农业经济与管理合辑Agricultural Economics and Management
|The mechanism and heterogeneity of environmental regulations’ impact on the technological progress of dairy farming
|LIU Hao, PENG Hua, LI Li-wang, DONG Xiao-xia
|Agricultural Information Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, P.R.China
奶牛是污染物产生较多畜禽，一头600 kg的成年奶牛，每天可产生30~50 kg粪便，废水0.4 m3，是同等条件下生猪、肉鸡和蛋鸡的数倍，已成为农业源污染的主要来源之一，随着奶牛养殖业开始向集约化、规模化和产业化转变，由此带来的环境负外部效应问题日益突出。环境规制是解决畜禽养殖过程中要素过度使用和环境污染外部性问题最直接有效的措施之一，但也是养殖场成本增加和结构调整的重要影响因素之一，当前环境规制与不同规模奶牛养殖效率以及技术进步的关系尚不清楚。该研究基于中国十个省份（自治区）2009—2019年不同规模牧场投入产出数据和环境规制政策规章文件数量，运用动态面板数据模型，研究了环境规制对奶牛养殖技术进步的影响特征与异质性，并考察了规模经营与环境规制的协同互补效应。结果表明，环境规制对奶牛养殖技术进步的影响呈“U”型特征，环境规制加速了养殖集约化发展、促进了资源的优化配置，形成了从污染治理带来的高成本、低技术进步逐步过渡到养殖结构优化产生的高收益、高创新投入的发展规律。不同规模牧场中，大规模和中规模全要素生产率高于小规模，环境规制对小规模牧场和大规模牧场技术进步具有正向促进作用，而对中规模牧场技术进步影响呈“U”型曲线，不同规模养殖的调节效应分析表明，中规模牧场奶牛存栏比重增加一定程度上缓解了环境规制初期给牧场带来技术进步下降的压力，但不能过度追求大规模养殖，大规模奶牛存栏比重增加带来更高的污染物处理成本迫使牧场减少对技术创新的投入，反而会削弱环境规制对奶牛养殖技术进步的促进作用。研究认为在推进适度规模养殖的基础上，在确保环境规制有效的情况下，要进一步加强环境规制，注重环境规制形式，使奶牛养殖技术尽快突破“U”型曲线拐点，为实现环境保护及经济增长“双赢”提供了理论支持。
Abstract The study analyses the theoretical mechanism through which environmental regulation affects the dairy industry’s technological progress, with a particular focus on how the effect is conditional on farm size. Using the input–output data of dairy farms of different sizes from 2009 to 2019 in 10 Chinese provinces/autonomous regions in China and the quantitative measurement index of environmental regulation, the study estimates environmental regulation’s heterogeneous influences on the dairy industry’s technological progress by dynamic panel data models. The empirical results suggest that, first, environmental regulation has a U-type influence on the technological progress of dairy farming. The U-type influence means moving from pollution control’s high cost and low technology progress to the high profit and high innovation input generated by optimizing the breeding structure. Second, the promotion of dairy farming technology depends on farm size. The effect of environmental regulation on technological progress in moderately large-farms showed a U-type relationship. In contrast, the effect in free-range and large-size dairy farms showed a linear and positive relationship. The government should further strengthen environmental regulation based on advancing moderately large-farms in compliance with market mechanisms in the long run. Particular attention should be paid to the forms of environmental regulation so that dairy cattle breeding technology can break through the inflection point of the “U” curve as soon as possible and ensure the significance of the rising stage. Along the way, technical support should be provided for realizing environmental protection and economic growth.
Received: 16 March 2022
Accepted: 08 June 2022
|Fund: This work was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, China (125D0301).
|About author: Correspondence DONG Xiao-xia, E-mail: email@example.com
Cite this article:
LIU Hao, PENG Hua, LI Li-wang, DONG Xiao-xia.
The mechanism and heterogeneity of environmental regulations’ impact on the technological progress of dairy farming. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 21(10): 3067-3081.
| Barbera A, Mcconnell V. 1990. The impact of environmental regulations on industry productivity: Direct and indirect effects. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 18, 234–245.
Becker R. 2011. Local environmental regulation and plant-level productivity. Ecological Economics, 24, 242–256.
Blundell R, Bond S. 2000. GMM estimation with persistent panel data: an application to production functions. Econometric Reviews, 19, 321–340.
Boyd G A, McClelland J D. 1999. The impact of environmental constraints on productivity improvement in integrated paper plants. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 38, 121–142.
Brunnermeier S B, Cohen M A. 2003. Determinants of environmental innovation in US manufacturing industries. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 45, 278–293.
Chen Z, Zheng J H. 2021. Environmental governance effects of high-tech industrial agglomeration under industrial interaction. Finance and Economics Science, 65, 78–92. (in Chinese)
Cheng X P. 2013. Analysis of factors influencing dairy farming returns in China - an empirical study based on inter-provincial panel data. Journal of Chongqing University of Technology (Social Science), 27, 41–44.
Cheng Y, Ren J L, Chen Y B, Xu C L. 2016. Dynamic evolution of the spatial pattern of environmental regulation efficiency in China and its driving mechanism. Geography Research, 35, 123–136.
Cochard F, Willinger M, Xepapadeas A. 2005. Efficiency of nonpoint source pollution instruments: An experimental study. Environmental & Resource Economics, 30, 393–422.
Dai X W, Sun Z L, Müller D. 2021. Driving factors of direct greenhouse gas emissions from China’s pig industry from 1976 to 2016. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20, 319–329.
Domazlicky B R, Weber W L. 2004. Does environmental protection lead to slower productivity growth in the chemical industry? Environmental Resource Economy, 28, 301–324.
Fare R, Grosskopf S. 1994. Estimation of returns to scale using data envelopment analysis: A comment. European Journal of Operational Research, 79, 379–382.
Gray W B. 1987. The cost of regulation: OSHA, EPA and the productivity slowdown. American Economic Review, 77, 998–1006.
Guo Y, Zhang H C. 2020. Government innovation subsidies, market spillover effects and regional industrial growth - an empirical study based on technology innovation fund for small and medium-sized enterprises in science and technology. Industrial Economics Research, 19, 1–15. (in Chinese)
Hamamoto M. 2006. Environmental regulation and the productivity of Japanese manufacturing industries. Resource & Energy Economics, 28, 299–312.
Han Y F, Huang L H, Wang X B. 2017. Have industrial policies promoted the upgrading of local industrial structure? A theoretical explanation and empirical test based on developmental local governments. Economic Research, 52, 33–48.
Han Y H. 2017. Research on the evaluation of provincial ecological governance performance in China. Statistical Research, 34, 10–18. (in Chinese)
Hu C Y. 2018. Technological progress, technical efficiency and agricultural carbon emissions in China. East China Economic Management, 32, 100–105.
Huang Z. 2008. Technological progress, human capital and agricultural development in China: Empirical evidence and comparison of the rate of agricultural technological progress in China from 1985 to 2005. Research on Finance and Economics, 3, 124–129. (in Chinese)
Jing W, Zhang L. 2014, Environmental regulation, openness and green technological progress of Chinese industry. Economic Research, 49, 14–21. (in Chinese)
Jorge M, Madueno J, Martinez D, Lechuga M. 2015. Competitiveness and environmental performance in Spanish small and medium enterprises: is there a direct link? Journal of Cleaner Production, 101, 26–37.
Jorgenson D, Berndt E, Triplett J. 1990. Productivity and economic growth. National Bureau of Economic Research, 32, 34–42.
Lanoie P, Patry M, Lajeunesse R. 2008. Environmental regulation and productivity: Testing the porter hypothesis. Journal of Productivity Analysis, 30, 121–128.
Levinson A. 1996. Environmental regulations and manufacturers’ location choices: Evidence from the Census of Manufactures. Journal of Public Economics, 62, 5–29.
Liang L, Qu F, Feng S. 2012. Measurement of agricultural technical efficiency based on the perspective of environmental pollution constraints. Journal of Natural Resources, 27, 10.
Liu X, Li D Y, Li Y. 2004. Environmental pollution problems and control measures in the development of dairy farming in China. Environmental Protection, 32, 25–28. (in Chinese)
Lu Y. 2009. Does environmental regulation affect the comparative advantage of trade in pollution-intensive goods? Economic Research, 44, 28–40. (in Chinese)
Luo Z F, Du S X, Huang Y Z, Tang L, Yu Z W. 2020. Planting scale, market regulation and biopesticide application behavior of rice farmers. Agricultural Technology and Economics, 22, 6–10.
Ministry of Ecology and Environment, National Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. 2020.The Second National Pollution Source Census Bulletin.Environmental Protection, 48, 8–10.
NDRCDP (Department of Price, National Development and Reform Commission of China). 2021. National Compilation of Information on Costs and Benefits of Agricultural Products. China Statistics Press. (in Chinese)
Pan D, Chen H, Kong F B. 2019. Research on the evolutionary features of China’s forestry policies and their laws since 1949 - a quantitative analysis based on the texts of 283 forest-related normative documents. China Rural Economy, 07, 89–108.
Porter M E. 1991. America’s green strategy. Scientific American, 13, 264–268.
Shadbegian R, Gray W. 2005. Pollution abatement expenditures and plant-level productivity: A production function approach. Ecological Economics, 54, 196–208.
Shen N, Liu C F. 2012. Does high intensity environmental regulation really promote technological innovation? A re-test of the Porter hypothesis. China Soft Science, 27, 49–59. (in Chinese)
Tang L, Wang M, Shi Z. 2021. Resource utilization efficiency of pig farming manure and its trend in China - an analysis based on data from 2006–2017. Journal of Hunan Agricultural University (Social Science Edition), 22, 1–13. (in Chinese)
Wang B, Wu Y R, Yan P F. 2008. Environmental regulation and total factor productivity growth: An empirical study of APEC. Economic Research, 54, 19–32. (in Chinese)
Wang D L, Lu M. 2020. Rural public goods provision: complementary mechanisms of society and government. Economic Research, 55, 155–173. (in Chinese)
Wang Z Y, Cao Y, Lin S L. 2021. Characteristics and heterogeneity of the impact of environmental regulations on firms’ green technology innovation - based on green patent data of Chinese listed companies. Studies in Science of Science, 39, 909–919, 929. (in Chinese)
Wei Q, Chen Y, Zhang H, Zhang Y. 2009. Labor migration and economic growth in the process of binary economic transition. Research in Institutional Economics, 7, 176–190.(in Chinese)
Xiong Y. 2011.The relationship between environmental regulation and economic growth based on inter-provincial data. China Population, Resources and Environment, 21, 6. (in Chinese)
Yang J. 2013. The impact of agricultural technology progress on agricultural carbon emissions - A test of provincial data in China. Soft Science, 27, 116–120. (in Chinese)
Yuan B L, Ren S G, Chen X H. 2017. Can environmental regulation promote the coordinated development of economy and environment in China’s manufacturing industry?A panel data analysis of 28 sub-sectors. Journal of Cleaner Production, 149, 11–24.
Yuan Y J, Chen Z. 2019. Environmental regulation, green technology innovation and the transformation and upgrading of China’s manufacturing industry. Studies in Science of Science, 37, 1902–1911. (in Chinese)
Yu Y T, Meng G, Zhang X F, Wu S R. 2021.The evolution of China’s forestry policy - an analysis based on policy strength and policy instruments. World Forestry Research, 34, 112–117. (in Chinese)
Zeng F S, Li F. 2015. Estimation of the cost-saving effect of agricultural infrastructure on food production - based on the seemingly uncorrelated regression method. China Rural Economy, 31, 4–12, 22. (in Chinese)
Zhan J, Xu Y. 2019. Environmental regulation, agricultural green productivity and food security. China Population-Resources and Environment, 29, 3–10. (in Chinese)
Zhang C, Lu Y, Guo L, Yu T S. 2011. Environmental regulation intensity and technological progress in production. Economic Research, 57, 115–126. (in Chinese)
Zhang C, Yu T, Guo L. 2010. Does environmental regulation affect the productivity of Chinese industries - an empirical test based on DEA and cointegration analysis. Economic Theory and Economic Management, 30, 11–17. (in Chinese)
Zhang F, Wei L B. 2013. Research on the scale of dairy farming and raw milk production efficiency in China - empirical evidence based on DEA-Malmquist method. Agricultural Modernization Research, 34, 491–495. (in Chinese)
Zhang Z Q. 2017. A comparative study of dynamic panel model parameter estimation methods. Statistical Research, 34, 110–121. (in Chinese)
Zhao D Q, Tan Y X. 2018. Research on the relationship between institutional innovation, technological progress and large-scale operation and farmers’ income growth. Journal of Economic Issues Exploration, 39, 165–178. (in Chinese)
Zhao H. 2007. The impact of environmental regulation on industrial technology innovation in China. Economic Management, 29, 57–61. (in Chinese)
|No Suggested Reading articles found!