative effects of chemical fertilizer on the micro-food webs and controlled the trophic cascades among soil biota.
    Indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play a role in phosphorus depletion in organic manure amended high fertility soil
    HUO Wei-ge, CHAI Xiao-fen, WANG Xi-he, William David BATCHELOR, Arjun KAFLE, FENG Gu
    2022, 21(10): 3051-3066.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.045
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    The species richness and propagule number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are high in intensively-managed agricultural soils.  Past research has shown that AMF improve crop phosphorus (P) uptake under low soil P conditions, however it is unclear if AMF play a role in high Olsen-P soils.  In this study, we investigated whether native fungal benefits exist under high P input field conditions in-situ and contribute to P utilization.  We installed in-grow tubes which were sealed with different membrane pore sizes (30 or 0.45 µm) to allow or prevent AMF hyphae access to the hyphal compartment and prevent cotton roots from penetrating the chamber.  We used the depletion of soil available P (Olsen-P) in the hyphae accessed compartment to indicate P uptake by the native AMF community.  Our results showed that the native AMF mediated P depletion and microbial biomass P (MBP) turnover and caused the largest Olsen-P depletion ratio and MBP turnover ratio in the high P treatments (Olsen-P: 78.29 mg kg–1).  The cotton roots in each fertilization regime were colonized by a unique AMF community and Glomus and Paraglomus were the dominant genera, implying the long-term fertilization regimes domesticated the AMF community.  We conclude that native AMF caused the P depletion and P turnover even under high soil Olsen-P conditions.

    Agricultural Economics and Management
    The mechanism and heterogeneity of environmental regulations’ impact on the technological progress of dairy farming
    LIU Hao, PENG Hua, LI Li-wang, DONG Xiao-xia
    2022, 21(10): 3067-3081.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.053
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The study analyses the theoretical mechanism through which environmental regulation affects the dairy industry’s technological progress, with a particular focus on how the effect is conditional on farm size.  Using the input–output data of dairy farms of different sizes from 2009 to 2019 in 10 Chinese provinces/autonomous regions in China and the quantitative measurement index of environmental regulation, the study estimates environmental regulation’s heterogeneous influences on the dairy industry’s technological progress by dynamic panel data models.  The empirical results suggest that, first, environmental regulation has a U-type influence on the technological progress of dairy farming.  The U-type influence means moving from pollution control’s high cost and low technology progress to the high profit and high innovation input generated by optimizing the breeding structure.  Second, the promotion of dairy farming technology depends on farm size.  The effect of environmental regulation on technological progress in moderately large-farms showed a U-type relationship.  In contrast, the effect in free-range and large-size dairy farms showed a linear and positive relationship.  The government should further strengthen environmental regulation based on advancing moderately large-farms in compliance with market mechanisms in the long run.  Particular attention should be paid to the forms of environmental regulation so that dairy cattle breeding technology can break through the inflection point of the “U” curve as soon as possible and ensure the significance of the rising stage.  Along the way, technical support should be provided for realizing environmental protection and economic growth.
    Spatial and temporal changes of paddy rice ecosystem services in China during the period 1980–2014
    CHEN Zhong-du, LI Feng-bo, XU Chun-chun, JI Long, FENG Jin-fei, FANG Fu-ping
    2022, 21(10): 3082-3093.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.049
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The ecological systems services or multi-functionality of paddy rice cultivation are critical to the functioning of the Earth’s life-support system.  We estimated the ecosystem services value (ESV) of paddy rice during 1980–2014 across China.  The results indicated that the ESV of the paddy field in China showed an upward trend during this period.  The share of ESV on CO2 sequestration was the highest, followed by ESV on temperature cooling and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission.  The yield-scaled ESVs of Zones II (southern rice–upland crops rotation regions) and III (southern double rice production regions) were similar and significantly higher than the ESVs of Zones I (northeastern single rice production regions) and IV (Southwest rice–upland crops rotation regions).  Between 1980 and 2014, the ESV of each region increased to varying degrees, except for the ESVs of Guangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangdong.  Such effects suggest the existence of a significant spatial–temporal variation in the total amount, structure, and density of ESV of paddy fields in China, which can further guide the development of future options for the adaptation of healthy rice production in China.
    Short Communication
    Moderate drought alleviate the damage of high temperature to grain quality by improving the starch synthesis of inferior grain in japonica rice
    TONG Hui, DUAN Hua, WANG Sheng-jun, SU Jing-ping, SUN Yue, LIU Yan-qing, TANG Liang, LIU Xue-jun, CHEN Wen-fu
    2022, 21(10): 3094-3101.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  

    In agricultural production, temperature and moisture are important factors affecting grain yield and quality.  Although moderate drought at the grain-filling stage can effectively alleviate the damage caused by high temperature, the specific regulatory mechanism driving the effect of moderate drought at the high temperature on starch synthesis is still unclear.  To explore the effects and mechanisms of high temperature and moderate drought on rice starch synthesis at the grain-filling stage, the activities of enzymes and expression levels of the genes involved in starch synthesis under four different treatments involving high temperature and/or water stress (CK, HT, WS, and HT+WS) were investigated in this study.  The starch synthesis of a japonica inbred rice was measured under the four treatments during the grain filling.  The results show that the effects of high temperature and moderate drought on grain filling mainly occur in the inferior grains of rice.  Through the regulation of enzymes involved in starch synthesis and the expression levels of their main genes, the synthesis of rice starch can be affected.  Therefore, the high temperature and moderate drought were antagonistic, and moderate drought can alleviate the damage to grain quality at a high temperature by improving the starch synthesis of inferior grains in japonica rice.  This study provides a basis for stress-resistance cultivation and breeding strategies of rice with high temperature tolerance.