Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (17): 3317-3330.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.17.007


Effects of Multiple Green Manure After Wheat Combined with Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilization on Wheat Yield, Grain Quality, and Nitrogen Utilization

ZHANG WenXia(), LI Pan, YIN Wen(), CHEN GuiPing(), FAN ZhiLong, HU FaLong, FAN Hong, HE Wei   

  1. College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science, Lanzhou 730070
  • Received:2023-01-09 Accepted:2023-02-21 Online:2023-09-01 Published:2023-09-08
  • Contact: YIN Wen, CHEN GuiPing


【Objective】 Aiming at the problems of large nitrogen input, single fertilizer source, low nitrogen utilization rate, and poor quality of wheat in spring wheat cultivation in Hexi areas of Gansu Province, the objective of this study is to explore the effects of suitable green manure and reduced nitrogen fertilizer cultivation techniques on grain yield and quality, and nitrogen absorption and utilization of spring wheat, and to provide a theoretical basis for high yield, high quality, and green production of wheat in Hexi irrigation areas. 【Method】 A split plot experiment was conducted from 2019 to 2021 in the Hexi oasis irrigation areas of Gansu Province. Two cropping patterns of multiple green manure after wheat (W-G) and sole wheat (W) were set in the main plot. There were five N fertilizer levels in the sub-plot: 100% of conventional N fertilizer by the farmer (180 kg·hm-2, N4), 85% of conventional N fertilizer (N3), 70% of conventional N fertilizer (N2), 55% of conventional N fertilizer (N1), and no N fertilizer (N0). 【Result】 Multiple green manure after wheat combined with 85% N application (W-G-N3) was effectively increased wheat grain yield and biomass. The grain yield of W-G-N3 was increased by 16.7%-18.4% and 13.6%-34.4%, respectively, compared with the 85% N application (W-N3) and conventional N application (W-N4) treatments for the sole wheat. The biomass of W-G-N3 was increased by 11.3% (2020) and 5.2%-11.6% (2020 to 2021), respectively, compared with the W-N3 and W-N4 treatments. The increase of grain yield was greater than that of biomass, thus, the W-G-N3 treatment had higher harvest index, which was 4.9%-15.9% and 8.0%-20.5% higher than that of W-N3 and W-N4 treatments. Meanwhile, the W-G-N3 treatment improved grain quality of wheat by increasing protein content, sedimentation value, and wet gluten content, among which, the protein content, sedimentation value, and wet gluten content of W-G-N3 were increased by 12.3%-16.1%, 28.7%-47.2%, and 10.7%-11.1%, respectively, compared with W-N3; The protein content of W-G-N3 was increased by 8.9%-12.4% compared with W-N4, but the differences in sedimentation value and wet gluten content between W-G-N3 and W-N4 were not significant. In addition, the W-G-N3 treatment was beneficial to promote nitrogen uptake and conversion to grain yield in wheat compared with W-N3 and W-N4 treatments, in which the N uptake was increased by 42.2%-58.9% and 35.2%-45.0%, N use efficiency was increased by 12.0%-20.6% and 5.9%-20.4%, respectively, and N partial factor productivity was increased by 3.6%-18.3% and 28.1%-58.1%, respectively. The W-G-N3 treatment could compensate for the reduction of N agronomic efficiency, which was 74.2%-80.0% higher than W-G-N4 treatment. The correlation analysis showed that multiple green manure after wheat combined with moderate reduction of N fertilizer increased grain yield by promoting efficient nitrogen uptake and utilization, and also significantly improved grain nutritional quality. 【Conclusion】 The combination of multiple green manure after wheat with 85% (153 kg·hm-2) nitrogen application is the suitable cropping pattern and nitrogen application level to boost wheat yield, improve wheat grain quality, and increase nitrogen use efficiency in Hexi oasis irrigated areas.

Key words: green manure returning to field, nitrogen application level, grain yield, nutritional quality, nitrogen utilization

Fig. 1

Dynamic of precipitation and air temperature during the wheat growing period in the experimental area in 2020 and 2021"

Fig. 2

Differences in yield and harvest index of wheat under different cropping patterns and N fertilizer levels W-G and W represent multiple green manure after wheat and sole wheat; N0, N1, N2, N3, and N4 levels are no N application, 55%, 70%, 85%, and 100% N of conventional N fertilizer by the farmer, respectively. Different lowercase letters in the same year mean significant differences at P<0.05 level among treatments. The same as below"

Table 1

Differences in wheat grain quality under different cropping patterns and N fertilizer levels"

Cropping pattern
N fertilizer level
Ash content (%)
Protein content (%)
Wet gluten content (%)
Starch content (%)
Falling number
Volume weight (g·L-1)
Sedimentation value (mL)
2020 W-G N0 0.480e 10.91e 23.16de 63.17d 274e 45.50e 820bc 10.31e
N1 0.500b 11.59d 25.12c 63.46cd 308a 49.93b 835a 12.02cd
N2 0.490cd 11.62d 25.32c 63.20d 288c 51.06b 812c 12.78c
N3 0.527a 14.36a 28.38b 62.15e 279d 56.21a 815c 19.08a
N4 0.497bc 11.56d 25.20c 63.18d 292b 49.33bc 818c 12.47c
W N0 0.487de 10.87e 22.90e 63.93b 270f 47.92cd 817c 11.60d
N1 0.480e 10.51f 22.32e 63.71bc 292b 47.35d 824b 10.83e
N2 0.493bcd 10.87e 23.80d 64.48a 281d 44.39e 835a 10.28e
N3 0.527a 12.79c 25.64c 62.44e 287c 54.96a 817c 14.83b
N4 0.533a 13.10b 29.44a 62.32e 247g 55.53a 798d 18.68a
2021 W-G N0 0.462e 10.16d 21.16de 63.98ab 229b 42.76e 804ab 8.08d
N1 0.490c 10.74bcd 22.78cde 63.77ab 235ab 44.16de 800ab 8.53cd
N2 0.500b 11.49bc 24.43bcd 63.23abc 235ab 45.74cde 801ab 12.68b
N3 0.502b 13.56a 29.70a 62.77bc 210c 48.58bc 794bc 13.69b
N4 0.511a 11.75b 25.56bc 61.88c 238ab 50.28b 789c 17.42a
W N0 0.471d 9.99de 20.78e 64.58a 225bc 41.96e 803ab 5.66e
N1 0.489c 10.50cd 22.10de 63.22abc 251a 42.27e 801ab 7.41de
N2 0.471d 9.72e 20.35e 63.93ab 234ab 47.14bcd 807a 8.61cd
N3 0.500b 11.68b 26.73ab 63.53ab 220bc 48.41bc 800ab 9.30cd
N4 0.510a 11.42bc 22.60cde 61.80c 233ab 54.78a 780d 10.48c
显著性(P值)Significance (P value)
种植模式Cropping pattern (C) NS ** * NS NS NS NS **
施氮水平N application level (N) ** ** ** NS NS ** NS **
种植模式×施氮水平C×N ** ** NS NS NS ** NS NS

Fig. 3

Effect of multiple green manure after wheat on nitrogen uptake by reduced nitrogen wheat"

Fig. 4

Effect of multiple green manure after wheat on N fertilizer use efficiency by reduced nitrogen wheat"

Table 2

Correlation of wheat grain yield, quality, and nitrogen utilization under different cropping patterns and N fertilizer levels"

蛋白质含量PC 灰分含量
硬度H 0.628**
蛋白质含量PC 0.757** 0.724**
灰分含量AC 0.668** 0.797** 0.825**
沉降值SV 0.682** 0.785** 0.797** 0.801**
湿面筋含量WGC 0.759** 0.692** 0.963** 0.797** 0.781**
植株吸氮量NU 0.807** 0.407** 0.568** 0.444** 0.562** 0.527**
氮肥利用率NUE 0.730** 0.295* 0.450** 0.411** 0.384** 0.424** 0.631**
氮肥偏生产力NPFP 0.142 -0.387** -0.107 -0.240 -0.246 -0.059 0.045 0.299*
氮肥农学效率NAE 0.063 0.295* 0.175 0.227 -0.024 0.214 -0.429** 0.098 -0.297*
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