Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (12): 2262-2273.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.12.003

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Effects of Cultivation Modes on Soil Physicochemical Properties and Nitrogen Balance in Wheat Fields Under Long-Term Positioning Conditions

GUO XinHu1(), MA Jing1, LI ZhongFeng1, CHU JinPeng1, XU HaiCheng2, JIA DianYong3, DAI XingLong1(), HE MingRong1()   

  1. 1 College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology/Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Taian 271018, Shandong
    2 Weifang University of Science and Technology, Weifang 262799, Shandong
    3 Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061, Henan
  • Received:2022-10-21 Accepted:2023-01-08 Online:2023-06-16 Published:2023-06-27


【Objective】 From the 2009-2010 wheat growing season, four cultivation modes were designed and set up. The effects of cultivation modes on soil physical and chemical properties, nitrogen nutrition index of winter wheat, nitrogen supply and demand balance in wheat field, uptake and utilization of nitrogen and grain yield were investigated, in order to provide a theoretical guidance for further optimizing the soil-crop system integrated management mode.【Method】Four cultivation modes were designed: local farmer mode (T1), improvement mode based on farmers (T2), high-yield and higher-yield mode regardless of production cost (T3), and soil-crop system integrated management mode (T4).【Result】After 13 wheat-maize growing seasons, the soil bulk density of surface soil for T1, T2, T3 and T4 modes decreased by 6.21%, 9.80%, 12.25% and 13.56%, respectively; the content of organic matter for four modes increased by 21.88%, 26.80%, 32.05% and 36.39%, respectively; the corresponding increases were 34.16%, 12.38%, 39.60% and 20.79% for the contents of total nitrogen; 47.85%, 48.87%, 74.49% and 62.21% for the contents of alkali-hydrolysable nitrogen, respectively; 62.73%, 36.56%, 297.93% and 68.68% for the contents of available phosphorus; 14.36%, 40.00%, 221.20% and 59.60% for the contents of available potassium, respectively. The increases of 33.96%, 10.32%, 52.77% and 19.49% were observed in the inorganic nitrogen accumulation in the 0-100 cm soil layer, respectively. Correspondingly, the pH for T1, T2, T3 and T4 modes decreased from 7.50 to 6.28, 6.68, 5.35 and 6.64, respectively. There were significant differences in grain yield and nitrogen uptake and utilization among the four cultivation modes in 2020-2022 growing season. Compared with T1 mode, the grain yield of T2, T3 and T4 modes increased by 14.14%, 27.65% and 22.52%, respectively; the nitrogen use efficiency increased by 54.80%, 19.97% and 49.15%, respectively; the nitrogen recovery efficiency increased by 72.95%, 37.54% and 48.15%, respectively; the nitrogen surplus decreased by 49.76%, 11.62% and 44.14%, respectively; the nitrogen surplus rate decreased by 24.63%, 11.62% and 26.68%, respectively. The whole plant at anthesis stage and spikes at maturity stage under T4 mode were in nitrogen supply and demand balance.【Conclusion】After 13 wheat-maize growing seasons, the soil acidification trend of 0-20 cm was obvious, and the bulk density of surface soil decreased, but the contents of organic matter, total nitrogen and available nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium increased for the all four cultivation modes. Meanwhile, the accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in 0-100 cm soil layer increased accordingly. Compared with other three cultivation modes, a synergistic improvement was obtained under T4 mode in soil physicochemical properties, wheat grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency. However, the nitrogen use efficiency at present under T4 mode was not high enough and still needed to be further improved. As showed by present study, further synergistic optimization in grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency could not be achieved only by reducing nitrogen input.

Key words: soil physicochemical property, wheat grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency, nitrogen nutrition index, nitrogen balance

Table 1

The planting density, sowing date and fertilizer management under four cultivation modes"

Sowing date (M-D)
Total fertilizer
rate (kg·hm-2)
Base fertilizer
rate (kg·hm-2)
Top dressing rates (stages)
T1 冬小麦
Winter wheat
225 10-05 N 315 189 126 (R)
P2O5 120 120 0
K2O 30 30 0
Summer maize
6.00 06-10 N 225 0 225 (J)
P2O5 45 0 45 (J)
K2O 75 0 75 (J)
T2 冬小麦
Winter wheat
300 10-13 N 210 105 105 (J)
P2O5 90 90 0
K2O 75 75 0
Summer maize
6.75 06-15 N 160.5 45 115.5 (J)
P2O5 45 45 0
K2O 75 45 30 (J)
T3 冬小麦
Winter wheat
375 10-10 N 315 126 189 (J)
P2O5 210 210 0
K2O 150 90 60 (J)
Summer maize
8.70 06-15 N 450 0 135 (J) + 225 (VT) + 90 (VT7)
P2O5 150 60 90 (J)
K2O 300 150 150 (J)
T4 冬小麦
Winter wheat
450 10-15 N 240 96 144 (J)
P2O5 120 120 0
K2O 75 45 30 (J)
Summer maize
7.50 06-15 N 184.5 30 90 (J) + 64.5 (VT)
P2O5 55.5 30 25.5 (J)
K2O 130.5 30 70.5 (J) + 30 (VT)

Table 2

Effects of cultivation mode on soil physicochemical properties in 0-20 cm soil layer before sowing of winter wheat"

Bulk density
Organic matter
Total N
N (mg·kg-1)
Available P
Available K
2009-2010 T1 1.53a 7.50a 15.90a 1.01a 65.70a 19.60a 69.65a
T2 1.53a 7.50a 15.90a 1.01a 65.70a 19.60a 69.65a
T3 1.53a 7.50a 15.90a 1.01a 65.70a 19.60a 69.65a
T4 1.53a 7.50a 15.90a 1.01a 65.70a 19.60a 69.65a
2020-2021 T1 1.44a 6.34b 19.09d 1.34a 98.33c 30.83b 81.51d
T2 1.38b 6.71c 19.84c 1.13c 100.71c 26.53c 102.06c
T3 1.35c 5.45a 20.72b 1.39a 115.48a 74.04a 237.87a
T4 1.33d 6.68c 21.32a 1.21b 108.54b 32.69b 113.18b
2021-2022 T1 1.43a 6.22b 19.67d 1.37a 95.95c 32.96b 77.80d
T2 1.38b 6.64c 20.48c 1.14c 94.90c 27.00c 92.96c
T3 1.34c 5.26a 21.27b 1.43a 113.80a 81.95a 209.56a
T4 1.32d 6.60c 22.05a 1.23b 104.60b 33.55b 109.14b

Fig. 1

Effects of cultivation modes on inorganic nitrogen accumulation in 0-100 cm soil layer before sowing of winter wheat The error bars represent standard deviation of four replicates. The different letters on the bars in the same year are significantly different at P<0.05 level as determined by the LSD test (n = 4)"

Table 3

Effects of cultivation mode on nitrogen nutrient index in winter wheat growth period from 2020 to 2022"

stage a
stage b
花后15 d
15 days post anthesis
花后25 d
25 days post anthesis
2020-2021 T1 0.88a 1.14a 0.96c 0.69c 0.76c 0.83c 0.90d
T2 0.80c 0.90d 0.92d 0.69c 0.76c 0.84c 0.93c
T3 0.89a 1.05b 1.14a 0.77a 0.86a 0.96a 1.04a
T4 0.85b 0.94c 1.00b 0.72b 0.81b 0.90b 0.99b
2021-2022 T1 0.91a 1.08a 0.91c 0.68c 0.70d 0.76d 0.87d
T2 0.82c 0.86d 0.91d 0.68c 0.74c 0.81c 0.94c
T3 0.90a 0.98b 1.13a 0.79a 0.84a 0.93a 1.07a
T4 0.86b 0.91c 0.99b 0.71b 0.79b 0.87b 1.00b

Table 4

Effects of cultivation mode on grain yield and nitrogen uptake and utilization of winter wheat from 2020 to 2022"

Grain yield (t·hm-2)
Nitrogen use efficiency (kg·kg-1)
Nitrogen uptake efficiency (%)
Nitrogen utilization efficiency (kg·kg-1)
Nitrogen recovery efficiency (%)
2020-2021 T1 7.26d 13.03d 37.86c 34.42b 23.64d
T2 8.29c 20.25a 54.77a 36.98a 38.96a
T3 9.22a 15.60c 48.23b 32.34c 31.46c
T4 8.86b 19.43b 55.16a 35.22b 33.87b
2021-2022 T1 7.17d 13.15d 38.39c 34.26c 19.99d
T2 8.18c 20.28a 54.40a 37.28a 36.50a
T3 9.20a 15.81c 47.79b 33.09d 28.55c
T4 8.82b 19.62b 54.57a 35.96b 30.77b

Table 5

Effects of cultivation mode on nitrogen supply and demand balance in winter wheat growth period from 2020 to 2022"

氮输入量 N input rate (kg·hm-2) 氮输出量 N output rate (kg·hm-2) 氮表观损失率
N surplus rate
N application
Net mineralization
N uptake
2020-2021 T1 315 242.27b 94.67d 210.97d 285.96b 155.01a 49.21a
T2 210 199.33d 107.89c 224.19c 215.82d 77.21d 36.77c
T3 315 276.39a 130.59a 285.20a 300.13a 136.65b 43.38b
T4 240 215.77c 122.63b 251.42b 241.42c 85.55c 35.65d
2021-2022 T1 315 230.40b 96.30c 209.36d 276.21b 156.13a 49.56a
T2 210 189.91d 100.52c 217.54c 203.79d 79.11d 37.67c
T3 315 262.62a 126.65a 276.05a 289.90a 138.32b 43.91b
T4 240 205.82c 119.29b 243.30b 233.56c 88.25c 36.77c
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