Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (2): 287-299.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.02.007


Effects of Dextran Modified Urea on Winter Wheat Yield and Fate of Nitrogen Fertilizer

YAN YanGe(),ZHANG ShuiQin,LI YanTing,ZHAO BingQiang,YUAN Liang()   

  1. Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2021-11-28 Accepted:2022-01-18 Online:2023-01-16 Published:2023-02-07


【Objective】Saccharides could regulate nitrogen transformation and promote crop growth. However, the effect and mechanism of carbohydrate reaction with urea with different degrees of polymerization on urea nitrogen utilization and crop growth are still unclear. In this paper, the dextran modified urea were prepared by incorporated of glucose (dextran) with different polymerization degrees into 15N labelled urea. The relationship between structure of dextran modified urea and wheat yield and nitrogen utilization was analyzed, in order to provide scientific basis for the application of dextran in improving nitrogen utilization efficiency. 【Method】In the current study, the dextran modified 15N labelled-urea (glucose, maltose, oligomeric maltose, and polydextrose modified urea are represented by GU, MU, OU, and PU, respectively) and ordinary 15N labelled-urea (U) was prepared, and the effects of dextran modified urea on winter wheat (Jimai 22) growth and the fate of fertilizer nitrogen were studied by using soil column cultivation experiments. The relationship between the dextran polymerization degree and the winter wheat yield or fertilizer nitrogen fate was explored by structure investigation of the dextran modified urea using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) spectroscopy. 【Result】 (1) Compared with U, the dextran modified urea showed a weaker vibration intensity of primary amide at 3 343 cm-1 and 1 601 cm-1 in FTIR spectra, and a new chemical shift peak was detected at 158-171 ppm in 13C NMR spectra, which was a sign that the aldehyde group of dextran and the amine group of urea reacted and that a C=N structure attributed to Schiff base was formed. (2) The wheat yield treated with GU, MU, OU and PU was higher than that of U by 1.9%, 9.2%, 10.3% and 12.3%, respectively. The yield increase was mainly attributed to the improvement of the ears number and grains per ear. (3) The total nitrogen uptake and fertilizer nitrogen uptake of grain of the dextran modified urea treatments were also higher than that under the U treatment by 8.7%-20.0% and 6.1%-13.9%, respectively. MU, OU and PU treatments had a higher nitrogen uptake than GU. (4) Compared with U, the 15N utilization rate and the fertilizer residue rate of dextran modified urea was enhanced by 2.0-6.1 and 1.3-4.9 percentage points, respectively, while the nitrogen loss rate of dextran modified urea was reduced by 6.9-7.4 percentage points. The 15N utilization rate of MU, OU and PU treatments was significantly higher than that of U. (5) Correlation analysis showed that the yield of wheat was significantly positively correlated with the polymerization degree of dextran, while the content of Schiff base was significantly negatively correlated. Among them, the relationship between Schiff base content and wheat yield and 15N utilization rate could be significantly fitted by using one quadratic equation. When the polymerization degree of dextran was 5-8, wheat yield and fertilizer nitrogen utilization rate were the highest. 【Conclusion】 Compared with common urea, the dextran modified urea could increase wheat yield, promote nitrogen absorption and utilization, increase fertilizer nitrogen residue and reduce urea loss. Within a certain range, the wheat yield and nitrogen absorption gradually increased, while the residual fertilizer nitrogen in soil decreased along with the increase of the polymerization degree of dextran. When the polymerization degree of dextran was 5-8, the corresponding modified urea would have the best performance.

Key words: polymerization degree of dextran, dextran modified urea, Schiff base, wheat yield, fate of fertilizer nitrogen

Table 1

Basic physicochemical of the experimental soil"

Soil depth (cm)
pH 有机质
Organic matter (g·kg-1)
Total N (g·kg-1)
Available P (mg·kg-1)
Available K (mg·kg-1)
0-30 8.82 12.12 0.67 5.94 150
30-90 9.11 4.92 0.38 3.04 96

Table 2

Basic properties of the tested fertilizers"

Dextran type
Polymerization degree of dextran
Total N content (%)
15N abundance (%)
U 44.92 10.19
GU 葡萄糖 Glucose 1 44.77 10.20
MU 麦芽糖 Maltose 2 44.63 10.19
OU 低聚麦芽糖 Oligomeric maltose ≈5 44.46 10.19
PU 聚葡萄糖 Polydextrose ≈20 44.45 10.18

Fig. 1

FTIR spectra and second derivative spectra of dextran modified urea"

Fig. 2

13C NMR spectra (A) and relative integral area of Schiff base (B) in dextran modified urea"

Fig. 3

Aboveground dry biomass and harvest index under different treatments"

Table 3

Yield components of wheat grain yield under different treatments"

处理 Treatment 有效穗数 Effective spike number (No./pot) 千粒重 1000-grain weight (g) 穗粒数 Grains per ear (No./spike)
CK 18.75±3.77c 45.87±1.43a 30.41±3.74c
U 42.75±1.89b 47.78±1.73a 40.56±3.51b
GU 44.00±3.74ab 46.48±2.44a 41.38±3.39ab
MU 47.50±1.00ab 47.77±0.52a 39.76±0.46b
OU 48.25±1.71a 48.30±1.04a 39.14±1.91b
PU 42.75±4.19b 48.02±1.62a 45.43±3.91a

Fig. 4

Total nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen uptake of aboveground parts of wheat under different treatments Lowercase letters indicate significant differences between treatments. P<0.05"

Table 4

Residual amounts of fertilizer N in different soil layers under different treatments"

土层深度Soil depth 总计
0-30 cm 30-60 cm 60-90 cm
U 0.210±0.034b 0.107±0.016b 0.042±0.008a 0.360±0.038c
GU 0.254±0.026a 0.148±0.017a 0.067±0.013a 0.470±0.032a
MU 0.227±0.018ab 0.124±0.011ab 0.057±0.015a 0.407±0.020b
OU 0.250±0.010a 0.109±0.014b 0.045±0.012a 0.404±0.031bc
PU 0.205±0.029b 0.134±0.029ab 0.050±0.024a 0.389±0.014bc

Table 5

Fate of fertilizer N under different treatments (%)"

处理 Treatment 利用率 Utilization rate 残留率 Residue rate 损失率 Lost rate
U 55.38±1.16c 15.98±1.70c 28.64±2.16a
GU 57.38±1.20bc 20.87±1.42a 21.75±1.44b
MU 60.69±2.24a 18.10±0.89b 21.21±2.57b
OU 60.11±2.76ab 17.94±1.39bc 21.95±3.60b
PU 61.49±1.25a 17.29±0.63bc 21.22±1.24b

Fig. 5

Correlation analysis of each indicator R1: Degree of polymerization; R2: Relative area of Schiff base in 13C NMR spectra; R3: Wheat yield; R4:15N utilization rate; R5: Residue rate. Different colors indicate the intensity of the significant, and the closer to red (plus) or blue (minus), the larger the diameter of the circle, the greater the correlation coefficient. * Indicates significant"

Fig. 6

Correlation analysis of the relative area of Schiff base in 13C NMR spectra with wheat yield and 15N utilization rate"

Fig. 7

Nonlinear fitting of polymerization degree with relative area of Schiff base"

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