Table of Content

    01 May 2012, Volume 45 Issue 9
    Functional Marker Mapping and Association Analysis of Gene W16 in Common Wheat
    LEI Meng-Lin, LI Ang, CHANG Xiao-Ping, XU Zhao-Shi, MA You-Zhi, LIU Hui-Min, JING Rui-Lian
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1667-1675.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.001
    Abstract ( 1079 )   PDF (736KB) ( 769 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The objective of this study is to develop and map functional markers for W16, a gene of transcription factor DREB (dehydration responsive element binding) family, to analyze the relationship between haplotypes and phenotypic traits, and provide a basis for the genetic improvement by molecular markers in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 【Method】 The W16 was cloned from hexaploid wheat, and its diploid and tetraploid wild relative species. Molecular markers were developed according to sequence polymorphisms. Chromosomal location and genetic mapping of W16 were performed by Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic lines and a doubled haploid (DH) population (Hanxuan 10 × Lumai 14). The relevance between W16 haplotypes and phenotypic traits was analyzed by using a natural population consisted of 154 historical wheat accessions. 【Result】 The W16 was mapped in the interval between marker CWM517 and WMC20 on chromosome 1A in Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic lines and DH population, and the distances were 7.8 cM and 19.4 cM from the left and right flanking markers. In the natural populations, three haplotypes of W16 were detected which were associated with spike per plant, grain per spike, spikelet per spike and grain plumpness. 【Conclusion】 The present research mapped W16 on the chromosomes 1A. HapⅡ is considered as a potential superior haplotype for the improvement of spike per plant and grain plumpness, while HapⅢ is a potential superior haplotype for grain per spike. These functional markers and association analysis results provide important information for the molecular breeding of wheat.
    Identification and Genetic Analysis of a Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line in Maize (Zea mays L.)
    ZHU Li-Ying, CHEN Jing-Tang, HUANG Ya-Qun, ZHAO Yong-Feng, SONG Zhan-Quan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1676-1684.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.002
    Abstract ( 870 )   PDF (1033KB) ( 735 )   Save
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    【Objective】 A new cytoplasmic male sterile line (Nongxi 928cms-Q1261) was identified for type of male sterile, stage of microspore abortion and genetic mechanism for its application to maize breeding. 【Method】 The male sterile expression was observed by planting sterile line in different locations and years. Testcross, sister cross and reciprocal cross were conducted with Nongxi 928cms-Q1261 to analyze the genetic characteristics of its male sterility. Meanwhile, the cytoplasmic type was discriminated by PCR amplification with specifically primers and the microspore genesis was observed under optical microscope by paraffin section technique.【Result】Results showed that the male sterility characteristics of Nongxi 928cms-Q1261 were stable, no anthers exposed on tassel and pollen aborted completely. The cytoplasmic male sterile gene, which was classified into S type of CMS, originated from Q1261, and its nuclear sterile gene originated from Nongxi 928, which was controlled by a pair of recessive genes. The microspores started degrading at the late stage of microspore and degenerated completely at the mature pollen stage. The male sterility of Nongxi 928cms-Q1261 could be maintained by inbred line Zheng58.【Conclusion】Nongxi 928cms-Q1261 belongs to S-type of CMS and is a non-pollen-type cytoplasmic male sterile line with many restorer lines.
    Cloning and Polymorphism of 2-Methyl-6-Phytyl-1, 4-Benzoquinol Methyltransferase Gene (VTE3) in Arachis
    GUO An-Qiang, WAN Yong-Shan, LIU Feng-Zhen
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1685-1695.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.003
    Abstract ( 678 )   PDF (719KB) ( 556 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The objective of this study is to isolate VTE3 (encoding MPBQ MT) in peanut, and to reveal the molecular characteristics and investigate polymorphism of the genes.【Method】A putative VTE3 of peanut was obtained via EST sequence splicing. cDNAs of VTE3 were cloned from cultivated varieties of A. hypogaea by RT-PCR, genomic DNAs of VTE3 were cloned from cultivated varieties and two wild species in Arachis by PCR. Polymorphism analysis of VTE3 from cultivated varieties and two wild species were performed, and phylogenetic tree was constructed by PHYLIP software. 【Result】 Two cDNA sequences of VTE3 (designated as rVTE3-1 andrVTE3-2) were isolated from each of the three cultivated varieties (Arachis hypogaea L.). rVTE3-1 and rVTE3-2 both had a DNA sequence of 1 059 bp in length, with the homology of 97.8% between the two sequences, and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exist within the sequences. The two cDNA sequences both encode 351 amino acids, and the homology of the two proteins was 98.6% with five amino acid differences. The two DNA sequences of VTE3 from each cultivar were designated as gVTE3-1 and gVTE3-2. The sequences of gVTE3-1 from the thirteen cultivars share a homology of 99.9% in nucleotide acid level and the thirteen sequences of gVTE3-2 are identical. gVTE3-1 of cultivated peanut samples from Fenghua 2 had a length of 2 710 bp, with three introns located at 44-163, 772-1 295 and 1 603-2 437 bp, and gVTE3-2 from Fenghua 2 had a length of 2 706 bp with three introns located at 44-169, 778-1 291 and 1 599-2 433 bp. Thirty-six SNPs and three variation sites of endonuclease recognition were identified between the intrones of the two sequences. Meanwhile, the VTE3 DNA (designated as gVTE3-A and gVTE3-B) was isolated from wild species A. duranensis (A-genome) and A. ipaensis (B-genome), respectively. The sequences of gVTE3-1 (Fenghua 2), gVTE3-2 (Fenghua 2), gVTE3-A and gVTE3-B were aligned and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. The tree demonstrated that FhgVTE3-1 and gVTE3-A clusters form a group and FhgVTE3-2 and gVTE3-B clusters form as an additional group. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that the homology of FhgVTE3-1 and gVTE3-A was 98.7% and the homology of FhgVTE3-2 and gVTE3-B was 100%. The amino acid homologies of MPBQ MT among different species shared higher similarities.【Conclusion】Full-length cDNA and DNA sequences in VTE3 of peanut were cloned. The present study demonstrated that abundant polymorphisms were observed in VTE3 from A-genome and B-genome of A. hypogaea, respectively. Additionally, polymorphisms were observed in the gVTE3-1 alleles of the thirteen cultivars and wild species of A. duranensis. However, no variation of gVTE3-2 was found in the gVTE3-2 alleles of the thirteen cultivars and wild species of A. ipaensis.
    Construction and Sequences Analysis of Full-Length cDNA Library of Tobacco Leaves
    GONG Da-Ping, JIE Min-Min, SUN Yu-He
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1696-1702.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.004
    Abstract ( 871 )   PDF (764KB) ( 743 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The full-length cDNA library from tobacco leaves mRNA was constructed. EST data were generated and these gene families of development, metabolizability and resistance were detected and ananlyzed. 【Method】 The Cap-trapper method was optimized to constructe a full-length enriched cDNA library of tobacco seedling leaves. The assembly and annotation of EST data were completed by bioinformatics program. 【Result】 A high quality full-length cDNA library was constructed successfully from tobacco leaves. The titer was 1.2×106 pfu•mL-1 and the average length of inserted cDNA fragments was 1.4 kb. A total of 5 280 clones were sequenced from the library, and 5 233 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences were obtained. The ESTs were assembled into 3 922 unigenes including 564 contigs and 3 358 singletons. The comparative analysis shows that approximately 89.7% of the unigenes have homologs in other plants. These genes were involved in cell development, signal transduction, transcription and synthesis, stress tolerance response, energy metabolism and so on. Nicotine synthesis and transform, and disease resistance genes were identified. 【Conclusion】 A high-quality full-length cDNA library of tobacco leaves was successfully constructed by Cap-trapper method. Meanwhile, development, nicotine synthesis and transform, stress resistance and disease resistance were identified by sequences analysis of EST.
    Analysis of Chilling-Tolerance and Determination of Chilling-Tolerance Evaluation Indicators in Cotton of Different Genotypes
    WU Hui, HOU Li-Li, ZHOU Yan-Fei, FAN Zhi-Chao, SHI Jun-Yi, A Li-Yan-?Rou-Zi, ZHANG Ju-Song
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1703-1713.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.005
    Abstract ( 1071 )   PDF (639KB) ( 952 )   Save
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    【Objective】The objective of this study was to investigate the chilling tolerance of cotton seedlings of different genotypes, to screen suitable evaluation indicators of chilling-tolerance, and to establish the mathematical evaluation model on cold tolerance, which would provide a theoretical basis for discovery and promotion of chilling tolerant germplasm, breeding of new chilling-tolerant varieties and evaluation on chilling tolerance of a large number of cotton varieties. 【Method】The chilling comprehensive evaluation of chilling tolerant coefficient (CTC) about photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics indexes, chlorophyll content, relative soluble sugar content, relative MDA content, relative proline content and relative electric conductivity in leaves of cotton seedlings of fifteen different genotypes under low temperature stress (5℃, 12 h) and recovery treatment (25℃, 24 h) were evaluated by principal components analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and regression analysis.【Result】The results showed that the 12 single indexes could be classified into 7 independent comprehensive components. The cluster analysis was used to divide 15 cotton cultivars into three chilling-tolerance types. The mathematical evaluation model for cotton cold tolerance was established, D=0.275-0.244Fo1+0.206Fv/Fm1+0.326gs2-0.056SS+0.225MDA+0.038REC(R2=0.995), and the evaluation accuracy of the equation is higher than 94.25%. Six indexes closely related to the chilling tolerance, Fo1, Fv/Fm1, gs2, SS, MDA and REC, were screened, too. 【Conclusion】Higher chilling tolerant varieties, which had lighter injury under low temperature stress, were able to maintain more photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and higher stomatal conductance after recovery treatment was contributed to gas exchange and recovery of photosynthetic. Determination of the six indicators under the same condition can be used for rapid identification and prediction of other cotton varieties, which is very useful for the breeding, promotion, identification and screening of chilling tolerant germplasm.
    Screening and Identification of Sorghum Cultivars for Salinity Tolerance During Germination
    SUN Lu, ZHOU Yu-Fei, WANG Che, XIAO Mu-Ji, TAO Ye, XU Wen-Juan, HUANG Rui-Dong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1714-1722.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.006
    Abstract ( 856 )   PDF (658KB) ( 992 )   Save
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    【Objective】The objectives of the current study were to explore the response of different sorghum cultivars to salt stress, screen sorghum cultivars suitable for growing in saline soils, and provide a foundation for management of salt stress.【Method】 Thirty seeds of each of 42 sorghum cultivars were treated with 150 mmol•L-1NaCl or distilled water and incubated in Petri dishes for 10 days at humidity of 60%, light/dark of 12h/12h, illumination of 34 μmol•m-2•s-1 and 28℃/25℃ of day/night. Germination and growth were assessed by counting the number of radicals and coleoptiles and leaves that had appeared on a daily basis from the fourth day and measuring their lengths and dry weights on the tenth day using destructive sampling. The cultivars were classified on the basis of salinity tolerance by means of principal component analysis and cluster analysis considering the range of data on germination and growth traits.【Result】The correlation analysis on the relative values of most germination and growth parameters showed positive relationships among several variables. The cultivars were ranked based on the principal components analysis and five groups on salinity tolerance were sorted for the 42 sorghum cultivars according to the cluster analysis.【Conclusion】Principal component analysis results showed that radical length, coleoptiles and leaf weight and germination rate were the most significant factors and are recommended as the main indexes to identify salinity tolerance of sorghum at germination. The analysis showed five of the 42 cultivars were highly salt tolerant, e.g. Liaoza 15, fourteen cultivars were salt tolerant, e.g. Shenshi 104, twelve cultivars were medium salt sensitive, e.g. Aoza 1, eight cultivars were salt sensitive, e.g Tieza 17, and three were highly salt sensitive, e.g. Longza 10. As this research only relates to ranking sensitivity during germination, further work is needed to determine the mechanism of tolerance and its persistence through the plant life cycle.
    Seasonal Changes in the Cold Hardiness of Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) Prepupa
    YU Ling-Yuan, SHI Ai-Ju, ZHENG Fang-Qiang, LU Hong, ZHANG Fan, XU Yong-Yu
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1723-1730.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.007
    Abstract ( 865 )   PDF (503KB) ( 645 )   Save
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    【Objective】The objective of this study is to understand the seasonal changes of cold hardiness of Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) prepupa in the natural conditions. 【Method】The wet weight, supercooling point (SCP) and freezing point (FP), the contents of water, fat, sugar and protein in the prepupa body were determined in different times. 【Result】The SCP and FP of     Ch. pallens prepupa were the lowest in January 2010 (mid-winter period), -17.53 and -7.14℃, respectively, and the highest in July, -8.21 and -3.65℃, respectively. The SCP and FP of prepupa in September and October of 2009 (pre-winter period) were not significantly lower than that in July of 2010 (growth period) and lower than that in April and May of 2010 (post-winter periods). The change patterns of the contents of the water, sugar and protein in the prepupa were similar as that of SCP with decreasing first and increasing later from September 2009 to July 2010, but the changes of content of fat were on the contrary, with higher fat content during winter and lower in other seasons. The highest fat content in prepupa was 46.81% in November 2009 (pre-winter period) and the lowest was 31.07% in July 2010 (growth period).【Conclusion】The cold hardiness of Ch. pallens prepupa varied obviously with seasonal changes, and pre- and mid-winter prepupa had higher cold tolerance than those in the summer and post-winter. The results suggest that the cold hardiness of the prepupa may be related to the contents of water and some biochemical substances in the prepupa body in the natural conditions.
    Wettability Analysis of Pesticides on Rice Leaf
    XU Guang-Chun, GU Zhong-Yan, XU De-Jin, XU Xiao-Long, DONG Yu-Xuan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1731-1740.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.008
    Abstract ( 906 )   PDF (675KB) ( 1072 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The objective of this study is to research the wettability of pesticide solutions at concentrations of high volume spray and atomizing spray used in paddy fields.【Method】The critical surface tension (CST) of rice leaf was determined by Zisman method and surface tension of 52 pesticides at concentrations of high volume spray and atomizing spray was measured followed by national standard (GB 5549-90). The relationship between the CST and the surface tension of pesticides was compared and analyzed. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactant in each pesticide was also measured according to the change of surface tension of pesticide solutions and 5 pesticides were used to illustrate the wettability of solutions on rice leaf.【Result】The estimated CST values of the adaxial and abaxial surface of rice leaves ranged from 29.90 to 32.88 mN•m-1. The surface tension values of 21 pesticide solutions at concentrations of high volume spray and 23 pesticide solutions at concentrations of atomizing spray were both less than the estimated CST values of rice leaves. Among which, surfactants in 19 pesticides at concentrations of high volume spray and 21 pesticides at concentrations of atomizing spray were above CMC. The surface tension values of the rest pesticides were more than the estimated CST values of rice leaves or the surfactants were below CMC. The surface tensions of solutions of 5% validamycin AS and 70% imidacloprid WDG at concentrations of high volume spray and atomizing spray were 46.84 and 46.53 mN•m-1, 49.48 and 40.24 mN•m-1,respectively. So the contact angles (>100°) on rice leaves were indicative of poor wetting. The surface tensions of solutions of 50% thiophanate-methyl SC were both more than 35.89 mN•m-1, and the contact angles (98.59°-53.76°) exhibited poor to good wettability. On the contrary, the surface tensions of solutions of 4% avermectins ME and 1.8% avermectins EC were 29.98 and 29.13 mN•m-1, 27.67 and 27.67 mN•m-1, respectively. So the contact angles (<60°) were regarded as good wetting【Conclusion】The wettability of most pesticide solutions on rice leaf is poor, so categories as well as contents of the surfactant in most pesticide remain to be adjusted.
    Effects of Continuous Straw Mulching on Supply Characteristics of Soil Inorganic Nitrogen and Crop Yields
    WU Ji, GUO Xi-Sheng, LU Jian-Wei, WANG Yun-Qing, ZHANG Xiao-Ling, XU Zheng-Yu
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1741-1749.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.009
    Abstract ( 815 )   PDF (648KB) ( 834 )   Save
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    【Objective】A long-term (2008-2010) experiment was conducted to study the effects of straw mulching on supply characteristics of soil inorganic nitrogen and crop yields. 【Method】Five treatments including no straw mulching (control), half rape straw mulching, total rape straw mulching, half wheat straw mulching, and total wheat straw mulching were designed. 【Result】At 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm and 15-25 cm soil layers, compared to no straw mulching treatment, the contents of soil NH4+-N and NO3--N increased significantly with straw mulching treatment. With the prolongation of the time of mulching and the rate of straw, the soil NH4+-N and NO3--N content increased. After harvest of the fifth season rice, the soil NH4+-N and NO3--N content of straw mulching treatment were higher than that of no straw mulching treatment by 18.83%-36.70% and 12.04%-37.70%, respectively. Straw mulching reduced the contents of NH4+-N and NO3--N, and also could decrease the soil NO3--N leaching during rice earlier growth stage, which promoted the crop reproductive growth at the later growth stages and then increased crop yield. The results also indicated that straw mulching increased crop yield, and the increase of wheat and rapeseed was higher than rice. With the time of straw mulching and the amount of straw increasing, the crop yield also improved. The key components of the yield were effective panicles of wheat and rice, pod number and seed per pod of rapeseed. 【Conclusion】Continuous straw mulching improved soil NH4+-N and NO3--N content at 0-25cm layer and then increased crop yield.
    Nitrogen Retention and Supply After Addition of N Fertilizer and Its Combination with Straw in the Soils with Different Fertilities
    LIANG Bin, ZHAO Wei, YANG Xue-Yun, ZHOU Jian-Bin
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1750-1757.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.010
    Abstract ( 807 )   PDF (563KB) ( 683 )   Save
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    【Objective】 A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of long-term different fertilization treatments on N retention and supply in soils after the addition of straw and urea-N. 【Method】 Three soils (NF, no fertilizer; NPK, applied inorganic N, P, K fertilizer; and MNPK, combined application of manure and inorganic N, P, K) were sampled from a long-term different (19 years) fertilization experiments in Yangling, Shaanxi. And three rates of N fertilizer (0, 100 mg•kg-1 of urea-N, and 50 mg•kg-1 of urea-N + 50 mg•kg-1 of straw-N) were added into the three different fertilized soils to study N immobilization and supply during the wheat growth. 【Result】 Addition of N fertilizer had no effect on grain yield of wheat in the NF soil, while it significantly increased grain yield of wheat in NPK and MNPK soils. When only urea-N was added, the use efficiency of the added urea-N in the MNPK soils was as high as 67%, and it was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that in the NPK (56%) and NF soils (only 19%); And wheat yield of the MNPK soil was also significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of NPK and NF soils. Compared with only addition of urea-N, the combined addition of straw and urea-N significantly (P<0.05) decreased grain yield and N use efficiency. For the MNPK soil, the N use efficiency was only 11%, but it was still significantly higher than that of NPK soil (7%). After harvesting, 79-88% of added N in the treatment of combined addition of inorganic N and straw was not absorbed by wheat in the three soils. 【Conclusion】 It was concluded that the long-term application of manure and NPK fertilizers has a high ability to modulate the N supply of soil by adjusting the N retention and release processes, and increases grain yield and N use efficiency.
    Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Acyl-CoA Oxidase Gene from ‘Hujingmilu’ Peach Fruit
    QI Yu-Jie, ZHANG Xin, YANG Xia, GAO Zhong-Shan, JIA Hui-Juan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1758-1765.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.011
    Abstract ( 623 )   PDF (832KB) ( 874 )   Save
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    【Objective】The aim of this study is to clone and analyse the five genes of acyl-CoA oxidase(ACX) from peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) flesh. 【Method】Specific primers were designed based on the genome of peach of ACX published on Phytozome (www.phytozome.org), and the full-length of the five genes were cloned. 【Result】 In this study, the full-length of the five genes of ACX from peach fruit was obtained. There was no mutation in the CDS of PpACX1 and PpACX3. A mutates to G in PpACX2 on seq 871, which leads to Gln mutates to Arg. In PpACX4, there are two same sense mutations in seq 80 and 368. A mutates to c in PpACX5 on seq 475, which leads to Met mutates to Leu. The amino acid sequence of peach ACX was highly homologous with other species, especially tomato, squash, barley, and grape. Phylogenetic analysis showed that five gene family members were in the same evolutionary branch except PpACX4 which had a more closer relationship with pumpkin, grape, tomato, soybean, etc. PpACX1 was proved to be the highest expression member through the gene expression in root, stalk, leaf and fruit.【Conclusion】There are some differences between the 5 expressed genes of ACX cloned from ‘Hujingmilu’ peach fruit and the database of the genome. PpACX1 was proved to be the most important gene member in peach fruit.
    Effects of Different Rootstocks on Ripening Quality, Activities and Gene Expression of Aroma-Related Enzymes in Grafting Oriental Melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino)
    TIAN Xiao-Bin, QI Hong-Yan, LI Yan, JIN Ya-Zhong, LIU Wen-Wei, XU Xiao-Fei
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1766-1774.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.012
    Abstract ( 800 )   PDF (607KB) ( 821 )   Save
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    【Objective】The effects of different rootstocks grafting on main quality, kinds and content of aroma compounds, aroma-related enzymes activities and gene expression of mature oriental sweet melon fruits were studied.【Method】 The oriental sweet melon cultivar ‘Yumeiren’ was used as scion, the white seed pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) ‘Shengzhen1’(as treatment G1), ‘Tianzhen2’ (as treatment G2), muskmelon ‘PG22HF1’(Cucumis melo) (as treatment G3) were used as rootstocks, the ripening quality and aroma-related enzymes activities were measured, then the related expression levels of related genes, including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) were obtained from fruits on different rootstocks. 【Result】 Three rootstocks grafting have different levels of delaying fruit ripening, as firmness increased, rind degreening slowed down and soluble solids content lowered. ‘Tianzhen2’ ripens about two days later than own-root fruits, while, it was delayed more than two days in the other treatments. Rootstocks ‘Shengzhen1’ and ‘PG22HF1’ havd higher influence on fruit maturity compared to ‘Tianzhen2’. The kinds and content of non-acetate esters were significantly increased, main esters content was increased by ‘Tianzhen2’, on the same day after anthesis the content of non-acetate esters was 1.5 times higher than own-root fruits, while it was significantly decreased in the other treatments. Allyl isohexyl oxalate was found in all three rootstocks grafting, while, undetected in own-root fruits. For the same mature fruits, aroma-related enzymes activities were not significantly decreased by grafting, while increased by ‘Tianzhen2’. However, grafting suppressed the gene expression of aroma-related enzymes.【Conclusion】The effects of different varieties of rootstocks grafting on ripening quality was different. ‘Tianzhen2’ contributes for improvement of fruit quality, while the others reduced fruit quality. On one hand, grafting delayed fruits ripening, and therefore affected fruit quality and aroma-related enzymes activities. On the other hand, it affected aroma compounds and fruit quality by suppressing the gene expression of aroma-related enzymes.
    Proteomic Analysis of Early Somatic Embryogenesis in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.)
    LAI Cheng-Chun, LAI Zhong-Xiong, FANG Zhi-Zhen, HE Yuan, JIANG Shun-Ri
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1775-1790.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.013
    Abstract ( 981 )   PDF (1407KB) ( 592 )   Save
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    【Objective】The differential expressions of proteome patterns at 5 early developmental stages were analyzed during longan somatic embryogenesis. The results would contribute to the further research for isolation of plant embryo development associated protein genes and studies of plant somatic embryogenesis mechanisms. 【Method】Five embryogenic cultures at early developmental stages from the established longan somatic embryogenesis and regeneration system were obtained after synchronized culture. And their changes of proteomic patterns were investigated by the immobilized pH gradients two-dimensional electrophoresis technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). 【Result】From 1 203 to 1 798 protein spots could reproducibly be resolved in two-dimensional gels, most of them displayed obvious differences in the expression abundances at different stages and small part of them were of specific expression. On the basis of variations of protein numbers, expression abundances, molecular weight and isoelectric point, the key stages of early somatic embryogenesis in longan were determined, namely from ECII (Embryogenic callus II) to CpECGE (Compact pro-embryogenic cultures globular embryos). Forty-five differentially expressed proteins were identified and the identification rate was 37%. These findings suggested that energy and carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress response have a large majority, 22% and 27% respectively. It could be deduced by analyzing the functions of these proteins that the material foundation of longan somatic embryogenesis at early stages was of energy and carbohydrate metabolism, and the precondition of somatic embryogenesis was of oxidative stress response. To ensure the normal development of somatic embryos, these proteins together with the proteins related to cytoskeleton stability, nitrogen metabolism, signal transduction, gene regulation, protein synthesis or modification, and positioning function formed an enormous protein network system of early somatic embryogenesis in longan. 【Conclusion】There had more overall understanding to expression changes of  proteome patterns during the early longan somatic embryogenesis. The number of expressed proteins had a trend of increase after the first decrease, and then reduced again. During the early longan somatic embryogenesis, energy and carbohydrate metabolism is very vigorously, and the proteins related to oxidative stress response may play an important role in modulating the early somatic embryogenesis and development.
    Effect of the Extracted Solution from the Style of Rosa rugosa on the Growth in Vitro of Pollen Tube of R. rugosa and R. chinensis
    DING Yi-Ming, ZHAO Lan-Yong, ZHANG Ling, SUN Hua-Cai, WANG Xin-Gang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1791-1797.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.014
    Abstract ( 629 )   PDF (775KB) ( 621 )   Save
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    【Objective】The effect of the extracted solution from the style of Rosa rugosa on the growth in vitro of pollen tube of R. rugosa and R. chinensis was observed to probe the incompatible mechanism of interspecies cross between R. rugosa and R. chinensis.【Method】The pollens of R. rugosa and R. chinensis were cultured by using the extracted solution from the style of R. rugosa, with the apical vesicle of pollen tube marked by FM4-64 and the apical calcium marked by Fluo-3AM, then observed under the laser confocal microscope. The morphological changes of pollen tube were observed by optical microscope.【Result】Treated by the extracting solution from the style of R. rugosa, the pollen tube form of R. rugosa was normal, while that of R. chinensis was distorted and crazed during the pollen tube growth course. The regional distribution of the apical vesicle of pollen tubes was not obvious, calcium concentration declined, calcium gradient disappeared, calcium wave weakened, and some cell walls of the pollen tube tips thickened and resulted in callose.【Conclusion】The extracted solution from the style of R. rugosa affects the apical vesicle secretion and calcium distribution of pollen tube in R. chinensis, so that the growth of pollen tube is prevented and a large amount of callose is produced on the tip of the pollen tube. The result suggests that one reason of the incompatibility of interspecies cross between R. rugosa and R. chinensis may be the effect of R. rugosa style. The style of R. rugosa may affect the apical vesicle secretion and calcium distribution of pollen tube in R. chinensis to prevent its growth, besides, there is a large amount of callose produced on the top of the stagnant pollen tube.
    Effects of Modified Sweet Potato Pectins on the Proliferation of Cancer Cells
    ZHANG Yan-Yan, MU Tai-Hua, ZHANG Miao
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1798-1806.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.015
    Abstract ( 806 )   PDF (702KB) ( 963 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Effects of pH-modified and heat-treated sweet potato pectins on proliferation of human colon cancer cell HT-29, human breast cancer cell Bcap-37 and human hepatoma cancer cell SMMC-7721 were investigated.【Method】The galacturonic acid content, degree of esterification (DE), molecular weight, microstructure and activity of cancer cell proliferation inhibition of pectins (natural, pH-modified and heat-treated pectins) were determined, respectively.【Result】Modification increased galacturonic acid content of sweet potato pectin, whereas decreased its DE and molecular weight significantly (P<0.05). The microstructures of modified pectins were obviously different from microstructure of natural pectin. Natural and modified sweet potato pectins could inhibit the proliferation of three types of cancer cells in time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the inhibitory effect of modified sweet potato pectins on three types of cancer cells increased significantly compared to natural pectin (P<0.05). Furthermore, the proliferation-inhibitory effects of modified pectins on HT-29 and Bcap-37 were better than that of modified pectins on SMMC-7721.【Conclusion】 Proliferation of HT-29 and Bcap-37 could be inhibited effectively by modified sweet potato pectins. It is, therefore, suggested that modified sweet potato pectins have potential applications in prevention of human colon cancer and breast cancer.
    Effects of Transportation on Serum Proteome in Dairy Cows
    YUAN Ting-Jie, WANG Jia-Qi, YANG Yong-Xin, BU Deng-Pan, YANG Jin-Hui, ZHOU Ling-Yun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1807-1813.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.016
    Abstract ( 553 )   PDF (543KB) ( 587 )   Save
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    【Objective】The experiment was designed to investigate the effects of transport on serum proteome of dairy     cows. 【Method】Proteome analysis in serum from dairy cows on the 7 d before transport , at 3 h and on the 7 d after transport were performed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with MADIL-TOF-TOF mass spectrum. 【Result】 Fourteen protein spots having significantly different expression levels after transport were observed. Serum albumin, Ig gamma 1 heavy chain constant region, type II cytoskeletal 1 and transthyretin were down-regulated at 3 h after transport, while alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, nesprin-2-like, microtubule-actin cross-linking factor 1, tyrosine-protein kinase Fps85D, exportin 5 and an unknown protein spot were up-regulated comparative with the 7 d pre-transport. With the exception of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, the expression volume of these proteins on the 7 d after transport were not different with those on the 7 d before transport. 【Conclusion】These proteins are involved in acute phase response, immune response, transport as well as various metabolic pathways in cells, suggesting transport resulted in stress.
    Bioinformatic Analysis of Myostatin Gene 5′ Regulatory Region from Sheep and Effect of Progesterone on the Activity of the Regulatory Region
    QIN Jian, DU Juan, YANG Ya-Qun, DU Rong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1814-1825.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.017
    Abstract ( 592 )   PDF (789KB) ( 682 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The aim of this study is to clone and analyze the 5′ regulatory region of myostatin gene in sheep and to investigate the effect of progesterone on the activity of the 5′ regulatory region. 【Method】 The 5′ regulatory region of myostatin gene in sheep was cloned by PCR, and the regulatory motifs and transcriptional factors, along the region or the similar regions of bovine and porcine, were analyzed and compared by some softwares such as MatInspector. The EGFP was selected as reporter gene and the expression vectors were constructed. The vector was transfected into C2C12 cells and the different doses of progesterone (0 nmol•L-1, 10 nmol•L-1, 100 nmol•L-1 and 1 000 nmol•L-1) were supplemented, then the mRNA of reporter gene EGFP or endogenous myostatin gene was detected by RT-PCR. 【Result】The 5′ regulatory region of myostatin gene in sheep was obtained, and two sites that is possibly contributive to double-muscular character were predicted. Many putative regulatory motifs and transcriptional factors, which may play important roles in the transcriptional regulation of myostatin gene, were found along the regulatory region of sheep, bovine and porcine, such as E-box, MEF2, MTATA, MTBF, HOMF, PRE, ARE and GRE. Most of motifs were found in three animals, but the bases, positions and numbers of the motifs were different among the three animals. The expression vectors pMSTN5’Regu-EGFP of sheep were successfully constructed and transfected. 100 nM progesterone obviously inhibited the mRNA of reporter gene EGFP and endogenous myostatin gene. 【Conclusion】The transcription of myostatin gene in sheep was regulated by various transcriptional factors and corresponding regulatory motifs, and the appropriate dose of progesterone inhibited the transcription of myostatin gene by downregulating the activity of the myostatin gene 5′ regulatory region.  
    The Difference Expression Profiles of miR-181a and Transcription Regulation Region Analysis in Chicken
    SUN Gui-Rong, LI Ming, KANG Xiang-Tao, LI Guo-Xi, TIAN Ya-Dong, HAN Rui-Li, BAI Yi-Chun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1826-1832.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.018
    Abstract ( 776 )   PDF (592KB) ( 773 )   Save
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    【Objective】 In order to provide theoretical data support for the study of the function of miR-181a, the tissue and developmental expression profiles, as well as transcriptional regulation region of chicken miR-181a were analyzed. 【Method】 The expression patterns of chicken miR-181a at two stages of chicken cerebrum lung, liver, spleen, kindey, crura, muscle, hupothalamus, cerebellum, heart, pectoralmuscle and thymus gland tissues were performed with qPCR technology, and the miR-181a transcriptional regulation site and the promoter region were analyzed by ENCODE. 【Result】 The results indicated that the expression of miR-181a in hypothalamus from the solexa sequencing was similar to those from qPCR. The results of qPCR showed that: the expression of miR-181a was tissue-specific in the same developmental period. The expression level of miR-181a was significantly different in different tissues. The expression in the same tissue between one day and adult chicken showed phase specific, the expression of miR-181a in other ten tissues was significantly different (P<0.05), except liver (P>0.05). ENCODE showed that in the upstream region of miR-181a-1 there existed continuous transcriptional regulation regions, ChIP-seq showed that the transcriptional regulatory region of miR-181a-1 may exist a transcriptional factor. The main transcription factors are NFKB, c-Fos and so on. 【Conclusion】The result indicated that the expression of miR-181a was tissue- and phase-specific. The sequence of miR-181a is highly conservative in vertebrates. The upstream of miR-181a has a transcriptional regulation region and a promoter region.
    Proteomic Comparison on Malpighian Tubules Between Larvae Stage and Pupal Stage of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)
    ZOU Yong, ZHONG Xiao-Wu, ZHANG Li-Ping, ZHAO Ping, XIA Qing-You
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1833-1839.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.019
    Abstract ( 719 )   PDF (655KB) ( 869 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The objective of this study is to get more information of malpighian tubules on the proteome changes between larvae stage and pupal stage, and to provide new evidences on the protein level at different developmental stages of malpighian tubules of B. mori. 【Method】 The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry were applied for identifying the different spots which had more expression of the 2D map, and all the protein sequences from P50/Dazao on NCBI combined silkworm proteins database were used to build local-database by the software GPMAW 8.00. GPMAW was also used to analyze peptide fingerprint masses.【Result】 About 360-430 spots were obtained by silver staining from the malpighian tubules after 2D-PAGE. Most of them were distributed in the area from 15 to 80 kD with pI 4.0-9.5. Seventeen markedly different proteins between larvae stage and pupal stage were successfully identified, including not only the proteins in association with energy metabolism, but also heat shock proteins, vacuolar-type H+-transporting ATPase, 30K lipoprotein, and alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2,3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase which have important functions in mammal kidney. 【Conclusion】 The discovery and identification of these proteins can offer a valuable insights into functional differences of larvae stage and pupal stage of holometabolic insects.
    Study on the Fusion Expression and Bioactivity of Porcine Interferon α, β and γ
    ZHENG Ming, BIAN Chuan-Zhou, WANG Lao-Qi, WANG Yong-Fen
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1840-1847.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.020
    Abstract ( 705 )   PDF (625KB) ( 861 )   Save
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    【Objective】The research aimed to exploit high efficient porcine gene engineering antiviral agents to prevent and control the porcine viral diseases and tumor diseases.【Method】Three fusion genes of PoIFN-α/β, PoIFN-α/γ and PoIFN-β/γ were constructed by linking any two mature peptide genes of the PoIFN-α, PoIFN-β and PoIFN-γ by SOE-PCR method. Then, these fusion genes were subcloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a for expression in E. coli BL21(DE3). Subsequently, the bioactivities of the fusion proteins rPoIFN-α/β, rPoIFN-α/γ and rPoIFN-β/γ were comparatively analyzed with non-fusion proteins rPoIFN-α, rPoIFN-β and rPoIFN-γ by the cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay and the porcine lymphocyte transformation assay.【Result】The fusion genes of PoIFN-α/β, PoIFN-α/γ and PoIFN-β/γ were successfully constructed and expressed in E. coli. After purified and refolded from inclusion bodies, three fusion proteins of rPoIFN-α/β, rPoIFN-α/γ and rPoIFN-β/γ with well biological activity were obtained successfully. The results of the cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay indicated that all these three kinds of fusion proteins, which demonstrated more significant antiviral activities for PRRSV or VSV than non-fusion proteins rPoIFN-α, rPoIFN-β and rPoIFN-γ not only on Marc-145 but also on PK-15, exhibited increased antiviral potencies. The effects of rPoIFN-α/β, rPoIFN-α/γ and rPoIFN-β/γ on the porcine lymphocyte transformation were detected by the MTT method. The results suggested that both rPoIFN-α/γ and rPoIFN-β/γ could effectively stimulate the transformation of porcine lymphocyte, had obvious immunoregulatory activities, but rPoIFN-α/β had no obvious effect. So, there are synergistic immunoregulatory effects between typeⅠand type Ⅱ PoIFNs, and none between PoIFNs of type Ⅰ.【Conclusion】 All these three fusion PoINFs in study, which exhibited the prominent abilities of antivirus, could be used to prevent and control the porcine viral diseases and tumor diseases. And the rPoIFN-α/γ and rPoIFN-β/γ also had stronger immune enhancement and could be expected to exploit into new-type immunopotentiators.
    Constructions of Arkadia and UCH37 Expression Vectors and Effects on TGF-β1/Smad7 Signal Pathway
    LIAO Fang-Fang, YUAN Si-Chun, ZHANG Zhong-Wen, WU Guo-Juan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1848-1856.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.021
    Abstract ( 628 )   PDF (1005KB) ( 481 )   Save
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    【Objective】The objective of the study is to construct expression vectors of ubiquitination starting enzyme Arkadia and ubiquitin COOH-terminal hydmlase-L5 (also known as UCH37), and to investigate the effect of Smad7 modified by ubiquitination on TGF-β1/Smad7 signal pathway in aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). 【Method】The transfection condition was optimized by observing expressions of green fluorescences and undertaking real-time PCR reactions. After transferring the siRNA of Arkadia and UCH37, mRNA inhibition ratios were detected by real-time PCR. Then the expression vectors pGPU6/GFP/Neo of Arkadia and UCH37 were constructed, and transferred into cells after evaluations, and the expression changes of Arkadia, UCH37 and Smad7 were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting. 【Result】 Results showed that 30 pmol siRNA and 1.5 μL LipofectamineTM 2000 were the best transfection conditions. The interferences of Arkadia-1490 and UCH37-721 were most obvious. The inserted sequences of vectors were found to be correct, and pGPU6/GFP/Neo-Arkadia could increase Smad7 expression in AAN, while pGPU6/GFP/Neo-UCH37 was the opposite.【Conclusion】Expression vectors pGPU6/GFP/Neo-Arkadia and pGPU6/GFP/ Neo-UCH37 were constructed successfully, and it was found that Arkadia and UCH37 could separately enlarge, and inhibit TGF-β1/ Smad7 signal pathway.
    Analysis on Molecular Evolution of HbSUT3 in Hevea Species
    LIN Fei-Peng, FAN Yu-Jie, LONG Xiang-Yu, HU Yan-Shi, TANG Chao-Rong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1857-1863.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.022
    Abstract ( 694 )   PDF (561KB) ( 611 )   Save
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    【Objective】The purpose of this work was to investigate the molecular evolution of HbSUT3 and its correlation with latex yield. 【Method】In this study, 21 cDNAs and 10 genomic DNAs of HbSUT3 and its homologs were cloned from 21 Hevea samples, including five large-scale recommended H. brasiliensis varieties, nine H. brasiliensis 1981’ IRRDB germplasms, and seven other Hevea species. Molecular evolution analysis of these sequences was made mainly by using MEGA software, and the phylogenetic trees were constructed by the neighbor-joining algorithm.【Result】The results showed that the genomic clones of all HbSUT3 and its homologs contained four exons and three introns, and all had a cDNA coding sequence of 1 608 bp. The ratios of transitions to transversions between different samples were lower than 2.0, and the values of Ks were generally larger that those of Ka for maximum. Phylogenetic tree showed that high-yielding H. brasiliensis samples tended to cluster together, but samples of several Hevea species could also be grouped together. 【Conclusion】 HbSUT3 and its homologs are evolutionally conservative, and the molecular evolution of HbSUT3 has a correlation with latex yield. In addition, the evolutionary analyses provide molecular evidence for the idea that the genus Hevea can be considered as species complex.
    Effects of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Main Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Seedlings of Cotton Under NaCl Stress
    LI Cui-Fang, LIU Lian-Tao, SUN Hong-Chun, ZHANG Yong-Jiang, ZHU Xiu-Jin, LI Cun-Dong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1864-1872.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.023
    Abstract ( 1038 )   PDF (591KB) ( 7465 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on cotton seedlings growth and leaf physiological characteristics under NaCl stress. 【Method】 In a hydroponic experiment, two NaCl concentrations (50 mmol•L-1 and 100 mmol•L-1), four sodium nitroprusside (SNP) concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 μmol•L-1) for each NaCl level were designed, and at the same time a conventional culture was set. The growth and leaves physiological characteristics of cotton seedlings were measured after 10 days of treatment.【Result】 The results showed that the treatment of NaCl stress inhibited the growth of cotton seedlings. The internodes of the cotton seedlings under NaCl stress were inhibited further by SNP which is an exogenous nitric oxide donor. The relative water content of cotton seedlings, especially the relative water content of the stem and root were decreased in SNP treatments under NaCl stress. The treatments of SNP added in 100 mmol•L-1 NaCl stress increased the contents of soluble protein and chlorophyll, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b, the effects of 50 μmol•L-1 SNP was the best. Under both of the NaCl stresses, SNP improved the activities of SOD and POD significantly, while the activities of CAT decreased.【Conclusion】 Under this experimental condition, exogenous nitric oxide inhibited internodes elongated, alleviated chlorophyll degradation, enhanced antioxidant capacity and improved leaves quality of cotton seedlings under NaCl stress. The SNP concentration from 50 μmol•L-1 to 100 μmol•L-1 could alleviate NaCl stress for cotton seedlings, the cotton seedlings under NaCl stress were seriously injured by high concentrations (200 μmol•L-1)of SNP.
    A Quick Multiplex PCR Method for the Identification of Four Meat Ingredients in Food Products
    HE Wei-Ling, ZHANG Chi, YANG Jing, HUANG Ming, YANG Jun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1873-1880.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.024
    Abstract ( 1293 )   PDF (694KB) ( 1347 )   Save
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    【Objective】An accurate and reliable universal primers-multiplex PCR (UP-M-PCR) method was developed to identify 4 kinds of meat ingredient (chicken, beef, lamb, pork) in food products.【Method】 Total DNA in meat samples were extracted using a commercial DNA extraction kit, a CTAB-Proteinase k method and a SDS-Proteinase k method, respectively. The concentration and purity of DNA were evaluated to select the optimal method. Two sets of UP-M-PCR primers in different lengths were designed based on the homologous and specific sites of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Each set was comprised of 5 primers: one general forward primer and four species-specific reverse primers. The UP-M-PCR system, followed by gel electrophoresis assay of speces-specific bands, was established for meat identification. The meat spices were identified according to different lengths of PCR products. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the method was evaluated by testing of eighty food samples from the market. 【Result】The SDS-Proteinase K method and the DNA commercial kit presented better extraction efficiencies in contrast to the CTAB-Proteinase K method. The optimized UP-M-PCR was established using the set of longer primes, which showed higher specificity than that using the shorter ones. The detection limit was picograms of DNA. The accuracy of the method was verified by examination of 80 food samples from the market. 【Conclusion】A sensitive, reliable and convenient method was developed to identify 4 kinds of meat ingredient in food products.
    Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria on APRIL and IL-10 Secretion in Caco-2 Cells
    HUANG Yi, HUANG Qin, LI Ya-Li, CUI Zhi-Wen, LI Wei-Fen, YU Dong-You
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(9):  1881-1886.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.09.025
    Abstract ( 678 )   PDF (676KB) ( 755 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The study was designed to evaluate the immunological effects of probiotic strains Enterococcus faecium and Lactococcus lactis on production of pro-inflammatory cytokine of APRIL and anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in intestinal epithelial cells. 【Method】Human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2 cells were incubated with PBS (Group CT, negative control), Escherichia coli K88 (Group EC, positive control), and Enterococcus faecium (Group EF), and Lactococcus lactis (Group LL) for 2 h, respectively. Besides, Caco-2 cells were firstly treated with E. faecium and L. lactis for 1 h, respectively, and then followed by incubation with E. coli K88 for an additional 2 h (Group EF-EC and Group LL-EC). Culture supernatants were collected for analyzing the contents of APRIL and IL-10 by ELISA method. 【Result】 Results showed that E. faecium and L. lactis induced an increased release of APRIL and IL-10. Pre-culture of Caco-2 cells with E. faecium and L. lactis was capable of markedly up-regulating production of IL-10 while decreasing APRIL secretion following co-culture with E. coli K88. 【Conclusion】These findings demonstrated that E. faecium and L. lactis could activate immunity of intestinal epithelial cells by inducing APRIL and IL-10 secretion. Moreover, these two strains of lactic acid bacteria also exhibited anti-inflammatory properties via modulating the immune response in Caco-2 cells when they were infected with E. coli K88.