Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (17): 3331-3346.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.17.008


Effects of Varied Rapeseed Varieties and Cultivation Measures on Harvest Index

PENG WenLi1(), WANG Rui1,2(), CHEN XiaoLei1, LIU AHui1, ZHENG WeiDong1   

  1. 1Tongren University, Tongren 554300, Guizhou
    2Key Laboratory of Biodiversity Conservation and Utilization in Fanjing Mountain Region, Tongren 554300, Guizhou
  • Received:2023-01-09 Accepted:2023-03-15 Online:2023-09-01 Published:2023-09-08
  • Contact: WANG Rui


【Objective】 This study aimed to investigate the relationship between harvest index (HI) and dry weight of different organs such as silique wall and seed yield at maturity stage under different rapeseed varieties and cultivation measures, analyze the effects of breeding age, plant height and winter characteristics of rapeseed varieties on HI, and to provide the references for breeding high-yield and high-efficiency rapeseed varieties and coordination and optimization of cultivation measures. 【Method】 Taking 60 rapeseed varieties with different breeding ages, plant heights and winter characteristics popularized in the Yangtze River Basin in recent years as experimental materials, field tests were conducted in Hubei and Guizhou provinces in 2016-2017. In 2017-2020, combinations of different agronomic measures such as sowing date, fertility level, planting density and row spacing configuration were designed, and field experiments were carried out in Bijiang, Sinan and Jiangkou, Guizhou, yield and dry weight of each part were measured after sampling at maturity stage of rapeseed, and harvest index was calculated and analyzed. 【Result】 The difference of HI among different rapeseed varieties was up to 367%, and the difference of HI among different agronomic cultivation measures was 52%-117%. For each 0.1 increase in HI of different rapeseed varieties, seed yield increased by 305 and 385 kg·hm-2 at two experimental sites, respectively. With the optimization of different agronomic measures, seed yield increased with the increase of rapeseed HI. For every 0.1 increase in HI, seed yield increased by 505-1 690 kg·hm-2. Under different varieties and cultivation measures, HI was positively correlated with seed yield of main stem, seed yield of branch and aboveground biomass yield. There was a positive correlation between HI and pod dry weight for different optimized cultivation measures. However, there was no consistent correlation between HI and main stem dry weight of rapeseed under different varieties and cultivation measures. There was a significant difference in HI between rapeseed varieties bred before 2010 and after 2015; the HI of rapeseed varieties with plant height less than 170 cm was relatively high, and the HI of higher plant height varieties was significantly less than that of short and medium plant height varieties. There was no significant difference in HI among weak winter, semi-winter and winter rapeseed varieties. 【Conclusion】 Different rapeseed varieties and agronomic measures had significant effects on HI. Varieties with high HI could be selected and popularized. The HI of field crop population should be appropriately increased through optimized and integrated cultivation technology and agronomic measures. Seed yield should be improved through the coordination of good varieties and good measures. In recent years, the HI of rapeseed variety bred and popularized in the Yangtze River basin had been significantly affected by its breeding age and plant height, while the difference in wintering among varieties has no significant impact on HI.

Key words: rapeseed, variety, cultivation measure, harvest index (HI)

Table 1

Basic physical and chemical properties of soil at each experimental site"

Organic matter (g·kg-1)
Total nitrogen (g·kg-1)
Available P (mg·kg-1)
Available K (mg·kg-1)
2016 湖北武汉Wuhan, Hubei 14.68 1.01 21.21 110.63
贵州碧江Bijiang, Guizhou 30.52 1.38 11.73 71.54
2017 贵州碧江Bijiang, Guizhou 30.22 1.05 14.12 64.21
2018 贵州碧江Bijiang, Guizhou 29.56 0.98 13.78 62.80
2019 贵州碧江Bijiang, Guizhou 30.25 1.28 14.33 64.27
贵州思南Sinan, Guizhou 28.19 0.78 12.95 68.63
贵州江口Jiangkou, Guizhou 44.90 1.92 20.81 95.40

Table 2

Fertilizer application rate of three treatments (kg·hm-2)"

处理Treatment 氮肥Nitrogen (N) 磷肥Phosphate (P2O5) 钾肥Potassium (K2O) 硼肥Borax (Boron)
低肥力Low fertilizer input 90 45 75 7.5
中等肥力Medium fertilizer input 180 90 150 7.5
高肥力High fertilizer input 270 135 225 7.5

Fig. 1

Overall variation of rapeseed HI and its related traits under different varieties and cultivation measures"

Fig. 2

Relationship between HI and seed yield under different varieties and cultivation measures of rapeseed The a-g figures represent experiment 1 in Wuhan, Hubei in 2016-2017, experiment 1 in Bijiang, Guizhou in 2016-2017, experiment 2 in Bijiang, Guizhou in 2017-2018, experiment 2 in Bijiang, Guizhou in 2018-2019, experiment 3 in Bijiang, Guizhou in 2019-2020, experiment 3 in Sinan, Guizhou in 2019-2020, experiment 3 in Jiangkou, Guizhou in 2019-2020, respectively。*:P<0.05;**:P<0.01;ns:P>0.05。下同The same as below"

Fig. 3

Relationship between HI and seed yield from main stem per plant under different varieties and cultivation measures of rapeseed"

Fig. 4

Relationship between HI and seed yield from branch per plant of rapeseed under different varieties and cultivation measures"

Fig. 5

Relationship between HI and silique wall dry weight per plant of rapeseed under different varieties and cultivation measures"

Fig. 6

Relationship between HI and main stem dry weight per plant of rapeseed under different varieties and cultivation measures"

Fig. 7

Relationship between HI and aboveground biomass yield per plant of rapeseed under different varieties and cultivation measures"

Fig. 8

Changes of HI among rapeseed varieties in different bred ages In the figure, the upper and lower parts represent 25% and 75% of the loci, the upper and lower limits represent 1.5 times of the quartile, the horizontal line in the figure represents the median, the square represents the average, and the dot represents the outlier. Different letters represent significant differences (LSD test, P<0.05). The same as below"

Fig. 9

Changes of HI of different wintering characteristics (a) and plant heights (b) rapeseed varieties"

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