Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (17): 3592-3608.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2021.17.004

• CLIMATE CHANGE AND MAIZE PRODUCTION IN CHINA • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Maize Tassel Development, Physiological Traits and Yield Under Heat and Drought Stress During Flowering Stage

YAN ZhenHua(),LIU DongYao,JIA XuCun,YANG Qin,CHEN YiBo,DONG PengFei,WANG Qun()   

  1. College of Agronomy, Henan Agricultural University/National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, Zhengzhou 450046
  • Received:2020-09-03 Accepted:2021-01-05 Online:2021-09-01 Published:2021-09-09
  • Contact: Qun WANG;


【Objective】 Global seasonal high temperature and drought have become the main limiting factors affecting crop growth and development as well as yield formation. Based on artificial simulation of the climate characteristics of periodic high temperature and drought stress, the effects of high temperature stress, drought stress and the combined stress of high temperature and drought during the flowering stage on morphological development and physiological characteristics of tassel and yield formation of summer maize were explored in this study. 【Method】 The experiment was conducted by pot-experiment in the greenhouse with intelligent control system for two years. Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) and Huanong 138 (HN138) were used as the experimental materials. The four treatments of control (CK), flowering high-temperature stress treatment (T), flowering drought stress treatment (D) and flowering high-temperature-drought combined stress treatment (TD) were set up to study the tassel morphology, anther and pollen structure, pollen viability, tassel antioxidant index and yield of summer maize in response to high temperature and drought during flowering stage. 【Result】 High temperature, drought and combined stress resulted in significant reduction in the tassel branch number, tassel central branch spikelet number and tassel branch spikelet density in maize, and these three parameters of T treatment were 17.31%, 15.70% and 13.56% lower than that under CK, respectively; D and TD treatments were 33.85%, 24.87%, 27.08% and 45.59%, 32.02%, 26.00% lower than CK, respectively. Drought and combined stress significantly shortened tassel central branch length by 23.64% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with CK. High temperature stress and drought stress at flowering stage led to anther shrinkage and deformation, loose arrangement of tapetum cells, and reticular protrusion on pollen grain surface. Combined stress aggravated anther shrinkage and deformation, broken of tapetum cells. And the septal vascular bundles became thinner, the number decreased, the reticular protrusion of pollen grains was more obvious, and the germination holes were invaginated under combined stress. High temperature, drought and combined stress significantly reduced the dispersed amount of pollen in tassel, and the dispersed amount of pollen under T, D and TD treatments was 22.18%, 54.75% and 67.28% less than CK, respectively. The date of maximum dispersed amount of pollen was earlier than that under CK. T, D and TD treatments significantly reduced the proportion of highly vigorous pollen compared with CK. T treatment increased the activities of SOD and POD enzymes in the tassel by 21.91% and 32.50%, respectively, compared with CK; While those under D and TD treatment increased by 24.95% (SOD), 53.37% (POD) and 17.12% (SOD), 67.24% (POD), respectively, compared with CK. The MDA content in the tassel under T, D and TD treatment increased by 44.18%, 64.24%, and 79.12%, respectively, compared with CK; The $\mathop{{O}}_{2}^{{\mathop{}_{\ •}^{-}}}$ content increased by 22.55%, 51.65%, 72.29%, respectively, compared with CK. High temperature, drought and combined stress reduced maize yield and grain number per row by 18.05%, 34.58%, 46.24% and 24.58%, 41.80%, 52.99%, respectively, compared with CK. Under stress treatment, the tassel branch number, the tassel central branch spikelet number and the tassel branch spikelet density of HN138 were decreased by 27.00% and 17.28%, respectively, compared with ZD958; The distortion degree of anther and pollen structure of HN138 was higher than that of ZD958, and the increase of antioxidant enzyme activity was less than that of ZD958, but MDA and O2 ·-content were 13.07% and 20.29% higher than that of ZD958. HN138 was more sensitive to high temperature, drought and combined stress between two cultivars. 【Conclusion】 The results showed that high temperature, drought and combined stress significantly inhibited the growth and development of tassel, led to the distorted morphological structure of anther and pollen, reduced the dispersed amount of pollen, decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and inhibited the normally pollination and fructification, thus resulting in the decreased kernel number and grain yield. The effect of combined stress of high temperature and drought on tassel was greater than that of single stress, but the response of different varieties to high temperature and drought was different.

Key words: summer maize, high temperature and drought, tassel-related traits, pollen structure and vitality, antioxidant enzyme activity, yield

Fig. 1

Changes of daily temperature and relative water content under different stress treatments CK: Control, TMAX: Daily maximum temperature under high temperature stress, CKMAX: Daily maximum temperature under control, TAVE: Daily average temperature under high temperature stress, CKAVE: Daily average temperature under control, T: Flowering high-temperature stress treatment, D: Flowering drought stress treatment, TD: Flowering high-temperature-drought combined stress treatment. The same as below"

Table 1

Effects of different stress treatments on tassel-related traits of maize"

Tassel central
branch length (cm)
Tassel central branch
spikelet number
Tassel branch
Tassel branch spikelet density (count/cm)
2018 ZD958 CK 38.40±1.06a 268.44±21.46a 14.84±2.04a 3.14±0.59a
T 38.38±2.70a 256.42±20.07ab 12.21±1.60b 3.02±0.45b
D 30.52±1.81b 227.24±12.65bc 10.2±1.60bc 2.73±0.38c
TD 28.78±2.75b 197.47±25.55c 9.43±1.62c 2.62±0.23c
HN138 CK 42.78±3.15a 193.69±10.09a 4.00±1.26a 2.44±0.17a
T 33.92±2.07b 153.88±12.46ab 3.44±0.80ab 2.29±0.32b
D 31.84±1.79c 138.15±9.23bc 2.63±0.80ab 1.77±0.28c
TD 29.82±1.60c 130.45±17.58c 2.00±0.89b 2.26±0.31b
2019 ZD958 CK 38.25±4.64a 309.60±14.89a 17.80±1.33a 4.02±0.14a
T 36.51±2.27a 268.40±10.03b 14.80±1.47b 3.04±0.22b
D 30.35±2.26b 245.60±35.67b 12.00±1.10c 2.45±0.15c
TD 29.79±1.32b 198.80±9.66c 9.60±1.36d 2.35±0.28c
HN138 CK 45.96±1.28a 220.40±8.59a 4.80±1.72a 3.27±0.48a
T 35.79±0.57b 166.60±3.44b 3.80±0.98a 2.62±0.18a
D 33.18±0.39b 143.80±4.35c 3.00±1.10b 2.33±0.15ab
TD 30.99±1.25c 147.20±9.27d 2.40±1.02b 2.01±0.15b
Source of variation
年份 Year NS NS NS NS
品种 Cultivar ** ** ** **
处理 treatment ** ** ** **
年份×品种 Year×Cultivars NS NS NS NS
年份×处理 Year×Treatment NS NS NS NS
品种×处理 Cultivars×Treatment ** ** * NS
年份×品种×处理 Year×Cultivars×Treatment NS NS NS NS

Fig. 2

Effects of different stress treatments on pollen activities of tassel HA: High activity; LA: Low activity; NA: No activity. A: CK-ZD958; B: T-ZD958; C: D-ZD958; D: TD-ZD958; E: CK-HN138; F: T-HN138; G: D-HN138; H: TD-HN138(×40). Values within a group followed by different letters are significantly different at 0.05 probability level"

Fig. 3

Effects of different stress treatments on the daily pollen emission of tassel *,**means the peak values of different treatments are significantly different at 0.05 or 0.01 level. The same as below"

Fig. 4

Effects of different stress treatments on anther microstructure and pollen morphology 1: Epiderm cell; 2: Middle layer cell; 3: Anther chamber; 4: Pollen grain; 5: Vascular bundle(×200). A1: CK-ZD958; B1: T-ZD958; C1: D-ZD958; D1: TD-ZD958; E1: CK-HN138; F1: T-HN138; G1: D-HN138; H1: TD-HN138(×200); A2: CK-ZD958; B2: T-ZD958; C2: D-ZD958; D2: TD-ZD958; E2: CK-HN138; F2: T-HN138; G2: D-HN138; H2: TD-HN138(×1000) "

Fig. 5

Effects of different stress treatments on superoxide dismutase activities of tassel"

Fig. 6

Effects of different stress treatments on peroxidase activities of tassel"

Fig. 7

Effect of different stress treatments on MDA content"

Fig. 8

Effects of different stress treatments on superoxide anion radical content"

Table 2

Effects of different stress treatments on yield and yield components"

Ear length (cm)
Ear diameter (mm)
Bald tip
Ear rows
Kernels per row
1000 grain weight (g)
2018 ZD958 CK 15.91±1.12a 52.12±2.11a 2.39±2.24c 17.60±1.20a 33.40±1.43a 322.09±5.77a 12620.21±279.16a
T 14.95±0.65a 49.66±2.01b 4.59±0.85c 17.20±2.04a 26.70±2.69b 322.08±5.93a 9762.19±230.86b
D 11.57±1.30b 45.34±3.05c 10.01±1.17b 15.80±2.27a 17.50±2.91c 295.49±11.84b 7700.68±151.23c
TD 10.39±0.83c 42.58±1.75d 22.64±6.87a 15.80±1.66a 15.40±2.24c 305.45±13.19b 5809.84±153.80d
HN138 CK 17.48±1.03a 49.18±1.65a 6.58±3.48b 15.40±1.29a 32.40±2.54a 261.39±5.15a 9387.42±170.16a
T 15.22±0.51b 49.39±1.04a 33.99±4.19a 15.00±1.00a 24.90±1.97b 252.25±7.11b 7677.14±186.88b
D 12.92±1.18c 41.68±3.55b 32.76±5.23a 15.20±0.98a 19.50±1.57c 240.06±3.50c 5070.93±139.57c
TD 11.11±0.91d 40.58±2.52b 30.65±9.76a 15.00±1.34a 15.90±1.92d 239.64±7.38c 4145.12±179.17d
2019 ZD958 CK 15.62±0.32a 51.41±2.61a 2.19±1.85a 16.60±1.56a 36.00±1.55a 350.98±12.79a 12984.97±148.62a
T 14.36±0.25a 49.04±1.36b 5.53±0.46a 15.80±1.40a 23.90±1.97b 329.65±16.62ab 9870.79±182.17b
D 11.98±0.97b 46.24±1.42c 9.03±0.68b 14.60±0.92a 19.20±2.40c 334.93±18.91a 9371.21±128.42c
TD 10.66±0.52c 45.69±1.76c 17.49±1.96c 14.00±1.26a 15.00±1.79d 305.14±19.33b 8419.67±189.74d
HN138 CK 19.57±1.45a 49.71±0.89a 7.43±2.46c 16.00±1.26a 29.30±2.72a 265.86±11.30a 10153.57±218.83a
T 18.19±1.72a 49.08±0.72a 53.53±16.96b 15.40±1.28a 23.00±2.45b 259.37±6.71b 9368.37±123.10b
D 14.60±1.27b 46.19±0.75b 53.24±14.18a 15.20±1.33a 19.60±2.46c 250.63±5.53b 7469.07±188.68c
TD 11.47±1.81c 42.53±1.90c 37.92±7.56a 15.00±1.84a 15.00±1.41d 248.98±6.52c 6005.79±188.81d
Source of variation
品种 Cultivars ** ** ** ** * ** **
处理 Treatment ** ** ** ** ** ** **
NS NS * * * NS NS
年份×处理 Year×Treatment NS NS NS NS * NS NS
品种×处理 Cultivars×Treatment ** ** ** NS * ** NS

Table 3

Correlation of yield, yield components and tassel traits under different stress treatments"

Tassel-related trait
ZD958 HN138
Grains per ear
1000 grain weight
Grains per ear
1000 grain weight
2018 主轴长 Tassel central branch length 0.7769** 0.8150** 0.3344 0.7330** 0.6034* 0.3704
主轴小花数 Central branch spikelet number 0.7283** 0.7111** 0.2555 0.5745* 0.5532* 0.3407
分枝数 Tassel branch number 0.5045 0.2377 0.4747 0.5363* 0.5928* 0.3608
分枝小花密度Tassel branch spikelet density 0.4037 0.3208 0.2157 0.0987 0.0746 0.3723
花粉量 Fresh pollen weight 0.9239** 0.8321** 0.5518* 0.8918** 0.8639** 0.6431**
花粉活力 Pollen activity 0.8568** 0.7896 0.5887* 0.6146* 0.7228** 0.3597
2019 主轴长 Central tassel branch length 0.6070* 0.5580* 0.3178 0.7899** 0.6511** 0.4437
主轴小花数 Central tassel flower number 0.7211** 0.7551** 0.4336 0.7341** 0.6079* 0.4898
分枝数 Tassel branch number 0.6441** 0.5593* 0.5658* 0.8242** 0.7488** 0.4379
分枝小花密度Tassel branch spikelet density 0.5432* 0.6943** 0.3372 0.8184** 0.7597** 0.5946*
花粉量 Pollen weight 0.7325** 0.7821** 0.2890 0.9314** 0.7433** 0.4112
花粉活力 Pollen activity 0.8268** 0.8279** 0.4186 0.9002** 0.6874** 0.4067
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