Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2022, Vol. 21 Issue (10): 3037-3050    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.043
Special Issue: 农业生态环境-有机碳与农业废弃物还田合辑Agro-ecosystem & Environment—SOC
Agro-ecosystem & Environment Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Partial organic substitution weakens the negative effect of chemical fertilizer on soil micro-food webs

LIU Han-wen1, 2, ZHANG Xiao-ke1, ZHANG Gui-zong1, 2, KOU Xin-chang3, LIANG Wen-ju1

1 Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, P.R.China
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P.R.China
3 School of Geographical Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
摘要  土壤生物群落在促进土壤养分循环和肥力方面发挥着重要的作用。长期过量施用氮肥不利于土壤生物群落的稳定,进而影响到农田土壤健康和可持续利用。有机物料替代部分化肥对改善土壤健康和减轻过度化肥施用造成的不利影响至关重要。然而,不同有机物料对土壤微食物网影响的生物学机制尚不清楚。为了探究秸秆、生物炭和粪肥对土壤微食物网(微生物和线虫群落)的影响,本研究设置了田间小区试验,包括100%常规尿素(100% N)、70%常规尿素(70% N)、70%常规尿素加秸秆(Stover)、70%常规尿素加牛粪(Manure)和70%常规尿素加生物炭(Biochar)五个处理。研究结果表明,秸秆提供了更多可利用资源;粪肥提高了土壤微生物碳氮利用效率比值,有助于土壤固碳;生物炭施用显著提高了土壤有机碳含量和pH。此外,生物炭缓解了土壤酸化对土壤微食物网的负面影响,降低了植物寄生虫多度。主坐标分析表明,有机肥与化肥处理(100% N和70% N)对土壤生物,特别是微生物群落组成的影响存在显著差异,体现出不同的生物学机制。与100% N相比,氮肥减施处理土壤特性、微生物生物量和线虫生物量之间的负连接数有所降低。有机物料输入后土壤食细菌线虫通过上行效应影响了上一营养级的捕食-杂食线虫。综上所述,有机替代通过调节农田生态系统土壤微生物和线虫群落组成提高了土壤肥力,缓解了化肥对微食物网的负面影响,调控了土壤生物之间的营养级联效应。

Abstract  Soil biotic communities play vital roles in enhancing soil nutrient cycling and soil fertility.  Long-term excessive nitrogen (N) application is disadvantageous to the stability of soil food webs and affects arable soil health and sustainable utilization.  Proper organic substitution is essential to improve soil health and alleviate the disadvantages of excessive chemical fertilization.  However, the biological effects of various organic amendments on soil micro-food webs are poorly understood.  In order to explore the effects of various organic amendments including stover, biochar and manure on soil micro-food webs (microbial and nematode communities), a field plot experiment with maize having five treatments viz., 100% urea (100% N), 70% urea (70% N), 70% urea plus stover (Stover), 70% urea plus cattle manure (Manure) and 70% urea plus biochar (Biochar) was conducted.  Manure treatment increased the carbon (C) to N use efficiency of soil microbes, which contributed to the retention of soil C, while Biochar treatment elevated soil organic C (SOC) and soil pH.  Additionally, Biochar treatment mitigated the negative effects of soil acidification on the soil micro-food web and reduced the abundance of plant parasites.  Overall, the biological effect of organic amendments was distinguished from chemical fertilization (100% N and 70% N) through principal co-ordinates analysis.  Negative relationships among soil properties, microbial and nematode biomass in the 100% N treatment were diminished in treatments where chemical fertilizer was reduced.  The bottom-up effects on soil food webs were observed in organic substitution treatments.  In conclusion, organic amendments improved soil fertility by regulating soil microbial and nematode communities in the cropland ecosystem, alleviated the negative effects of chemical fertilizer on the micro-food webs and controlled the trophic cascades among soil biota.
Keywords:  microbial community        nematode community        soil micro-food webs        organic substitution        chemical fertilizer        soil health  
Received: 13 August 2021   Accepted: 01 November 2021
Fund: This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41977054, 41771280 and 31330011) and the National Science and Technology Fundamental Resources Investigation Program of China (2018FY100304).  
About author:  LIU Han-wen, Mobile: +86-15524252563, E-mail:; Correspondence ZHANG Xiao-ke, Tel: +86-24-83970359, E-mail:; LIANG Wen-ju, Tel: +86-24-83970359, E-mail:

Cite this article: 

LIU Han-wen, ZHANG Xiao-ke, ZHANG Gui-zong, KOU Xin-chang, LIANG Wen-ju. 2022. Partial organic substitution weakens the negative effect of chemical fertilizer on soil micro-food webs. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 21(10): 3037-3050.

Abril A, Baleani D, Casado-Murillo N, Noel L. 2007. Effect of wheat crop fertilization on nitrogen dynamics and balance in the Humid Pampas, Argentina. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 119, 171–176.
Ahmad W, Jairjpuri M S. 2010. Mononchida: The predaceous nematodes. In: Nematology Monographs and Perspectives. Leiden, Netherlands.
Allison S D, Wallenstein M D, Bradford M A. 2010. Soil-carbon response to warming dependent on microbial physiology. Nature Geoscience, 3, 336–340.
Ameloot N, Neve S D, Jegajeevagan K, Yildiz G, Bucgan D, Funkuin Y N, Prins W, Bouchaert L, Sleutel S. 2013. Short-term CO2 and N2O emissions and microbial properties of biochar amended sandy loam soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 57, 401–410.
Bach E M, Baer S G, Meyer C K, Six J. 2010. Soil texture affects soil microbial and structural recovery during grassland restoration. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42, 2182–2191.
Blagodatskaya Е, Kuzyakov Y. 2008. Mechanisms of real and apparent priming effects and their dependence on soil microbial biomass and community structure: critical review. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 45, 115–131.
Bongers T. 1994. De Nematoden van Nederland. Schoorl, Netherlands.
Bossio D A, Scow K M, Gunapala N, Graham K J. 1998. Determinants of soil microbial communities: Effects of agricultural management, season, and soil type on phospholipid fatty acid profiles. Microbial Ecology, 36, 1–12.
Bossuyt H, Denef K, Six J, Frey S D, Merckx R, Paustian K. 2001. Influence of microbial populations and residue quality on aggregate stability. Applied Soil Ecology, 16, 195–208.
Briar S S, Fonte S J, Park I, Six J, Scow K, Ferris H. 2011. The distribution of nematodes and soil microbial communities across soil aggregate fractions and farm management systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43, 905–914.
Brookes P C, Landman A, Pruden G, Jenkinson D S. 1985. Chloroform fumigation and the release of soil nitrogen: A rapid direct extraction method to measure microbial biomass nitrogen in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 17, 837–842.
Cantrell K B, Hunt P G, Uchimiya M, Novak J M, Ro K S. 2012. Impact of pyrolysis temperature and manure source on physicochemical characteristics of biochar. Bioresource Technology, 107, 419–428.
Cavagnaro T R. 2014. Impacts of compost application on the formation and functioning of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 78, 38–44.
Chen Y F, Xia X G, Hu C, Liu D H, Qiao Y, Li S L, Fan X P. 2021. Effects of long-term straw incorporation on nematode community composition and metabolic footprint in a rice–wheat cropping system. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20, 2265–2276.
Dinesh R, Srinivasan V, Hamza S, Manjusha A. 2010. Short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers influences biochemical and microbial characteristics of soils under an annual crop [Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)]. Bioresource Technology, 101, 4697–4702.
Domenea X, Mattanaa S, Sánchez-Morenoc S. 2021. Biochar addition rate determines contrasting shifts in soil nematode trophic groups in outdoor mesocosms: An appraisal of underlying mechanisms. Applied Soil Ecology, 158, 103788.
Fabian J, Zlatanovic S, Mutz M, Premke K. 2017. Fungal–bacterial dynamics and their contribution to terrigenous carbon turnover in relation to organic matter quality. The ISME Journal, 11, 415–425.
Ferris H, Matute M M. 2003. Structural and functional succession in the nematode fauna of a soil food web. Applied Soil Ecology, 23, 93–110.
Fontaine S, Mariotti A, Abbadie L. 2003. The priming effect of organic matter: A question of microbial competition? Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35, 837–843.
Gomez J D, Denef K, Stewart C E, Zheng J, Cotrufo M F. 2014. Biochar addition rate influences soil microbial abundance and activity in temperate soils. European Journal of Soil Biology, 65, 28–39.
Gong Z T, Chen Z C, Zhang G L. 2003. World reference base for soil resources (WEB): Establishment and development. Soils, 35, 271–278. (in Chinese)
Graber E R, Harel Y M, Kolton M, Cytryn E, Silber A, David D R, Tsechansky L, Borenshtein M, Elad Y. 2010. Biochar impact on development and productivity of pepper and tomato grown in fertigated soilless media. Plant and Soil, 337, 481–496.
Grandy A S, Salam D S, Wickings K, McDaniel M, Culman S W, Snapp S S. 2013. Soil respiration and litter decomposition responses to N fertilization rate in no-till corn systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 179, 35–40.
Gul S, Whalen J K, Thomas B W, Sachdeva V, Deng H Y. 2015. Physico-chemical properties and microbial responses in biochar-amended soils: Mechanisms and future directions. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 206, 46–59.
Hao M M, Hu H Y, Liu Z, Dong Q L, Sun K, Feng Y P, Li G, Ning T Y. 2019. Shifts in microbial community and carbon sequestration in farmland soil under long-term conservation tillage and straw returning. Applied Soil Ecology, 136, 43–54.
Huang W K, Ji H L, Gheysen G, Debode J, Kyndt T. 2015. Biochar-amended potting medium reduces the susceptibility of rice to root-knot nematode infections. BMC Plant Biology, 15, 267–281.
Islam Z, Bagchi B, Hossain M. 2007. Adoption of leaf color chart for nitrogen use efficiency in rice: impact assessment of a farmer-participatory experiment in West Bengal, India. Field Crops Research, 103, 70–75.
Joergensen R G, Mueller T. 1996. The fumigation–extraction method to estimate soil microbial biomass: calibration of the kEC value. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28, 33–37.
Jones D L, Rousk J, Edwards-Jones G, DeLuca T H, Murphy D V. 2012. Biochar mediated changes in soil quality and plant growth in a three years field trial. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 45, 113–124.
Al-Kaisi M M, Kruse M L, Sawyer J E. 2008. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer application on growing season soil carbon dioxide emission in a corn–soybean rotation. Journal of Environment Quality, 37, 325–332.
Kou X C, Su T Q, Ma M M, Li Q, Wang P, Wu Z F, Liang W J, Cheng W X. 2018. Soil micro-food web interactions and rhizosphere priming effect. Plant and Soil, 432, 129–142.
Kuo S. 1996. Phosphorus. In: Sparks D L, ed., Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3: Chemical Methods. Soil Science Society of America, Madison. pp. 869–919.
Lehmann J, Joseph S. 2009. Biochar for environmental management: An introduction. In: Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. Earthscan, London. pp. 1–12.
Lehmann J, Rondon M. 2006. Biochar Soil Management on Highly Weathered Soils in the Humid Tropics. CRC Press, USA. pp. 517–530.
Liang W J, Lou Y L, Li Q, Zhong S, Zhang X K, Wang J K. 2009. Nematode faunal response to long-term application of nitrogen fertilizer and organic manure in Northeast China. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41, 883–890.
Li Q, Liang W J, Zhang X K, Mohammad M. 2017. Soil Nematodes of Grasslands in Northern China. Zhejiang University Press, China and Academic Press, UK.
Liu H W, Du X F, Li Y B, Han X, Li B, Zhang X K, Li Q, Liang W J. 2022. Organic substitutions improve soil quality and maize yield through increasing soil microbial diversity. Journal of Cleaner Production, 347, 131323.
Lu C Y, Wang H Y, Chen H H, Yuan L, Ma J, Shi Y, Zhang X D, He H B, Chen X. 2018. Effects of N fertilization and maize straw on the transformation and fate of labeled (15NH4)2SO4 among three continuous crop cultivations. Agricultural Water Management, 208, 275–283.
Mandal K G, Misra A K, Hati K M, Bandyopadhyay K K, Mohanty M. 2004. Rice residue-management options and effects on soil properties and crop productivity. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 2, 224231.
Manzoni S, Taylor P, Richter A, Porporato A, Ågren G I. 2012. Environmental and stoichiometric controls on microbial carbon-use efficiency in soils. New Phytologist, 196, 79–91.
Minoshima H, Jackson L E, Cavagnaro T R, Sánchez-Moreno S, Ferris H, Temple S R. 2007. Soil food web and carbon dynamics in response to conservation tillage in California. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 952–963.
Moore J C, Mccann K, de Ruiter P C. 2005, Modeling trophic pathways, nutrient cycling, and dynamic stability in soils. Pedobiologia, 49, 499–510.
Mooshammer M, Wanek W, Hammerle I, Fuchslueger L, Hofhansl F, Knoltsch A, Schnecker J, Takriti M, Watzka M, Wild B. 2014. Adjustment of microbial nitrogen use efficiency to carbon: nitrogen imbalances regulate soil nitrogen cycling. Nature Communication, 5, 3694.
Murphy J, Riley J P. 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta, 26, 31–36.
Navarro-Noya Y E, Gomez-Acata S, Rojas-Valdez A, Suarez-Arriaga M C, Valenzuela-Encinas C, Jimenez-Bueno N, Verhulst N, Govaerts B, Dendooven L. 2013. Relative impacts of tillage, residue management and crop-rotation on soil bacterial communities in a semi-arid agroecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 65, 86–95.
Nihorimbere V, Ongena M, Smargiassi M, Thonart P. 2011. Beneficial effect of the rhizosphere microbial community for plant growth and health. Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment, 15, 327–337.
Novak J M, Cantrell K B, Watts D W. 2013. Compositional and thermal evaluation of lignocellulosic and poultry litter chars via high and low temperature pyrolysis. BioEnergy Research, 6, 114–130.
Olsen S R, Cole C V, Watanabe F S, Dean L A. 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. US Department of Agriculture Circular, 939, 1–19.
Pan F, Han X, McLaughlin N B, Han X, Li C, Zhao D, Zhan L, Xu Y. 2015. Effect of Long-term fertilization on free-living nematode community structure in Mollisols. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 15, 129–141.
Ruess L. 2003. Nematode soil faunal analysis of decomposition pathways in different ecosystems. Nematology, 5, 179–181.
Savci S. 2012. An agricultural pollutant: Chemical fertilizer. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 3, 77–79.
Sieriebriennikov B, Ferris H, de Goede R G M. 2014. NINJA: An automated calculation system for nematode-based biological monitoring. European Journal of Soil Biology, 61, 90–93.
Silva J A, Bremner J M. 1966. Determination and isotope-ratio analysis of different forms of nitrogen in soils. 5. Fixed ammonium. Soil Science Society of America Production, 30, 587–594.
Six J, Frey S, Thiet R, Batten K. 2006. Bacterial and fungal contributions to C sequestration in agroecosystems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70, 555–569.
Sohi S P, Krull E, Lopez-Capel E, Bol R. 2010. A review of biochar and its use and function in soil. Advances in Agronomy, 105, 47–82.
Spohn M, Klaus K, Wanek W, Richter A. 2016. Microbial carbon use efficiency and biomass turnover times depending on soil depth - Implications for carbon cycling. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 96, 74–81.
Suleiman A K A, Manoeli L, Boldo J T, Pereira M G, Roesch L F W. 2013. Shifts in soil bacterial community after eight years of land-use change. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 36, 137–144.
Sun C X, Wang D, Shen X B, Li C C, Liu J, Lan T, Wang W Y, Xie H T, Zhang Y L. 2020. Effects of biochar, compost and straw input on root exudation of maize (Zea mays L.): From function to morphology. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 297, 106952.
Thakur M P, Geisen S. 2019. Trophic regulations of the soil microbiome. Trends in Microbiology, 27, 771–780.
Vance E D, Brookes P C, Jenkinson D S. 1987. An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 19, 703–707.
Villenave U, Bongers T, Ekschmitt K, Fernandes P, Oliver R. 2003. Changes in nematode communities after manuring in millet fields in Senegal. Nematology, 5, 351–358.
Williams A, Borjesson G, Hedlund K. 2013. The effects of 55 years of different inorganic fertilizer regimes on soil properties and microbial community composition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 67, 41–46.
Wu G H, Wei K, Chen Z H, Jiang D Q, Xie H T, Jiang N, Chen L J. 2021. Crop residue application at low rates could improve soil phosphorus cycling under long-term no-tillage management. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 57, 499–511.
Xu J M, Tang C, Chen Z L. 2006. The role of plant residues in pH change of acid soils differing in initial pH. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38, 709–719.
Yao Q, Liu J J, Yu Z H, Li Y, Jin J, Liu X B, Wang G H. 2017. Three years of biochar amendment alters soil physiochemical properties and fungal community composition in a black soil of northeast China. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 110, 56–67.
Yeates G W, Bongers T, de Goede R G M, Freckman D W, Georgieva S S. 1993. Feeding habits in soil nematode families and genera - An outline for soil ecologists. Journal of Nematology, 25, 315–331.
Zhang X K, Liang W J, Li Q. 2013a. Forest Soil Nematodes in Changbai Mountain-Morphology and Distribution. China Agricultural Press, China. (in Chinese) 
Zhang X K, Wang H L, He L Z, Lu K P, Sarmah A, Li J W, Bolan N S, Pei J C, Huang H G. 2013b. Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20, 8472–8483.
Zhong S, Zeng H C, Jin Z Q. 2017. Influences of different tillage and residue management systems on soil nematode community composition and diversity in the tropics. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 107, 234–243.
Zhong Y Q W, Yan W M, Shangguan Z P. 2015. Impact of long-term N additions upon coupling between soil microbial community structure and activity, and nutrient-use efficiencies. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 91, 151–159.
Van Zwieten L, Kimber S, Morris S, Chan K, Downie A, Rust J, Joseph S, Cowie A. 2010. Effects of biochar from slow pyrolysis of paper mill waste on agronomic performance and soil fertility. Plant and Soil, 327, 235–246.

[1] ZHAO Jun-yang, LU Hua-ming, QIN Shu-tao, PAN Peng, TANG Shi-de, CHEN Li-hong, WANG Xue-li, TANG Fang-yu, TAN Zheng-long, WEN Rong-hui, HE Bing. Soil conditioners improve Cd-contaminated farmland soil microbial communities to inhibit Cd accumulation in rice[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(8): 2521-2535.
[2] ZHAO Ruo-nan, CHEN Si-yuan, TONG Cui-hong, HAO Jie, LI Pei-si, XIE Long-fei, XIAO Dan-yu, ZENG Zhen-ling, XIONG Wen-guang. Insights into the effects of pulsed antimicrobials on the chicken resistome and microbiota from fecal metagenomes[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(6): 1857-1869.
[3] LI Wei-hua, CHEN Peng, WANG Yu-zhu, LIU Qi-zhi. Characterization of the microbial community response to replant diseases in peach orchards[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(4): 1082-1092.
[4] QU Zheng, LI Yue-han, XU Wei-hui, CHEN Wen-jing, HU Yun-long, WANG Zhi-gang. Different genotypes regulate the microbial community structure in the soybean rhizosphere[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(2): 585-597.
[5] ZHANG Yin-Jie, GAO Wei, LUAN Hao-an, TAND Ji-wei, LI Ruo-nan, LI Ming-Yue, ZHANG Huai-zhi, HUANG Shao-wen. Effects of a decade of organic fertilizer substitution on vegetable yield and soil phosphorus pools, phosphatase activities, and the microbial community in a greenhouse vegetable production system[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(7): 2119-2133.
[6] Muhammad QASWAR, Waqas AHMED, HUANG Jing, LIU Kai-lou, ZHANG Lu, HAN Tian-fu, DU Jiang-xue, Sehrish ALI, Hafeez UR-RAHIM, HUANG Qing-hai, ZHANG Hui-min. Interaction of soil microbial communities and phosphorus fractions under long-term fertilization in paddy soil [J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(7): 2134-2144.
[7] LI Bao-zhen, Anna GUNINA, Mostafa ZHRAN, Davey L. JONES, Paul W. HILL, HU Ya-jun, GE Ti-da, WU Jin-shui. Fate of low-molecular-weight organic phosphorus compounds in the P-rich and P-poor paddy soils[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(9): 2526-2534.
[8] ZHANG Mei-jun, JIA Ju-qing, LU Hua, FENG Mei-chen, YANG Wu-de. Functional diversity of soil microbial communities in response to supplementing 50% of the mineral N fertilizer with organic fertilizer in an oat field[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(8): 2255-2264.
[9] Ebrahim SHEHATA, CHENG Deng-miao, MA Qian-qian, LI Yan-li, LIU Yuan-wang, FENG Yao, JI Zhen-yu, LI Zhao-jun . Microbial community dynamics during composting of animal manures contaminated with arsenic, copper, and oxytetracycline[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(6): 1649-1659.
[10] JIN Na, LIU Shi-ming, PENG Huan, HUANG Wen-kun, KONG Ling-an, PENG De-liang. Effect of Aspergillus niger NBC001 on the soybean rhizosphere microbial community in a soybean cyst nematode-infested field[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(12): 3230-3239.
[11] ZHAO Shi-cheng, Ignacio A. CIAMPITTI, QIU Shao-jun, XU Xin-peng, HE Ping. Characteristics of maize residue decomposition and succession in the bacterial community during decomposition in Northeast China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(12): 3289-3298.
[12] WANG Qi-qi, LIU Ling-ling, LI Yu, QIN Song, WANG Chuan-jie, CAI An-dong, WU Lei, XU Ming-gang, ZHANG Wen-ju.
Long-term fertilization leads to specific PLFA finger-prints in Chinese Hapludults soil
[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2020, 19(5): 1354-1362.
[13] LIN Wei-peng, JIANG Ni-hao, PENG Li, FAN Xue-ying, GAO Yang, WANG Guo-ping, CAI Kun-zheng . Silicon impacts on soil microflora under Ralstonia Solanacearum inoculation[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2020, 19(1): 251-264.
[14] ZHANG Wen-wen, WANG Chong, XUE Rui, WANG Li-jie. Effects of salinity on the soil microbial community and soil fertility[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(6): 1360-1368.
[15] CHEN Xu, HAN Xiao-zeng, YOU Meng-yang, YAN Jun, LU Xin-chun, William R. Horwath, ZOU Wen-xiu . Soil macroaggregates and organic-matter content regulate microbial communities and enzymatic activity in a Chinese Mollisol[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(11): 2605-2618.
No Suggested Reading articles found!