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    Optimization of slow-release fertilizer application improves lotus rhizome quality by affecting physicochemical properties of starch
    ZHAO Shu-ping, DENG Kang-ming, ZHU Ya-mei, JIANG Tao, WU Peng, FENG Kai, LI Liang-jun
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2023.01.005 Online: 24 January 2023

    To achieve the dual goals of high yield and good quality with low environmental costs, slow-release fertilizer (SRF) as new type of fertilizer has been widely used in lotus cultivation instead of traditional nitrogen fertilizer. However, which optimized content of SRF and how to promote lotus rhizome quality was remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics and synthesis, accumulation, and physicochemical properties of lotus rhizome starches under six SRF levels (CK, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5). Compared with CK (0 kg∙ha-1 SRF), the Pn and SPAD value of leaves kept higher level under SRF treatment. Further research showed that SRF increased the lotus rhizome yield, amylose, amylopectin, total starch content, and the number of starch granule. Among the six SRF levels, S3 (1035 kg∙ha-1 SRF) caused the biggest difference compared to CK and kept the highest level. With the increasing SRF levels, the viscosities of peak, hot and final first decreased and then increased, but setback viscosity and pasting temperature increased. In order to interpret this change at the molecular level, the activities of key enzymes and relative expression of starch accumulation related genes were analyzed which showed that they were also increased under SRF treatment, especially under S3 treatment. In total, SRF, especially S3 (1035 kg∙ha-1 SRF) as suitable fertilizer ratio for lotus planting, could improve lotus rhizome quality by affecting starch accumulation related enzymes and genes. These results will be useful for applications of high-quality lotus rhizome production with low environmental costs.

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    Host niche, genotype, and field location shape the diversity and composition of the soybean microbiome
    YANG Hong-jun, YE Wen-wu, YU Ze, SHEN Wei-liang, LI Su-zhen, WANG Xing, CHEN Jia-jia, WANG Yuan-chao, ZHENG Xiao-bo
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2023.01.006 Online: 24 January 2023
    Plant-associated microbes represent a key determinant of plant fitness through acquiring nutrients, promoting growth, and resisting to abiotic and biotic stresses. However, an extensive characterization of the bacterial and fungal microbiomes present in different plant compartments of soybean in field conditions has remained elusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of four niches (roots, stems, leaves, and pods), four genotypes (Andou203, Hedou12, Sanning16, and Zhonghuang13), and three field locations (Jining, Suzhou, and Xuzhou) on the diversity and composition of bacterial and fungal communities in soybean using 16S and internal transcribed spacer rRNA amplicon sequencing, respectively. The soybean microbiome significantly differed across organs. Host genotypes explained more variation in stem bacterial community composition and leaf fungal community composition. Field location significantly affected the composition of bacterial communities in all compartments and the effects were stronger in the root and stem than in the leaf and pod, whereas field location explained more variation in stem and leaf fungal community composition than in the root and pod. The relative abundances of potential soybean fungal pathogens also differed among host organs and genotypes, reflecting the niches of these microbes in the host and probably their compatibility to the host genotypes. Systematic profiling of the microbiome composition and diversity will aid the development of plant protection technologies to benefit soybean health.
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    Colonization by Klebsiella variicola FH-1 stimulates soybean growth and alleviates the stress of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
    ZHAI Qian-hang, PAN Ze-qun, ZHANG Cheng, YU Hui-lin, ZHANG Meng, GU Xue-hu, ZHANG Xiang-hui, PAN Hong-yu, ZHANG Hao
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2023.01.007 Online: 24 January 2023
    Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a destructive soil-borne disease of Glycine max (L.) Merr that leads to huge yield loss. We previously reported that Klebsiella variicola FH-1 could degrade atrazine herbicides, and the vegetative growth of atrazine-sensitive crops (i.e., soybean) was significantly increased in the FH-1-treated soil. Interestingly, we found that FH-1 could promote soybean growth and induce resistance to S. sclerotiorum. In our study, strain FH-1 could grow in a nitrogen-free environment, dissolve inorganic phosphorus and potassium, and produce indoleacetic acid and a siderophore. The results of pot experiments showed that K. variicola FH-1 promoted soybean plant development, substantially improving plant height, fresh weight, and root length, and induced resistance against S. sclerotiorum infection in soybean leaves. The area under the disease progression curve (AUDPC) for treatment with strain FH-1 was significantly lower than the control and was reduced by up to 42.2% within 48 hours (P<0.001). Moreover, strain FH-1 rcovered the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and polyphenol oxidase, which are involved in plant protection, and reduced malondialdehyde accumulation in the leaves. The mechanism of induction of resistance appeared to be primarily resulted from the enhancement of transcript levels of PR10, PR12, AOS, CHS, and PDF1.2 genes. The colonization of FH-1 on soybean root, determined using CLSM and SEM, revealed that FH-1 colonized soybean root surfaces, root hairs, and exodermis to form biofilms. In summary, K. variicola FH-1 exhibited the biological control potential by inducing resistance in soybean against S. sclerotiorum infection, and this provides new suggestions for green prevention and control.
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    A novel pathogen Fusarium cuneirostrum causing common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) root rot in China
    DENG Dong, WU Wen-qi, DUAN Can-xing, SUN Suli, ZHU Zhen-dong
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2023.01.010 Online: 24 January 2023

    Several fungal pathogens cause root rot of common bean, among which Fusarium spp. are the most common pathogens causing Fusarium root rot (FRR) worldwide. FRR has been becoming an increasingly severe disease of common bean in China, but the species of Fusarium spp. has remained unclear. Thus, this study was performed to identify the pathogen causing common bean root rot in Liangcheng County, Inner Mongolia. Nineteen Fusarium-like isolates were obtained after pathogen isolation and purification. The pathogenicity test indicated that eight isolates caused severe disease symptoms on common bean, while 11 other isolates were not pathogenic. The eight pathogenic isolates, FCL1-FCL8, were identified as Fusarium cuneirostrum by morphological characterization and phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences of EF-1α, ITS, 28S, and IGS regions. Host range test showed that the representative F. cuneirostrom isolate FCL3 were also pathogenic to mung bean, while not pathogenic to adzuki bean, chickpea, cowpea, faba bean, pea, and soybean. Moreover, 50 common bean and 50 mung bean cultivars were screened for resistance to FRR, and seven highly resistant or resistant cultivars of common bean were identified, while no resistant cultivars of mung bean were screened. This study revealed that F. cuneirostrum was one of common bean FRR pathogens in Inner Mongolia and it could induce mung bean root rot as well. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. cuneirostrum causing FRR of common bean in China.

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    Histone H3K27me3 methylation regulates the expression of secreted proteins distributed at fast-evolving regions through transcriptional repression of transposable elements
    XIE Jia-hui, TANG Wei, LU Guo-dong, HONG Yong-he, ZHONG Zhen-hui, WANG Zonghua, ZHENG Hua-kun
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2023.01.011 Online: 24 January 2023
    The fine-tuned expression dynamics of the effector genes are pivotal for the transition from vegetative growth to host colonization of pathogenic filamentous fungi. However, mechanisms underlying the dynamic regulation of these genes remain largely unknown. Here, through comparative transcriptome and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses of the methyltransferase PoKmt6 in rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae), we found that PoKmt6-mediated H3K27me3 deposition was enriched mainly at fast-evolving regions and contributed to the silencing of a subset of secreted proteins (SP) and transposable element (TE) families during the vegetative growth of P. oryzae. Intriguingly, we observed that a group of SP genes, which were depleted of H3K27me3 modification, could also be silenced via the H3K27me3-mediated repression of the nearby TEs. In conclusion, our results indicate that H3K27me3 modification mediated by PoKmt6 regulates the expression of some SP genes in fast-evolving regions through the suppression of nearby TEs.
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    Degradation Effects on Dichlorvos by a Biocontrol Strain, Trichoderma atroviride T23
    SUN Jia-nan, SI Gao-yue, LIU Hong-yi, LI Ya-qian, WANG Xin-hua, CHEN Jie
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2023.01.009 Online: 24 January 2023
    Excessive use of organophosphate pesticides (OP), such as dichlorvos, in farming system poses a threat to human health through potential contamination of environment. To date, biodegradation has been prospected most promising approach to eliminate environmental OP residues. Trichoderma species as a biological control microorganism is often exposed to the chemical pesticides applied in environments, so it is necessary to understand the mechanism of degradation of dichlorvos by Trichoderma. In this study, dichlorvos significantly inhibited the growth, sporulation and pigmentation of T. atroviride T23, and the dichlorvos degradation activity of T23 required the initial induction effect of dichlorvos and the culture conditions, including the nutrient and pH values of the medium. Various changed primary and secondary metabolites released from T23 in the presence of dichlorvos were speculated as the energy and antioxidants for the strain itself to tolerate dichlorvos stress. The results showed that T23 could produce a series of enzymes, especially the intracellular enzymes, to degrade dichlorvos. The activities of the intracellular enzyme generated by T23 were differentially changed along time course and especially relied on initial dichlorvos concentration, ammonium sulfate and phosphate added in the medium. In conclusion, some dichlorvos-induced chemical degradation related enzymes of T23 were proved to be involved in the degradation of dichlorvos.
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    Signatures of positive selection for local adaptation of African Native Cattle populations: a review
    Wondossen AYALEW, WU Xiao-yun, Getinet Mekuriaw TAREKEGN, CHU Min, LIANG Chun-nian, Tesfaye SISAY TESSEMA, YAN Ping
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2023.01.004 Online: 18 January 2023

    Cattle are central to the lives and diverse cultures of African people. It has played a crucial role in providing valuable protein for billions of households and sources of income and employment for producers and other actors in the livestock value chains. The long-term natural selection of African cattle typically signals signatures in the genome, contributes to high genetic differentiations across breeds. This has enabled them to develop unique adaptive traits to cope with inadequate feed supply, high temperatures, high internal and external parasites, and diseases. However, these unique cattle genetic resources are threatened by indiscriminate cross-breeding, breed replacements with exotic cosmopolitan  breeds, and climate change pressures. Although there are no functional genomics studies, recent advancements in genotyping and sequencing technologies have identified and annotated limited functional genes and causal variants associated with unique adaptive and economical traits of African cattle populations. These genome-wide variants serve as candidates for breed improvement and support conservation efforts for endangered cattle breeds against future climate changes. Therefore, this review plans to collate comprehensive information on the identified selection footprints to support genomic studies in African cattle to confirm the validity of the results and provide a framework for further genetic association and QTL fine mapping studies.

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    Construction of SNP genetic map based on targeted next-generation sequencing and QTL mapping of vital agronomic traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)
    LI Meng-wei, HE Yu-hua, LIU Rong, LI Guan, WANG Dong, JI Yi-shan, YAN Xin, HUANG Shu-xian, WANG Chen-yu, MA Yu, LIU Bei, YANG Tao, ZONG Xu-xiao
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2023.01.003 Online: 16 January 2023

    The reference genome for faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is lacking because of its large genome size (~13 Gb), and the genetic and gene mapping studies on faba bean are far behind compared with those for other legumes.  In this study, we selected three purified faba bean lines (Yundou 8137, H0003712, and H000572) as parents and constructed two F2 populations.  And two F2 populations, namely 167 F2 plants in Pop1 (Yundou 8137×H0003712) and 204 F2 plants in Pop2 (H000572×Yundou 8137), were genotyped using a targeted next-generation sequencing (TNGS) genotyping platform, and two high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genetic linkage maps of faba bean were constructed.  The map constructed from Pop1 contained 5103 SNPs with a length of 1333.31 cM and an average marker density of 0.26 cM.  The map constructed from Pop2 contained 1904 SNPs with a greater length of 1610.61 cM. In these two F2 populations, Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping identified 98 QTLs for 14 agronomic traits related to flowers, pods, plant types and grains.  Then, the two maps were merged into an integrated genetic linkage map containing 6895 SNPs, with a length of 3324.48 cM.  These results not only lay the foundation for fine mapping and map-based cloning of related genes, but also can accelerate molecular marker-assisted breeding of faba bean.

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    Effect of Bt traits on growth and weed competitiveness of transgenic rice
    WANG Kang-xu , ZHANG Ke-rou , CAO Cou-gui, JIANG Yang
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2023.01.001 Online: 15 January 2023
    Transgene escape could lead to genetically modified rice establishing wild populations in the natural environment, where they would compete for survival space with weeds. However, whether the expression of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene in rice will alter the relationship between transgene plants and weeds and induce undesirable environmental consequences are poorly understood. Thus, field experiments were conducted to investigate the weed competitiveness and assess the ecological risk of transgenic Bt rice under herbicide-free and lepidopterous pest controlled environment. Results showed that weed-rice competition in direct seeding field (DS) was earlier and more serious than that in transplanting field (TP), which resulted in the significant decrease of biomass and yield in DS. However, the yield between conventional Bt and non-Bt rice was not significant difference. The weed number, weed coverage ratio and weed diversity of conventional Bt rice were significantly higher than those of non-Bt rice at the early growth stage and mature stage, especially in DS plots, suggesting that Bt traits did not increase the weed competitiveness of transgenic rice and had no negative effect on weed diversity. Grain yield and weed number varied between different hybrid rice lines, but those differences were not significant between Bt and non-Bt rice. The number of insects increased with the increase of weeds in hybrid rice plots, whereas the insect number and diversity did not display a significant difference between Bt and non-Bt rice. Therefore, the ecological risk of transgenic Bt rice is comparable to non-Bt rice.
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    Comparative transcriptome and lipidome reveal that low K+ signal effectively alleviate the effect induced by Ca2+ deficiency in fiber of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)
    GUO Kai, GAO Wei, ZHANG Tao-rui, WANG Zu-ying, SUN Xiao-ting, YANG Peng, LONG Lu, LIU Xue-ying, WANG Wen-wen, TENG Zhong-hua, LIU Da-jun, LIU De-xin, TU Li-li, ZHANG Zheng-sheng
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2023.01.002 Online: 15 January 2023

    Calcium (Ca2+) plays important roles in determining plant growth and development owing to its function in maintaining cell wall and membrane integrity.  Therefore, understanding the role of Ca2+ in carbon and lipid metabolism could provide insights into the dynamic changes of cell membranes and cell walls during rapid elongation of cotton fibers.  In the present study, we found that the lack of Ca2+ promoted fiber elongation and ovule rapid expansion, but also caused tissue browning in ovule culture system.  RNA-sequencing revealed that Ca2+ deficiency induced cells to be in a highly oxidized state, and the expression of genes related to carbon metabolism and lipid metabolism was activated significantly.  All gene members of 9 key enzymes involving in glycolysis were up-regulated, and glucose was significantly reduced in Ca2+ deficiency treated tissues.  Ca2+ deficiency adjusted the flowing of glycolysis metabolic.  However, low K+ recovered the expression levels of glycolysis genes and glucose content caused by Ca2+ deficiency.  Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry technology was applied to uncover the dynamic profile of lipidome under Ca2+ and K+ interacted condition.  Ca2+ deficiency led to the decrease of fatty acid (FA), diacylglycerol (DAG) and glycolipid, and the significant increase of triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipid PE (phosphatidylethanolamine), PG (phosphatidylglycerol) and PC (phosphatidylcholine).  Low K+ restored the contents of FA, phospholipids and glycolipids, effectively relieved the symptoms caused by Ca2+ deficiency, and recovered the development of fiber cells.  This study revealed dynamic changes in transcript and metabolic levels, and uncovered the signaling interaction of Ca2+ deficiency and low K+ in glycolysis and lipid metabolism during fiber development.

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    Toxicity and horizontal transfer of bifenthrin and dimefluthrin against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and the efficacy of their dust applications in the field
    LIANG Ming-rong, SHUANG You-ming, DENG Jie-fu, PENG Li-ya, ZHANG Sen-quan, ZHANG Chen, XU Yi-juan, LU Yong-yue, WANG Lei
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.12.010 Online: 31 December 2022

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, poses a significant threat to biodiversity, agriculture, and public health in its introduced ranges. While chemicals such as toxic baits and dust are the main methods for S. invicta control, toxic baits are slow, requiring approximately one or two weeks, but dust can eliminate the colony of fire ants rapidly in just three to five days. To explore more active ingredients for fire ant control using dusts, the toxicity of bifenthrin and dimefluthrin, the horizontal transfer of bifenthrin and dimefluthrin dust and their efficacy in the field were tested. The results showed that the LD50 (lethal dose) values of bifenthrin and dimefluthrin were 3.40 and 1.57 ng/ant, respectively. The KT50 (median knockdown time) and KT95 (95% knockdown time) values of a 20 μg mL-1 bifenthrin dose were 7.179 and 16.611 min, respectively. The KT50 and KT95 of a 5 μg mL-1 dimefluthrin dose were 1.538 and 2.825 min, respectively. The horizontal transfers of bifenthrin and dimefluthrin among workers were effective. The mortality of recipients (secondary mortality) and secondary recipients (tertiary mortality) were both over 80% at 48 h after 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% bifenthrin dust treatments. The secondary mortality of recipients was over 99% at 48 h after 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% dimefluthrin dust treatments, but the tertiary mortality was below 20%. The field trial results showed that both bifenthrin and dimefluthrin exhibited excellent fire ant control effects, and the comprehensive control effects of 1.00% bifenthrin and dimefluthrin dusts at 14 d post-treatment were 95.87 and 85.70%, respectively,.

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    Inversion tillage with straw incorporation affects the patterns of soil microbial co-occurrence and multi-nutrient cycling in a Hapli-Udic Cambisol
    CHEN Xu, HAN Xiao-zeng, WANG Xiao-hui, GUO Zhen-xi, YAN Jun, LU Xin-chun, ZOU Wen-xiu
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.12.011 Online: 31 December 2022

    Inversion tillage with straw amendment is widely applied in northeastern China, and it can substantially increase the storage of carbon and improve multiple subsoil functions. Soil microorganisms are believed to be the key to this process, but research into their role in subsoil amelioration is limited. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted in 2018 in a region in northeastern China with Hapli-Udic Cambisol using four treatments: conventional tillage (CT, tillage to a depth of 15 cm with no straw incorporation), straw incorporation with conventional tillage (SCT, tillage to a depth of 15 cm), inversion tillage (IT, tillage to a depth of 35 cm) and straw incorporation with inversion tillage (SIT, tillage to a depth of 35 cm). The soils were managed by inversion to a depth of 15 or 35 cm every year after harvest. The results indicated that SIT improved soil multi-nutrient cycling variables and increased the availability of key nutrients such as soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium in both the topsoil and subsoil. In contrast to CT and SCT, SIT created a looser microbial network structure but with highly centralized clusters by reducing the topological properties of average connectivity and node number, and by increasing the average path length and the modularity. A random forest analysis found that the average path length and the clustering coefficient were the main determinants of soil multi-nutrient cycling. These findings suggested that SIT can be an effective option for improving soil multi-nutrient cycling and the structure of microbial networks, and they provide crucial information about the microbial strategies that drive the decomposition of straw in Hapli-Udic Cambisol.

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    Immunogenetic basis of chicken’s Heterophil/Lymphocyte ratio revealed by genome-wide indel variants analysis
    ZHANG Jin, WANG Jie, WANG Qiao, CUI Huan-xian, DING Ji-qiang, WANG Zi-xuan, Mamadou Thiam, LI Qing-he, ZHAO Gui-ping
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.12.012 Online: 31 December 2022

    Enhancing host immunity is an effective way to reduce morbidity in chickens. Heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio is associated with host disease resistance in birds. Chickens with different H/L ratio levels show different disease resistances. However, the utility of the H/L ratio as an indicator of immune function remains to be analyzed. In this study, a H/L directional breeding chicken line (Jingxing yellow chicken) was constructed, which has been bred for 12 generations. We compared the function of heterophils, and combined statistical analysis to explore the candidate genes and pathways related to H/L ratio. The oxidative burst function of the heterophils isolated from the H/L selection line (G12) was increased (P=0.044) compared to the non-selection line (NS). The 22.44 Mb genomic regions which annotated 300 protein-coding genes were selected in the genome of G9 (n=92) compared to NS (n=92) based on a genome-wide selective sweep. Several selective regions were identified containing genes like interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) and moesin (MSN) associated with the intracellular receptor signaling pathway, C-C motif chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and hemolytic complement (HC) associated with the negative regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis and tight junction protein 1 (TJP1) associated with actin cytoskeleton organization. In addition, 45 genome-wide significant indels containing 29 protein-coding genes were also identified as associated with the H/L ratio based on genome-wide association study (GWAS). The expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 5 (PTPN5) (r=0.75, P=0.033) and oxysterol binding protein like 5 (OSBPL5) (r=0.89, P=0.0027) were positively correlated with H/L ratio. Compared to the high H/L ratio group, the expression of PTPN5 and OSBPL5 were decreased (P<0.05) in the low H/L group of Beijing-You chicken. The A/A allelic frequency of indel 5_13108985 (P=3.85E-06) within OSBPL5 gradually increased from the NS to G5 and G9, and the individuals with A/A exhibited lower H/L ratio than individuals with heterozygote A/ATCT (P=4.28E-04) and homozygous ATCT/ATCT (P=3.40E-05). Above results indicated oxidative burst function of heterophils were enhanced, and 22.44 Mb genomic regions were selected with the directional selection of H/L ratio. In addition, PTPN5 and OSBPL5 genes were identified as H/L ratio related candidate genes. These findings revealed the complex genetic mechanism of H/L ratio related to immunity and will allow selection for improving chicken immunity based on the H/L ratio.

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    Identification and expression analysis of sugar transporter family genes reveal the role of ZmSTP2 and ZmSTP20 in maize disease resistance
    MA Yu-xin, ZHOU Zhi-jun, CAO Hong-zhe, ZHOU Fan, SI He-long, ZANG Jin-ping, XING Ji-hong, ZHANG Kang, DONG Jin-gao
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.12.014 Online: 31 December 2022

    Sugar is an indispensable source of energy for plant growth and development, and it requires the participation of sugar transporter proteins (STPs) for crossing the hydrophobic barrier in plants. Here, we systematically identified the genes encoding sugar transporters in the genome of maize (Zea mays L.), analyzed their expression patterns under different conditions, and determined their functions in disease resistance. The results showed that the mazie sugar transporter family contained 24 members, all of which were predicted to be distributed on the cell membrane and had a highly conserved transmembrane transport domain. The tissue-specific expression of the maize sugar transporter genes was analyzed, and the expression level of these genes was found to be significantly different in different tissues. The analysis of biotic and abiotic stress data showed that the expression levels of the sugar transporter genes changed significantly under different stress factors. The expression levels of ZmSTP2 and ZmSTP20 continued to increase following Fusarium graminearum infection. By performing disease resistance analysis of zmstp2 and zmstp20 mutants, we found that after inoculation with Cochliobolus carbonum, Setosphaeria turcica, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, and F. graminearum, the lesion area of the mutants was significantly higher than that of the wild-type B73 plant. In this study, the genes encoding sugar transporters in maize were systematically identified and analyzed at the whole genome level. The expression patterns of the sugar transporter encoding genes in different tissues of maize and under biotic and abiotic stresses were revealed, which laid an important theoretical foundation for further elucidation of their functions.

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    A novel short transcript isoform of chicken IRF7 negatively regulates interferon-β production
    MA Yu-chen, CHEN Hua-yuan, GAO Shen-yan, ZHANG Xiao-zhan, LI Yong-tao, YANG Xia, ZHAO Jun, WANG Zeng
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.12.015 Online: 31 December 2022

     Type I interferon (IFN-I) provides an important first line to protect avian species against pathogens invasion. IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) has been identified as the most important regulator for both DNA and RNA virus-induced IFN-I production in chickens. Although four splicing variants of IRF7 have been identified in mammals, it is still unclear whether alternative splicing patterns and the function of IRF7 isoform(s) exist in chickens. In this study, we reported a novel short transcript isoform of chicken IRF7 (chIRF7), termed chIRF7-iso, which contained an intact N-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD) and 14 amino acids different from chIRF7 in the C-terminal. Overexpression of chIRF7 in chicken leghorn male hepatocellular (LMH) cells activated the IFN-β promoter and significantly inhibited Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) replication. Conversely, overexpression of chIRF7-iso blocked the IFN-β promoter activity and was favorable for NDV and FAdV-4 replication in vitro. Collectively, our results confirm that a novel chIRF7 isoform-mediated negative regulates IFN-β production, which will contribute to understanding the role of chIRF7 in innate antiviral response in chicken.

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    Significant reduction of ammonia emissions while increasing crop yields using the 4R nutrient stewardship in an intensive cropping system
    ZHANG Chong, WANG Dan-dan, ZHAO Yong-jian, XIAO Yu-lin, CHEN Huan-xuan, LIU He-pu, FENG Li-yuan, YU Chang-hao, JU Xiao-tang
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.12.008 Online: 27 December 2022

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions should be mitigated to improve environmental quality. Croplands are one of the largest NH3 sources, they must be managed properly to reduce its emissions while achieving the target yield. Herein, we report the NH3 emissions, crop yield and changes in soil fertility in a long-term trial with various fertilization regimes, to explore whether NH3 emissions can be significantly reduced using the 4R Nutrient Stewardship (4Rs), and its interaction with the organic amendments (i.e., manure and straw) in a wheat-maize rotation. Implementing the 4Rs significantly reduced NH3 emissions to 6 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and the emission factor to 1.72%, without compromising grain yield (12.37 Mg ha-1 yr-1) and soil fertility (soil organic carbon of 7.58 g kg-1) compared to the conventional chemical N management. When using the 4R plus manure, NH3 emissions (7 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and the emission factor (1.74%) were as low as 4Rs, and grain yield and soil organic carbon increased to 14.79 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 10.09 g kg-1, respectively. Partial manure substitution not only significantly reduced NH3 emissions but also increased crop yields and improved soil fertility, compared to conventional chemical N management. Straw return exerted a minor effect on NH3 emissions. These results highlight that 4R plus manure, which couples nitrogen and carbon management can help achieve both high yields and low environmental costs.

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    Combining the critical nitrogen concentration and machine learning algorithms to estimate nitrogen deficiency in rice from UAV hyperspectral data
    YU Feng-hua, BAI Ju-chi, JIN Zhong-yu, GUO Zhong-hui, YANG Jia-xin, CHEN Chun-ling
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.12.007 Online: 22 December 2022

    Rapid and large area acquisition of nitrogen (N) deficiency status is important for achieving the optimal fertilization of rice. Most existing studies, however, focus on the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing to diagnose N nutrition in rice, while there are fewer studies on the quantitative description of the degree of N deficiency in rice, and the effects of the critical N concentration on the spectral changes in rice have rarely been explored. Therefore, based on the canopy spectral data obtained by remotely sensed UAV hyperspectral images, the N content in rice was obtained through field sampling. The construction method of the rice curve for the northeastern critical N concentration was studied, and on this basis, N deficiency was determined. Taking the spectrum of the critical N concentration state as the standard spectrum, the spectral reflectivity data were transformed by the ratios and differences, and the feature extraction of the spectral data was carried out by the successive projections algorithm (SPA). Finally, by taking the characteristic band as the input variable and N deficiency as the output variable, a set of multivariate linear regression (MLR), long short-term memory (LSTM) inversion models based on extreme learning machine (ELM), and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm III extreme learning machine (NSGA-III-ELM) were constructed. The results showed two key aspects of this system: 1) The correlation between the N deficiency data and original spectrum was poor, but the correlation between the N deficiency data and N deficiency could be improved by a difference change and ratio transformation; 2) The inversion results based on the ratio spectrum and NSGA-III-ELM algorithm were the best, as the R2 values of the training set and validation set were 0.852 and 0.810, and the root mean square error (RMSE) values were 0.291 and 0.308, respectively. From the perspective of the spectral data, the inversion accuracy of the ratio spectrum was better than the accuracy of the original spectrum or difference spectrum. At the algorithm level, the model inversion results based on LSTM algorithms showed a serious overfitting phenomenon and poor inversion effect. The inversion accuracy based on the NSGA-III-ELM algorithm was better than the accuracy of the MLR algorithm or the ELM algorithm. Therefore, the inversion model based on the ratio spectrum and NSGA-III-ELM algorithm could effectively invert the N deficiency in rice and provide critical technical support for accurate topdressing based on the N status in the rice

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    Accurate recognition of the reproductive development status and prediction of oviposition fecundity in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) based on computer vision
    LV Chun-yang, GE Shi-shuai, HE Wei, ZHANG Hao-wen, YANG Xian-ming, CHU Bo, WU Kong-ming
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.12.003 Online: 22 December 2022

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important migratory agricultural pest worldwide, which has invaded many countries in the Old World since 2016 and now poses a serious threat to world food security. The present monitoring and early warning strategies for the fall army worm (FAW) mainly focus on adult population density, but lack an information technology platform for precisely forecasting the reproductive dynamics of the adults. In this study, to identify the developmental status of the adults, we first utilized female ovarian images to extract and screen five features combined with the support vector machine (SVM) classifier and employed male testes images to obtain the testis circular features. Then, we established models for the relationship between oviposition dynamics and the developmental time of adult reproductive organs using laboratory tests. The results show that the accuracy of female ovary development stage determination reached 91%. The mean standard error (MSE) between the actual and predicted values of the ovarian developmental time was 0.2431, and the mean error rate between the actual and predicted values of the daily oviposition quantity was 12.38%. The error rate for the recognition of testis diameter was 3.25%, and the predicted and actual values of the testis developmental time in males had an MSE of 0.7734. A WeChat applet for identifying the reproductive developmental state and predicting reproduction of S. frugiperda was developed by integrating the above research results, and it is now available for use by anyone involved in plant protection. This study developed an automated method for accurately forecasting the reproductive dynamics of S. frugiperda populations, which can be helpful for the construction of a population monitoring and early warning system for use by both professional experts and local people at the county level.

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    Monitoring the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger 1863), in the early stage of its invasion in China: predicting its geographical distribution pattern under climate change
    ZHAO Hao-xiang, XIAN Xiao-qing, GUO Jian-yang, YANG Nian-wan, ZHANG Ai-ping, CHEN Bao-xiong, HUANG Hong-kun, LIU Wan-xue
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.12.004 Online: 22 December 2022

    Invasive alien ants (IAAs) are among the most aggressive, competitive, and widespread invasive alien species (IAS) worldwide. Wasmannia auropunctata, the greatest IAAs threat in the Pacific region and listed in “100 of the world’s worst IAS”, has established itself in many countries and on islands worldwide. Wild populations of W. auropunctata were recently reported in southeastern China, representing a tremendous potential threat to China’s agricultural, economic, environmental, public health, and social well-being. Estimating the potential geographical distribution (PGD) of W. auropunctata in China can illustrate areas that may potentially face invasion risk. Therefore, based on the global distribution records of W. auropunctata and bioclimatic variables, we predicted the geographical distribution pattern of W. auropunctata in China under the effects of climate change using an ensemble model (EM). Our findings showed that ANN, FDA, GBM, and RF were more accurate than CTA, GLM, SRE, and MaxEnt. The mean TSS values of ANN, FDA, GBM, and RF were 0.820, 0.810, 0.843, and 0.857, respectively, and the mean AUC values were 0.946, 0.954, 0.968, and 0.979, respectively.  The mean TSS and AUC values of EM were 0.882 and 0.972, respectively, indicating that the prediction results with EM were more reliable than those with the single model. The PGD of W. auropunctata in China is mainly located in southern China under current and future climate change. Under climate change, the PGD of W. auropunctata in China will expand to higher-latitude areas. The annual temperature range (bio7) and mean temperature of the warmest quarter (bio10) were the most significant variables affecting the PGD of W. auropunctata in China. The PGD of W. auropunctata in China was mainly attributed to temperature variables, such as the annual temperature range (bio7) and the mean temperature of the warmest quarter (bio10). The populations of W. auropunctata in southern China have broad potential invasion areas. Developing strategies for the early warning, monitoring, prevention, and control of W. auropunctata in southern China requires more attention.

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    The potential of green manure to increase soil carbon sequestration and reduce the yield-scaled carbon footprint of rice production in southern China
    GAO Song-juan, LI Shun, ZHOU Guo-peng, CAO Wei-dong
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.12.005 Online: 22 December 2022

    Green manure (GM) has been used to support rice production in southern China for thousands of years. However, the effects of GM on soil carbon sequestration (CS) and the carbon footprint (CF) at a regional scale remain unclear. Therefore, we combined the datasets from long-term multisite experiments with a meta-analysis approach to quantify the potential of GM to increase the CS and reduce the CF of paddy soils in southern China. Compared with the fallow-rice practice, the GM-rice practice increased the soil C stock at a rate of 1.62 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and reduced chemical N application by 40% with no loss in the rice yield. The total CF varied from 7.51 to 13.66 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and was dominated by CH4 emissions (60.7%-81.3%). GM decreased the indirect CF by 31.4% but increased the direct CH4 emissions by 19.6%. In the low and high CH4 emission scenarios, the CH4 emission factors of GM (EFgc) were 5.58% and 21.31%, respectively. The greater soil CS offset the increase in GM-derived CF in the low CH4 scenario, but it could not offset the CF increase in the high CH4 scenario. A trade-off analysis also showed that GM can simultaneously increase the CS and reduce the total CF of the rice production system when the EFgc was less than 9.20%. The variation in EFgc was mainly regulated by the GM application rates and water management patterns. Determining the appropriate GM application rate and drainage pattern warrant further investigation to optimize the potential of the GM-rice system to increase the CS and reduce the total CF in China.

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