Loading...

Table of Content

    01 February 2012, Volume 45 Issue 3
    CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
    Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Japonica Rice Landrace in China with Microsatellite Marker
    ZHANG Li-Na, CAO Gui-Lan, HAN Long-Zhi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  405-413.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.001
    Abstract ( 939 )   PDF (538KB) ( 940 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 The objective of this study is to analyze the genetic diversity, genetic structure and genetic relationship of japonica rice landrace from China, and to provide effective information for hybrid breeding of japonica rice. 【Method】 The genetic diversity, genetic structure and cluster analysis of 187 japonica rice landraces from 17 provinces (cities or municipalities ) of China were discussed using 43 pairs of polymorphic SSR markers.【Result】The total number of alleles detected from all tested 187 accessions was 351, and the alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 21 with the mean value of 8.2. The Nei’s gene diversity indices varied from 0.117 to 0.908 with an average of 0.550. The polymorphism information content (PIC) was changed from 0.114 to 0.902 with the average of 0.523. RM72, RM241, RM219, RM412 and RM232 showed higher genetic diversity than the others. The gene diversity values (He) of japonica rice landrace from southwestern, south and central China were higher than that of north and northeastern China. The He of japonica rice landrace from Yunnan was highest compared to the other provinces, while the lowest were Tianjin and Jilin. The dendrogram of japonica rice landrace was constructed based on Nei’s genetic distance, showed that all rice varieties were subdivided into 8 clusters. The japonica rice landrace of south China contained ⅰ, ⅱ, ⅲ, ⅳ and ⅴ clusters, the north China consisted of ⅵ, ⅶ and ⅷ clusters. The genetic structure analysis was performed based on model, the japonica rice landrace was divided into 11 subgroups including 144 individuals and a mixed group comprising of 43 individuals. 【Conclusion】Compared to north rice region, the south rice region showed significantly higher genetic diversity, and genetic diversity in Southwestern China of rice cropping region was the most among the 5 regions, and the center of origin of Chinese japonica rice landrace is probably Yunnan province. The japonica rice landrace from north and south was largely divergent, and the genetic relationship among japonica rice landrace was partly correlated with the geographical distribution, especially in north japonica rice region. RM72, RM241, RM219, RM412 and RM232 were fit for assessment of the genetic diversity of japonica rice landrace.
    Genetic Analysis of the Characteristics and Geographic Differentiation of Chinese Wild Soybean Population
    FAN Hu, ZHAO Tuan-Jie, DING Yan-Lai, XING Guang-南, GAI Jun-Yi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  414-425.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.002
    Abstract ( 875 )   PDF (522KB) ( 1155 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 The objective of the present study was to explore the genetic characteristics, linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genetic mechanism of geographic differentiation of the Chinese wild soybean population, and based on it, the geographic differentiation mechanism of days to maturity, the key geographic-ecological trait, is to be revealed. 【Method】 A sample composed of 174 accessions of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) from all growing areas (24 provinces) in China was established as the representative population of the Chinese wild soybean. The genotyping data of 204 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers on 174 accessions were obtained and analyzed for LD among marker pairs and the genetic structure of the population by using the TASSEL and STRUCTURE 2.2 program. Based on it, the genetic mechanism of the geographic differentiation of the population, the characteristics of the geographic subpopulations, and geographic differentiation of alleles of loci related to days to maturity were studied. 【Result】 There showed a plenty of genetic diversity in the Chinese wild soybean population and showed relatively larger average number of alleles and genetic differentiation on Linkage group (LG) I and C2 than others among the 20 LGs. Different LD degrees were detected not only among syntenic marker pairs but also among nonsyntenic pairs, suggesting there had been historical recombination among linkage groups. The average D′ was 0.34 for the population, larger than the previously reported value for cultivated soybean (G. max (L.) Merr.), implying more recombination occurred in the history and therefore higher LD values remained at present. The population was classified into four subpopulations according to H-W model-clustering analysis which was not completely but somewhat consistent with the geographic classification, indicating multiple migrations among eco-regions happened in the long history. There showed a great deal of allelic differentiation among the geographic subpopulations, including changes of allelic frequencies, new outcome of alleles and extinct of old alleles due to the long term natural selection. For the key geographic-ecological trait of the wild population, days to maturity, 160 alleles on 15 loci were detected, among them, 58 alleles from 14 loci were subpopulation-specific. Even multiple subpopulation-specific alleles of a same locus happened on each of the four subpopulations. The allelic genetic effects varied in a systematic decrease from the south to the north, which indicates not only strong but also systematic genetic differentiation among ecological subpopulations happened in the history for the trait. 【Conclusion】 The Chinese wild soybean population is characterized by higher genetic diversity and higher syntenic and nonsytenic LD. Among the four geographic subpopulations, there happened great genetic differentiation, which caused outcomes of subpopulation-specific alleles. The genetic differentiation of the key geographic-ecological trait, days to maturity, is characterized by not only strong but also systematic decrease of allelic effect from the south to the north.
    TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY·AGRICULTURE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
    Photosynthetic Characteristics of Transgenic Bt (Cry1Ab/Ac) Rice Under Ozone Free Air Controlled Enrichment Conditions
    LI Chun-Hua, ZHU Jian-Guo, LIU Biao, ZENG Qing, LUO Ke-Ju, TANG Hao-Ye, LIU Gang, ZHANG Guo-An
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  426-434.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.003
    Abstract ( 830 )   PDF (444KB) ( 716 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 The purpose of this study was to identify the effects on photosynthetic characteristics of transgenic Bt rice (Oryza sativa L.) under elevated O3 concentration during the period of May-October of 2010. 【Method】 Pot experiments were conducted with Bt-Shanyou 63 (hereinafter called Bt-SY63, a transgenic rice with Cry1Ab/Ac) and Shanyou 63 (hereinafter called  SY63, a hybrid indica cultivar) at 26 d, 47 d and 75 d of ozone treatment, respectively, the indicators relating to the    photosynthetic characteristic were measured under Ozone Free Air Controlled Enrichment Conditions (O3-FACE). 【Result】 The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate of flag leaves in Bt-SY63 and SY63, compared with the control, took on a significantly decline up to 21.1% and 15.1% on 75 d (P<0.01), respectively, by prolonged elevated O3 exposure. The downtrend of stomatal conductance and transpiration was also consistent with Pn. As for the chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ, actual photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ and photochemical quenching all descended by elevated O3 concentration while non-photochemical quenching and fraction of light absorbed in PSⅡ which was dissipated in the PSⅡ antenna in varied ranges companied with Pn enhanced. The content of chlorophyll and carotenoid of the two varieties also declined, the same with the total soluble protein content in SY63. However, the alteration of TSP content in Bt-SY63 was in perfectly opposite to the SY63’s, there was no remarkable decrease in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylas/oxygenase contents in Bt-SY63. 【Conclusion】 Photosynthetic parameters had presented to be changed in leaves of the genetic modified rice and the traditional plant under the O3-FACE conditions, with a larger amplitude for Bt-SY63 compared to SY63. In conclusion, the results suggested that Bt-SY63 was more sensitive to elevated O3 concentration than SY63 coupled with great volatility.
    Monitoring Leaf Water Content Based on Hyperspectra in Rice
    LIU Xiao-Jun, TIAN Yong-Chao, YAO Xia, CAO Wei-Xing, ZHU Yan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  435-442.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.004
    Abstract ( 777 )   PDF (551KB) ( 1106 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 The objective of the experiments is to develop a key method for fast and nondestructive monitoring leaf water content (LWC) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). 【Method】 Two field experiments were conducted with different soil water conditions and rice cultivars across two growing seasons, and time-course measurements were taken on leaf hyperspectral reflectance and LWC at top four leaves over main growth stages. Several kinds of hyperspectral indices at leaf scale including ratio spectral indices (RSI), normalized difference spectral indices (NDSI) and difference spectral indices (DSI) with all combinations of two wavebands between 350 and 2 500 nm were calculated, and their relationships to LWC were analyzed. 【Result】 The results indicated that the leaf spectral reflectance varied distinctly with soil water treatments and different top leaves, the sensitivity bands mostly occured within near-infrared and short-infrared spectral regions. The spectral indices as RSI (R1402, R2272) and NDSI (R1402, R2272) were linear with LWC, giving the determination coefficient of linear regression (S-R2) of 0.80, and the predicted R2 (P-R2) based on the testing performance with independent datasets as 0.86. 【Conclusion】 It is concluded that the RSI (R1402, R2272) and NDSI (R1402, R2272) can be used to monitor leaf water content in rice.
    PLANT PROTECTION
    Degradation Characteristics and Products of Cypermethrin by Cladosporium sp. HU
    CHEN Shao-Hua, GENG Peng, HU Mei-Ying, LI Ya-Nan, CHEN Hui-Ting, CHEN Qing-Guo
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  443-451.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.005
    Abstract ( 1078 )   PDF (472KB) ( 641 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 The objective of this study is to optimize the biodegradation conditions and analyze the degradation products from cypermethrin degradation by Cladosporium sp. HU, and to provide a basis for bioremediation of cypermethrin- contaminated environment. 【Method】 Based on the screening of pyrethroid-degrading fungal strain, Cladosporium sp. HU     (the accession number of ITS sequence analysis GenBank is HQ693526), the degradation abilities of the isolated strain under different conditions were determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The Andrews equation was used to describe the degradation kinetics with different cypermethrin concentrations (50-500 mg•L-1). The products from cypermethrin degradation were analyzed by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 【Result】 Cladosporium sp. HU utilized cypermethrin as the sole carbon for growth in the mineral salt medium (MSM). Under the conditions of aeration, inoculum amount 0.4 g•L-1, 25-30℃, pH 7.0-8.0, and shaking speed 120 r/min, Cladosporium sp. HU degraded cypermethrin rapidly with a degradation rate up to 90% within 4 d. The kinetic parameters of qmax, Ks and Ki were 1.2042 d-1, 35.2718 mg•L-1 and 439.9948 mg•L-1, respectively. And the optimal concentration of initial cypermethrin was 124.5769 mg•L-1. Cladosporium sp. HU degraded cypermethrin by hydrolysis and oxidation to produce α-hydroxy-3-phenoxy-benzeneacetonitrile, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde, 4-phenoxyphenyl-2,2-dimethyl-propiophenone and 4-phenoxyacetophenone. 3-Phenoxybenzaldehyde and α-hydroxy-3-phenoxy- benzeneacetonitrile were the intermediates of cypermethrin degradation. 【Conclusion】 Cladosporium sp. HU participated in efficient and rapid degradation of cypermethrin, which would be in favor of fungal or enzymic preparation industrial production to deal with pyrethroid residues.
    Ranking Population Structure and Sex Ratio of Pomacea  canaliculata (Lamarck) in Different Control Approaches
    QIN Zhong, FANG Li, ZHANG Jia-en, LUO Ming-Zhu, ZHAO Ben-Liang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  452-459.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.006
    Abstract ( 730 )   PDF (387KB) ( 628 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 The objective of this study is to research population structure of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) and to provide a scientific basis not only for grasping the dynamics and developmental tendency of P. canaliculata (Lamarck), but also for evaluating the performance of snail control measures. 【Method】 Twelve experimental plots for four treatments with three replicates were set in double cropping rice area of Guangdong province, each plot covered an area of 100 m2. Three control measures including raising ducks in the rice field, application of molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake, together with blank control plot were arranged randomly in the plots, in which information on ranking population structure of P. canaliculata (Lamarck) and sex ratio were collected and analyzed. 【Result】 Molluscicides application treatment was helpful for immature snails control but noneffective for mature ones. Camellia oleifera cake could be effectively used for control of immature snails, but not as effective as for medium and adult snails. Variation of population structure of P. canaliculata (Lamarck) over the time in both molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake treatments exhibited greater instability when compared with the rice-duck integrated farming treatment and blank control plot, especially during the growth period of early rice. P. canaliculata (Lamarck) in the rice-duck farming plot was comprised primarily of mature snails, making a descent style group from a whole during early rice-growing period. Sex ratio of P. canaliculata (Lamarck) under the same treatment changed over time, while differed considerably among four treatments at the same time. For molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake treatments, sex ratios (female to male) of P. canaliculata (Lamarck) were relatively high, with greater fluctuations as time passed. 【Conclusion】 Rice-duck farming could provide a sustainable controlling on population of golden apple snails especially to the young and medium snails. However, after ducks are driven out of the experimental plot during full heading growth period, associated measures should be adopted according to specific conditions in paddy rice field for controlling reproduction and growth of P. canaliculata (Lamarck) in the later growth stage of rice plant, regardless of the early or late rice season.
    SOIL & FERTILIZER·WATER-SAVING IRRIGATION·AGROECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT
    Effects of Film Mulching and Different Ratios of Base Nitrogen to Dressing on Yield and Key Quality of Spring Maize in Dryland of the Loess Plateau
    WANG Yong, SONG Shang-You, FAN Ting-Lu, GAO Yu-Feng
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  460-`470.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.007
    Abstract ( 894 )   PDF (459KB) ( 770 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 The objective of this study was to provide principal evidence for combating drought and protecting the seedlings of spring maize based on experiments of soil water conservation by autumn film mulching and N application as basal fertilizer in autumn and dressing in spring. 【Method】 Experiments of two plastic film application models of autumn and spring mulching and N management were conducted in Loess Plateau dry highland from 1999 to 2010 and from 2001 to 2003, respectively. Water storage efficiency in 0-200 cm soil layers, the maize yields and the key quality were analyzed. 【Result】 The experimental results showed that autumn plastic film mulching could significantly improve soil wate storge efficiency compared with that of spring mulching. The soil water storage capacity of autumn mulching was 36.7 mm more than that of spring mulching, soil water storage efficiency achieved 78.4%. And maize yield and water use efficient (WUE) was 11 149.8 kg?hm-2 and 33.1 kg?hm-2?mm-1, improved by 16.7 percent and 14.9 percent, respectively. For a fixed amount of N application of 180 kg?hm-2, the WUE and grain proteins content under the combination of 72 kg?hm-2 autumn basal dressing and 108 kg?hm-2 spring top dressing were the highest. 【Conclusion】 Under the conditions of these experiments, in dry highland of Loess Plateau, autumn plastic film mulching had significant effects on spring maize yield, WUE and soil storage efficiency. The optimization of N fertilizer can increase maize grain yield and get good key nutrient quality synchronously.
    Application of Distributed Hydrological Model in Irrigation Management of Tuhai-Majia River Basin I. Parameter Calibration and Validation
    PAN Deng, REN Li
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  471-479.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.008
    Abstract ( 778 )   PDF (507KB) ( 970 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】The objective of this study is to establish a hydrological model of Tuhai-Majia river basin which will be a support for irrigation schedule optimization in this region. 【Method】 Firstly, using “Shuffled Complex Evolution” (SCE-UA) to calibrate crop parameter of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in Yucheng station and Hongmen station. Secondly, using actual evapotranspiration which calculated by remote sensing to analyze the sensitivity of parameters. Thirdly, using “Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Algorithm” (SUFI-2) to optimize the parameters and give its uncertainty analysis. Based on the calibrated parameters, considering the uncertainty of the model, the yield of long term simulation of winter wheat and summer maize rotation system was validated. 【Result】 The results of calibration of crop parameter showed that the relative error of yield of winter wheat and summer maize in Yucheng station were 7.02% and 16.60%, and in Hongmen station were 0.09% and 0.10%. The results of calibration of ET parameters and validation of yield showd that the accuracy of P_factor, R_factor and R2 were reasonable.【Conclusion】The good results of calibration and validation laid a firm foundation for the further research on water product function and irrigation regime optimization.
    Application of Distributed Hydrological Model in Irrigation Management of Tuhai-Majia River Basin II. Crop Water Production Function and Optimal Irrigation
    PAN Deng, REN Li
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  480-488.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.009
    Abstract ( 873 )   PDF (601KB) ( 475 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】Research of water production function and optimum irrigation in Tuhai-Majia river basin is very important. 【Method】 Based on the calibrated model -SWAT, a full irrigation schedule and nine deficit irrigation schedules were set up to simulate the water production function. Based on sensitivity index of winter wheat and summer maize, three irrigation scenarios were set to optimize the basic scenario. 【Result】 The results show that, in comparison with the basic scenario, the yield of rotation system maintained stable, 29.00% of the mean irrigation water could be saved and the mean WUE increased by 6.51% under the optimum irrigation regime. Compared with yearbook and historical scenario, the mean yield of rotation system increased by 8.32% and 11.24%, with historical scenario, the mean WUE of rotation system increased by 36.33%. 【Conclusion】 The optimized irrigation schedule can keep the yield of rotation system stable, save irrigation water effectively and increase WUE.
    HORTICULTURE
    Effects on the Iron Content and Photosynthetic Characteristics of the Leaves of Iron Chlorosis Apple Trees with Apple  Fermentation Broth
    LI Xiao-Meng, QI Ya-Ping, WANG Rong-Juan, YAO Yun-Cong, JI Qian-Long
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  489-495.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.010
    Abstract ( 861 )   PDF (372KB) ( 755 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】This study was conducted to discover the effectiveness on the correction of iron chlorosis to the leaves of young apple trees (M.domestica cv. Red Fuji /M.hupehensis var. Pingyiensis) with apple fruit fermentation broth. 【Method】In order to find out the effects of apple fruit fermentation broth on the content of chlorophyll, active iron and the changes of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and photosynthetic parameters in leaves, the experiments were carried using the 2 years old apple trees, root application with apple fruit fermentation broth as treatments. 【Result】 The results showed that apple fruit fermentation broth remedied the iron chlorosis of young apple trees obviously, and significantly increased a series of parameters of leaves such as content of chlorophyll, active iron, specific leaf weight, actual photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(ΦPSⅡ),  net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomata conductance (Gs).【Conclusion】Apple fermentation broth had lower pH of alkaline soil, and has some ability to chelate iron. It was conducive to apple trees of iron absorption, transport and use, and had a good correction effect to the iron chlorosis by applying apple fermentation broth+FeSO4 to roots.
    Genetic Relationship of 43 Cultivars of Viola tricolor and Viola cornuta Using SRAP Marker
    WANG Tao, XU Jin, ZHANG Xi-Xi, ZHAO Liang-Jun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  496-502.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.011
    Abstract ( 1032 )   PDF (436KB) ( 579 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】The molecular marker system-SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) was used to study genetic relationship and investigate genetic backgrounds of Viola tricolor and Viola cornuta for providing a theoretical basis for cultivars identification,intellectual property protection,parent selection and genetic improvement. 【Method】 Genetic relationship of 43 Viola tricolor and Viola cornuta cultivars were analyzed using SRAP marker. 【Result】 Twenty-one primer pairs selected from 88 primer pairs amplified 500 polymorphic bands with an average of 23.8 polymorphic bands per primer pair. Moreover, Jaccard´s similarity coefficient ranged from 0.62 to 0.88. The 43 cultivars could be divided into 4 groups when the genetic distance was 0.73. Viola tricolor and Viola cornuta could be isolated absolutely. The flower color was a principal factor for the cluster result. 【Conclusion】 The genetic relationship and genetic diversity of Viola tricolor and Viola cornuta could be assessed efficiently by SRAP markers.
    STORAGE·FRESH-KEEPING·PROCESSING
    Effects of Microstructure Change on the Texture of Cheddar Cheese During Ripening
    ZHENG Yuan-Rong, LIU Zhen-Min, MO Bei-Hong, GAO Hong-Yan, SUN Ke-Jie
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  503-508.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.012
    Abstract ( 863 )   PDF (550KB) ( 1022 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 The influence of microstructure during 12 months ripening on the textural and functional characteristics of cheddar cheeses was investigated. 【Method】 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualize the changes in the microstructure of Cheddar cheese during the ripening. The textural characteristics including hardness, adhesiveness, resilience, chewiness and cohesiveness were assessed by instrumental Texture Profile Analysis (TPA). 【Result】 Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the size of the empty holes in the protein matrix and fat globule became smaller, and long chain of protein was shorter. Moreover, the protein matrix had a coarser and less continuous appearance with a higher level of primary proteolysis during the period of ripening. The results showed that the hardness, adhesiveness and chewiness rose averagely by 22%, 17% and 28% per 3 months during ripening, respectively, and had a significant difference (P<0.05). The resilience declined averagely by -12% per 3 months, and had a significant difference (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 The microstructure contributed positively to all the textural characteristics of the cheeses.
    ANIMAL SCIENCE·RESOURCE INSECT
    Changing Laws and Correlations of Shearing Force and Feed Characteristics of Maize Plant
    WANG Zhao-Feng, YANG Zai-Bin, YANG Wei-Ren, ZHANG Gui-Guo, JIANG Shu-Zhen, ZHANG Chong-Yu, LIU Li, CUI Xiu-Mei
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  509-521.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.013
    Abstract ( 741 )   PDF (349KB) ( 490 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 The objectives of this study were to investigate the changing laws and the relationships between shearing force and nutritional ingredient of growing maize plant, and further prove confirmation that shearing force is one way of evaluating nutritional ingredient of forage. 【Method】 The shearing force, linear density and chemical compositions of leaf, pericladium and stem of three varieties of maize, each of 24 plants, were measured at 5-day intervals during the 78-108th d. Meanwhile, three sheep fitted with permanent cannulas in rumen were used to determine in situ degradability in 48 h of the nutrients of three chief vegetable organs at the milk stage, dough stage and physiological maturity stage. 【Result】 The results showed that linear density and shearing force of stem linear increased with maize growth and there was a difference among varieties (P<0.05). Shearing force of pericladium linear increased (P<0.05), and the linear density of leaf and pericladium linear reduced (P<0.01). There was a significant correlation between shearing force with linear density of pericladium and stem (P<0.05). The contents of DM, OM, NDF, ADF and GE in pericladium and stem on the base of fresh matter linear increased, contents of CP linear reduced, there was a difference among varieties (P<0.05), and the contents of DM, OM, NDF and ADF in leaf had a linear increase (P<0.05), during the 78-108th d. of maize growth. A significant correlation was found between shearing force and chemical compositions of pericladium and stem (P<0.05). In situ degradability of leaf decreased with increasing shearing force, and there was a difference among the three chief vegetable organs (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 The shearing force, chemical compositions and in situ degradability of maize plant showed a dynamic change during the 78-108th d. stage. Shearing force can be employed to predict the chemical composition and utilization of growing maize plant, but different organs and varieties should be taken into consideration.
    Variables Determining Average the Annual Musk Production in   Captive Alpine Musk Deer
    LI Hong-Liang, LI Yong, ZHOU Mi, ZHANG Hong-Yong, SHI Zhe-Mei, MENG Xiu-Xiang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  522-528.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.014
    Abstract ( 990 )   PDF (281KB) ( 623 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 The objective of the study is to explore and determine the musk production patterns and potential influences of variables such as age, origin, management system and musk-extraction season in captive male Alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus). 【Method】 During the musk-extraction (October or March) at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm of Gansu Province, musk production and individual identification data were collected from captive male Alpine musk deers (the water of new extracted musk was absorbed, and then the musk was weighed). 【Result】 The annual average musk production (AMP) per animal was (7.90±0.17) g with a range of 0.00 g to 34.20 g (n=732). The origin of the individual had an influence on AMP, with male wild-captured (WC) individuals recording significantly higher values ((8.76±0.27) g, n=272) than those of captive bred (CB) males ((7.39±0.22) g, n=460) (P<0.05), and the origin of parents had no effect on AMP (P>0.05). Insignificant differences were found in AMP between musk-extraction seasons (P>0.05), but differences in yearly management strategies had a significant impact on AMP (P<0.05). The average musk production differed with age, the prime age being from 1.5 to 8.5 years old. 【Conclusion】The most influential variables on musk production in musk deer farming are individual origin, age and management measures, with insignificant results suggesting parental origin and musk-extraction season had little impact on production (P>0.05).
    cDNA Cloning, Sequence Analysis and Tissue Specific Expression of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Type 1 Receptor (VIPR-1) in Quails
    ZHOU Min, LI Ying, SHEN Xu, XU Hai-Ping, ZHANG Cheng-Guang, ZHANG Xi-Quan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  529-539.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.015
    Abstract ( 752 )   PDF (884KB) ( 907 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】Vasoactive intestinal peptide type 1 receptor (VIPR-1) plays an important role in poultry reproduction, but the gene and its analysis have not been reported in quail prior to this study. The objective of this study was to clone the cDNA of quail VIPR-1, analyze its sequence and tissue expression pattern. 【Method】 Based on comparative genomics, the cDNA sequence of quail VIPR-1 was obtained by RT-PCR and RACE PCR. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences were analyzed and compared with that of other species. The expression levels of VIPR-1 in eight quail tissues were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. 【Result】 A 2 427 bp cDNA of the quail VIPR-1 was cloned and the length of its coding region was 1 341 bp, encoding a receptor precursor of 446 amino acids. There are 41 nucleotide differences in the coding region of VIPR-1 between quail and chicken, causing 4 amino acid differences in VIPR-1 protein. The quail VIPR-1 shows high amino acid sequence identity to that of chicken (99.1%), turkey (92.2%), and zebra finch (88.0%). Meanwhile, quail VIPR-1 also shares 60%-78% amino acid sequence identity to that of other species. The phylogenetic tree of VIPR-1 was consistent with the evolutionary relationship among species. The physical and chemical properties of quail VIPR-1 indicated that VIPR-1 was a basic protein. The secondary structure of quail VIPR-1 was made of α-helixes, β-sheets and β-turns. This protein contains a putative signal peptide (MKSARLRVLLPLLGCLLSAASS) in its N-terminus, 7 transmembrane domains, and a C-terminal hydrophilic domain. Real-time quantitative PCR assay demonstrated that the VIPR-1 mRNA could be detected in all 8 quail tissues examined with the highest expression level being noted in small intestinal.【Conclusion】The full length cDNA of quail VIPR-1 was cloned and the highest expression level of VIPR-1 was detected in small intestinal. In addition, the cholesyerol binding sites were identified on transmembrane domains of quail VIPR-1.
    Multilevel Nonlinear Mixed Effect Model for Evaluation of   Muscovy Ducks Body Weight for Growth
    ZHANG Yuan-Yue, HE Xi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  540-547.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.016
    Abstract ( 959 )   PDF (315KB) ( 751 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 Research on quantificationally describing the model of body weight growth of native Muscovy ducks was carried out. 【Method】 Four body weight growth models were designed using Richards growth function, including 2-level nonlinear mixed effect model considering individual and gender (ModelⅠ), 2-level nonlinear mixed effect model considering individual and gender with autoregressive correlation structure (Model Ⅱ), 1-level nonlinear mixed effect model considering individual (Model Ⅲ), and 0-level nonlinear fixed effect model ignoring individual and gender (Model Ⅳ), to describe the growth characters of individual and population of Muscovy ducks. Information criteria,error variance, average measured and fitted values at different ages, and estimates obtained by fitting the models and growth parameters were compared. 【Result】 The results showed that Model Ⅱ had the best effect overall fit. It was estimated by the model that the birth weight, the mature weight, and the inflexion point age, the body weight and the absolute growth rate at maximum growth rate of male and female native Muscovy ducks were 40 g, 3 504 g, 43 d, 1 523 g, and 65 g•d-1, and 40 g, 2 209 g, 36 d, 977 g, and 45 g•d-1, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Multilevel Richards nonlinear mixed effect model considering individual and gender with autoregressive correlation structure was the best growth model for fitting the body growth of male or female native Muscovy ducks.
    VETERINARY SCIENCE
    Establishment of a Bird Experiment Model for Chicken Acute Fibrosarcomas Induced by ALV-J Associated Virus
    LI Chuan-Long, ZHANG Heng, ZHAO Peng, CUI Zhi-Zhong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  548-555.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.017
    Abstract ( 713 )   PDF (381KB) ( 575 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 An experiment was carried out to prove that the field chicken fibrosarcoma mass contains acute fibrosarcoma-inducing ALV-J associated virus. 【Method】 One-day-old 817 hybrid chickens were inoculated through different routes with tumor suspension filtrate containing ALV-J associated virus. One-day-old 817 hybrid chickens and SPF Leghan chickens were inoculated subcutaneously with tumor suspension filtrate containing ALV-J associated virus in different doses. Continuous observation of tumor development was made in 30 days. 【Result】 In the groups of inoculations through the subcutaneous, in muscule and intra-abdominal, the tumor incidence was 100% (20/20), 95.2% (20/21), and 100% (20/20), respectively. The tumor incidence of 817 hybrids and SPF chickens inoculated with undiluted tumor extract filtrate was 100% (10/10). When birds were inoculated with tumor extracts in 1﹕10 and 1﹕100, tumor rates were still in the range of 80% (8/10) to 100% (10/10) for both chicken lines. When birds were inoculated with tumor extracts in 1﹕1 000, tumor rates decreased to 40% (4/10) or 50% (5/10). No tumor development was observed in 30 days when birds were inoculated with the tumor extract of 1﹕10 000 dilution. However, there were 2/6 chickens developed tumor mass when inoculated with supernatant from tumor extract-infected DF-1 cell culture. Histopathology indicated that the induced tumors were typical fibrosarcoma.【Conclusion】The fibrosarcoma tissues of 817 hybrid chickens of field case contained ALV-J associated acutely tumorigenic virus. Both tumor extract filtrate or extract-infected DF-1 cell culture supernatant could induce acute fibrosarcomas in chickens of different lines, and the tumor started to appear as early as 7 days after inoculation. The dynamics of the fibrosarcoma development and tumor rates were closely related to doses of the tumor extracts in inoculation.
    Expression of Nod-2 Receptor in Periparturient Dairy Cows and Its Effect on Neutrophils Respiratory Burst
    LI Wen-Wen, LU Zheng, TAN Xun, LI Jun-Jun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  556-561.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.018
    Abstract ( 859 )   PDF (350KB) ( 778 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 Dairy cows are more susceptible to bacterial diseases around parturition. The present study was conducted to investigate the expression of Nod-2 in the polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) from periparturient cows and its effect on PMN respiratory burst, with the purpose to evaluate whether the Nod-2 receptor contributes to the increased susceptibility of periparturient cows to bacterial diseases. 【Method】 The Nod-2 mRNA in PMN from periparturient and non- periparturient cows was detected by RT-PCR. Function of respiratory burst in PMNs was evaluated by flow cytometry following the stimulation of the whole blood with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and the ligand of Nod-2, muramyl dipeptide (MDP), respectively. 【Result】 It was found that the blood PMN from periparturient cows had decreased Nod-2 mRNA expression than that from non-periparturient lactating cows (P<0.05), and their ability of respiratory burst responding to PMA stimulation was decreased (P<0.05). Upon the MDP stimulation, PMNs from periparturient cows showed decreased respiratory burst as well. 【Conclusion】 It was suggested that the reduced Nod-2 mRNA expression might contribute to the increased susceptibility to bacterial infection in periparturient cows.
    Effect of Sub-chronic Cadmium Exposure on Liver Biochemical Index in Wuzhishan Pig
    WU Xiao-Sheng, WEI Shuai, WEI Yi-Min, GUO Bo-Li, YANG Ming-Qi, LIU Xiao-Ling
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  562-568.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.019
    Abstract ( 679 )   PDF (279KB) ( 594 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】 The objective of this study was to look for a sensitive monitoring index of liver injury induced by cadmium and provide a scientific basis for cadmium monitoring and prevention by studying the influences of subchronic cadmium exposure on liver biochemical indexes.【Method】Twenty healthy 3-month-old Wuzhishan Pig (WZSP )were divided randomly into 5 groups, and then fed with basal diet containing 0.0 mg•kg-1 (groupⅠ), 0.5 mg•kg-1 (group Ⅱ), 2.0 mg•kg-1 (group Ⅲ), 8.0 mg•kg-1 (group Ⅳ), 32.0 mg•kg-1 (group Ⅴ) doses of cadmium respectively over one hundred days. Blood were collected every 20 days to determine the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GGT). Blood cadmium and liver cadmium were determined at the end of experiment. 【Result】 Compared with group Ⅰ, ALT activity in groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ increased significantly after exposing to cadmium for 80 days (P<0.05), followed by 60 days for group Ⅳ and 20 days for group Ⅴ but not within 40 days. AST activities in groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ increased significantly after exposing to cadmium for 20 days (P<0.05) but not within 40 days (P>0.05), while groups Ⅳ and Ⅴ increased significantly within 100 days (P<0.05). GGT activities in groups Ⅱ, Ⅳ, and Ⅴ all increased significantly after exposing to cadmium for 100 days (P<0.05). Liver cadmium and blood cadmium in groups Ⅳ and Ⅴ increased significantly compared to group Ⅰ(P<0.05). There was a significant correlation  among cadmium exposure, blood cadmium and liver cadmium at the 0.01 level, ALT activity was significantly correlated with cadmium exposure and liver cadmium at the 0.05 level. 【Conclusion】 Liver injury can be induced by subchronic cadmium exposure at concentrations higher than 0.5 mg•kg-1. Serum ALT activity and blood cadmium can be used respectively as a liver effective biomarker and exposure biomarker of liver injury induced by subchronic cadmium exposure.
    AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY & MANAGMENT
    An Empirical Analysis on the Decomposition of Output Growth in Wheat Production of Agricultural Household: A Case Study in Henan Province
    XIA Hai-Long, GUO Yan-Zhi, GUO Jing-Li
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  569-574.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.020
    Abstract ( 640 )   PDF (265KB) ( 667 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】The source of wheat output growth in Henan Province was analyzed in this paper.【Method】Using a stochastic frontier production function model, this paper decomposed the rate of contribution of each factor caused the growth of wheat production using an output growth decomposition approach by farm-level panel data collected from the fixed observation points of Ministry of Agriculture in Henan Province. 【Result】Empirical results show that the output growth of wheat production is driven by the growth of input factors accounted for 3.75% and total factor productivity growth accounted for 96.25%, in which its 61.75% and 34.5% are from changes in the technological advances and the technical efficiency changes, respectively, during the period of 2003-2008.【Conclusion】The output of wheat production in Henan Province is driven by the total factor productivity growth, both from the changes in technological advances and the changes of technical efficiency.
    RESEARCH NOTES
    Identification of the Resistance of Oats to Aphid and Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus and Evaluation of Its Utilization
    GUO Jian-Guo, GUO Man-Ku, GUO Cheng, WEI Hong-Yu, LIU Yong-Gang, HE Su-Qin, ZHAO Gui-Qin
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  575-583.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.021
    Abstract ( 842 )   PDF (310KB) ( 618 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】This objective of this experiment is to study the resistance of different oats to aphid and Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV), and to screen and extend a batch of oat varieties with broad-spectrum resistance so as to ensure production safety. 【Method】 The experimental materials of oats were planted in the appraisal nursery in the same line spacing by furrower, naturally and artificially inoculated viruliferous aphid. The numbers of aphid and disease severity at filling stage were investigated, the ratio of rating scale infested by aphid and average severity were calculated, and the resistance to aphid and BYDV were appraised.【Result】No materials that were immune to aphid and BYDV in 72 oats materials. Fourteen oats were resistant to aphid, 58 oats were susceptible to aphid. In treatment of naturally infested by aphid, 9 oats were resistant to BYDV, 63 oats were susceptible to BYDV, while in treatment of artificially inoculated by viruliferous aphid, 6 oats were resistant to BYDV, 66 oats were susceptible to BYDV. 【Conclusion】 Very few materials were resistant to aphid and BYDV, and there were some correlations between resistance to aphid and resistance to BYDV, artificial inoculation increased disease severity than natural infestation, and reduced resource utilization. QO245-7 and Baiyan 2 were moderately susceptible to aphid, but they were consistently resistant to BYDV. They should be given priority in popularization in large area in future.
    Effect of Salicylic Acid Dipping on Postharvest Diseases and Phenylpropanoid Pathway in Muskmelon Fruits
    FAN Cun-Fei, BI Yang, WANG Yun-Fei, REN Ya-Lin, YANG Zhi-Min, WANG Yi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  584-589.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.022
    Abstract ( 996 )   PDF (330KB) ( 861 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】The effects of salicylic acid (SA) dipping on postharvest disease resistance and phenylpropanoid pathway in muskmelon fruit was investigated in this paper. 【Method】 Muskmelons (Cucumis melo L. cv.Yujinxiang) were dipped at 4 mmol•L-1 of SA for 10 min. The inhibition effect of SA dipping on the lesion diameter of fruits inoculated with Trichothecium roseum and natural incidence of melons were investigated during storage at room temperature. The key enzyme activities and substances accumulation of phenylpropanoid pathway in fruits were also detected. 【Result】 SA significantly decreased the lesion diameter of fruits inoculated with T. roseum, and the natural incidence of fruits during storage at room temperature. The treatment increased the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) and cinnamate-4hydroxylase (C4H) in fruits. The activity of C4H and 4CL was 1.0 and 2.8 times higher in treated fruits than that in the control after 6 days of treatment, and PAL activity was 1.6 times of the control after 10 days of treatment. SA significantly enhanced the content of total phenolic and lignin. The content of lignin and total phenolic was 30.6% and 30.0% higher in treated fruits than that in the control after 4 and 10 days of treatment; however, no significant difference was found in flavanoid content between the treatment and the control. 【Conclusion】Postharvest SA treatment could increase the resistance in melon fruits against postharvest diseases by inducing phenylpropanoid pathway.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Eugenol Synthase Gene (RhEGS1) in Cut Rose (Rosa hybrida)
    YAN Hui-Jun, ZHANG Hao, JIAN Hong-Ying, WANG Qi-Gang, QIU Xian-Qin, ZHANG Ting, TANG Kai-Xue
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  590-597.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.023
    Abstract ( 790 )   PDF (656KB) ( 993 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
     【Objective】 The objective of this study was to clone and identify eugenol synthase gene (RhEGS1) related to flower scent metabolism in rose. The results will provide a foundation for further studying the gene’s function and biochemical characters. 【Method】 The full-length cDNA sequence of RhEGS1 was amplified by degenerate primers based on EGS from other plants and RACE cloning technology. The expression patterns of RhEGS1 in different tissues and different developmental stages were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, prokaryotic expression vector was successfully constructed by Gateway cloning technology. 【Result】 The full-length of RhEGS1 was 1 207 bp, containing a 927 bp ORF which encoded a 83.87% and 81.55% homology putative EGS protein with 309 amino acids. Phylogeny analysis showed that RhEGS1 shared with CbEGS2 in Clarkia breweri and PhEGS1 in Petunia hybrida, respectively. RhEGS1 had a highest transcript level in stamens at blooming stage, and lower levels in those of bud at senescence stage. The expression of predicted 35 kD recombinant protein was induced by isopropyl β-D-thiogalacto-pyranoside (IPTG) at a final concentration of 0.5 mmol•L-1 for 4 h at 37℃. 【Conclusion】 The RhEGS1 was isolated from rose stamen and shared the conserved domains with other EGS. It showed the highest transcript level in stamens at blooming stage, and demonstrated active expression in prokaryotic cells.
    An Empirical Study on Evaluation and Determinants of Customer Loyalty Degree in Pork Brand Chain Store: Based on Questionnaire Survey Data from Consumers in Nanjing
    WANG Hai-Tao, WANG Kai, WANG Yong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(3):  598-606.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.03.024
    Abstract ( 886 )   PDF (302KB) ( 638 )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    【Objective】The brand pork store’s consumer behavior such as customer loyalty and its influencing factors was studied.【Method】Structural equation model was used to analyze the variable about customer loyalty in brand pork store.【Result】The brand pork chain store’s customer satisfaction had the multi-dimensions and between them there was a covariant relationship. Customer satisfaction with the quality of pork products was the largest total effect to customer loyalty of the brand pork chain store, customer trust had the largest direct effect to customer loyalty, and the switch cost had a positive impact on customer loyalty. Simultaneously, it was found that customer’s individual characteristics (age and income) played a regulating role in the evaluation of customer loyalty degree.【Conclusion】According to the result, brand pork industry should focus on ensuring the pork quality to increase customer satisfaction and relationship trust, meanwhile, taking into account the consumer characteristics such as gender, age and income to make market segmentation and increase customer switching costs and customer brand loyalty.