Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (24): 4930-4943.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.24.011

• FOOD SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of Processing Technology on the Amandin Immunoreactivity and Digestive Stability of Apricot Kernel

LONG FeiFei1(), ZHANG QingAn1(), ZHANG ZhiHua1,2   

  1. 1 School of Food Engineering and Nutrition Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119
    2 Inner Mongolian GaoYuan Apricot Kernels Juice Co., Ltd, Zhungeer County 017100, Inner Mongolia
  • Received:2023-05-23 Accepted:2023-09-28 Online:2023-12-16 Published:2023-12-21
  • Contact: ZHANG QingAn


【Background】In recent years, allergies have become a global health concern, and the number of allergic individuals continues to rise. Nut is one of the common origins of allergies, and apricot kernels, as a common nut containing the allergenic protein amandin, have become one of the most susceptible nuts to allergies. Therefore, allergy removal of nuts has become a research hotspot. The processing of apricot kernels generally involves procedures, such as peeling, debitterizing and drying, and there are no relevant reports on whether their allergenicity will be affected during these processing. 【Objective】The aim of this study was to explore the impact of processing on the allergenicity with the allergenicity, quality and nutritional characteristics of apricot kernels as the evaluation indicators, and to optimize the processing for reducing the allergenicity of apricot kernels, thus providing the theoretical basis and technical support for the processing of low allergenic nuts products of apricot kernels.【Method】Firstly, the methods of Western blotting and ELISA were used to investigate the effects of different peeling, debitterizing and drying methods on the amandin immunoreactivity in apricot kernels. Then, the circular dichroism spectroscopy, extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, surface hydrophobicity and zeta potential measurements were used to study the effects of various processing methods on the structure and surface properties of amandin, and to analyze the mechanism of the immune-reactivity changes of amandin. Finally, the vitro simulation digestion experiments were conducted to investigate the digestive stability of amandin in apricot kernels before and after processing, and Western blotting analysis was conducted on the digestion products to further explore the changes in potential allergenicity of apricot kernels.【Result】In terms of allergenicity, the amandin’s immunoreactivity after being peeled by the saturated hot air and blanched decreased by 8.41% and 13.15%, respectively. After being quickly debitterized by ultrasound, the amandin’s immunoreactivity decreased by 6.79%. Blanching debitterizing had no significant effects on its immunoreactivity. After natural drying and hot air drying, the immune reactivity of the amandin significantly increased by 4.58% and 2.81%, respectively (P<0.05). Based on the impact of processing on the quality and nutritional characteristics of apricot kernels, those suitable processing methods to decrease the allergenicity of apricot kernels were optimized like the saturated hot air peeling, ultrasonic rapid debitterizing and hot air drying, and the immune reactivity of apricot kernels decreased by 15.03% under the optimal conditions. In terms of the structure of amandin, the secondary structure composition, tertiary structure, surface hydrophobicity and zeta potential have undergone certain changes during the processing. Among them, the ultrasound rapid debitterizing significantly changed the tertiary structure of amandin and enhanced its surface hydrophobicity (P<0.05), resulting in the most significant decrease in its immune reactivity. The digestive stability of the amandin after processing was significantly reduced, and the accelerated degradation rate of structures was related to the specific antigen antibody reactions in allergenic proteins, leading to a further decrease in the potential allergenicity of apricot kernels.【Conclusion】Different processing steps could affect the allergenicity of apricot kernels by changing the structure of amandin, i.e. the reasonable processing methods could be used to reduce the allergenicity of apricot kernels.

Key words: apricot kernel, amandin, processing, immunoreactivity, digestive stability

Fig. 1

SDS-PAGE (A), Western blotting (B) and ELISA determination results (C) of amandin in apricot kernels after peeling with saturated hot air method and boiling water UA: Untreated apricot kernels; SHAP: Saturated hot air peeled apricot kernels; BIBW: Blanched apricot kernels. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences (P<0.05). The same as below"

Fig. 2

Non-reduced SDS-PAGE (A) and Western blotting (B), reduced SDS-PAGE (C) and Western blotting (D), and ELISA results (E) of amandin in apricot kernels after debitterizing by ultrasound and hot water UAD: Debitterizing by ultrasound; HWD: Debitterizing by hot water. The same as below"

Fig. 3

Reduced SDS-PAGE (A) and Western blotting (B), non-reduced SDS-PAGE (C) and Western blotting (D), and ELISA results (E) of amandin in apricot kernels after hot-air drying (HAD) and natural drying (ND)"

Fig. 4

Effects of peeling, debitterizing and drying of apricot kernels on amandin circular dichroism (A), secondary structure composition (B), external fluorescence spectrum (C), surface hydrophobicity (D), and Zeta potential (E)"

Fig. 5

SDS-PAGE of digestive fluid (A), SDS-PAGE (B) and Western blotting (C) of digestion products of amandin in unprocessed apricot kernels (UA); SDS-PAGE (D) and Western blotting (E) of digestion products of amandin in the processed apricot kernels (HAD)"

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