Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (10): 1949-1965.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.10.011

• HORTICULTURE • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Comprehensive Fruit Quality Evaluation and Suitable Areas Selection of Newhall Navel Orange in China

CHEN ZhiMin1(), CHEN XiaoLin1, TAN ZhenHua2, CHEN ZhaoXing3, SHEN DanDan4, MA YanYan1, ZHENG YongQiang1(), YI ShiLai1, LÜ Qiang1, XIE RangJin1   

  1. 1 National Engineering Research Center for Citrus Technology, National Digital Planting (Citrus) Innovation Sub-Center, Citrus Research Institute, Southwest University-Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing 400712
    2 Comprehensive Experimental Station of Norval Sweet Orange in Xiangnan, Yizhang 424200, Hunan
    3 Ganzhou Citrus Research Institute, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi
    4 YiChang Academy of Agricultural Science, Yichang 443000, Hubei
  • Received:2022-06-20 Accepted:2022-08-24 Online:2023-05-16 Published:2023-05-17


【Objective】This study aimed to establish a comprehensive evaluation model in fruit quality, clarify the comprehensive grade of fruit quality and their corresponding meteorological characteristics from different Newhall Navel orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. cv. Newhall) orchards in China, so as to provide a reference for the ecological environment adaptability and suitable planting.【Method】Twenty three Newhall orchards in different ecological environments of China were selected to measure fruit external and internal quality indicators. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to identify the core indicators, and the comprehensive evaluation models of fruit quality were established by analytic hierarchy process (AHP), principal component analysis (PCA) and fuzzy comprehensive appraisal (FCA), respectively. The optimal algorithm model and fruit grade classification threshold were determined and verified with sensory quality evaluation. Meanwhile, the comprehensive quality grades and the characteristics of corresponding ecological factors of Newhall navel orange fruit from different producing areas were explored.【Result】The fruit comprehensive quality of 23 Newhall orchards showed obvious regional characteristics. The fruit in southern Jiangxi and southern Hunan had higher total soluble solid and solid acid ratio, while the fruit in western Hunan and the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River had better fruit external color indexes and higher titratable acid. The quality indexes were correlated to varying degrees. Five core indexes were selected by principal component analysis combined with cluster analysis, including comprehensive color index, fruit weight, soluble solids, solid acid ratio, and vitamin C content. At the same time, AHP model was determined as the comprehensive evaluation model of fruit quality with the best fitting degree of sensory quality index: Y (comprehensive value) = 0.06× comprehensive color index + 0.26× single fruit weight +0.16× soluble solid content +0.42× solid acid ratio +0.11× vitamin C content (standardized value). The comprehensive fruit quality indicators of different Newhall orchards were ranked, and the classification threshold was determined as follows: ≥0.60 was the first-class orchards, mainly concentrated in southern Jiangxi, southern Hunan and eastern Guangdong, with active accumulated temperature, effective accumulated temperature, maximum sunshine hours and surface temperature; 0.45-0.60 was the second-class orchards, mainly concentrated in northern Guangxi and western Fujian, characterized by higher temperature accumulation and rainfall; 0.30-0.45 was the third-class orchards, mainly concentrated in western Hunan and the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River, with relatively lower rainfall and temperature accumulation; <0.30 was the fourth-class orchards, mainly distributed in southern Zhejiang, with the highest rainfall.【Conclusion】The core indicators of the comprehensive quality of citrus fruits were identified by PCA, and the AHP model with the optimal for the Newhall fruit comprehensive evaluation by combining the eigenvalues of each principal component to achieve automatic assignment of AHP judgment matrix. The ecological factors of different grades of orchards were significantly different. These results provided algorithms and data support for the development of the decision system based on "suitable planting" of citrus varieties in different ecological environment.

Key words: Newhall navel orange, fruit quality, comprehensive evaluation, environmental adaptability

Table 1

Orchards distribution table"

果园分布 Orchard distribution
Longitude (°)
Latitude (°)
1 浙江省台州市临海市
Linhai city, Taizhou city, Zhejiang province
LH 121.29 28.75
2 福建省三明市尤溪县
Youxi county, Sanming city, Fujian province
YX 118.22 26.33
3 广东省梅州市平远县
Pingyuan county, Meizhou city, Guangdong province
PY1 115.87 24.8
4 广东省梅州市平远县
Pingyuan county, Meizhou city, Guangdong province
PY2 115.88 24.56
Northern Guangxi-
Southwest Jiangxi-
Southwest Hunan
5 广西百色市德保县 Debao county, Baise city, Guangxi DB 106.58 23.34
6 广西桂林市恭城瑶族自治县
Gongcheng Yao Autonomous county, Guilin city, Guangxi
GC 110.87 25.07
7 广西桂林市富川瑶族自治县
Fuchuan Yao Autonomous county, Guilin city, Guangxi
FC 111.29 24.84
8 江西省赣州市信丰县
Xinfeng county, Ganzhou city, Jiangxi province
XF 114.93 25.39
9 江西省赣州市上犹县
Shangyou county, Ganzhou city, Jiangxi province
SY 114.57 25.78
10 江西省赣州市章贡区
Zhanggong district, Ganzhou city, Jiangxi province
ZG 114.94 25.84
11 湖南省郴州市宜章县
Yizhang county, Chenzhou city, Hunan province
YZ 112.57 25.78
12 湖南省郴州市桂阳县
Guiyang county, Chenzhou city, Hunan province
GY 112.95 25.47
Western Hubei-
Western Hunan
13 湖北省宜昌市枝江市
Zhijiang city, Yichang city, Hubei province
ZJ 111.72 30.5
14 湖北省宜昌市宜都市
Yidu city, Yichang city, Hubei province
YD 111.45 30.38
15 湖北省十堰市丹江口市
Danjiangkou city, Shiyan city, Hubei province
DJK 111.47 32.72
16 湖南省湘西龙山县
Longshan county, Xiangxi, Hunan province
LS 116.29 39.96
17 湖南省邵阳市新宁县
Xinning county, Shaoyang city, Hunan province
XN 111.02 26.74
18 湖南省湘西保靖县
Baojing county, Xiangxi, Hunan province
BJ 109.66 28.71
The middle and upper reaches of the
Yangtze River
19 重庆市云阳县
Yunyang county, Chongqing city
YY 108.85 30.83
20 重庆市奉节县
Fengjie county, Chongqing city
FJ 109.66 31.08
21 重庆市北碚区 Beibei district, Chongqing city BB 106.38 29.77
22 四川省凉山雷波县
Leibo county, Liangshan, Sichuan province
LB 103.58 28.27
23 云南省红河建水县
Jianshui county, Honghe, Yunnan province
JS 102.95 23.66

Table 2

Details on the evaluation scales of citrus fruit appearance and taste quality"

果形大小 Fruit size 果面 Fruit noodles 口感 Taste 化渣性 Slag
First class (4-5)
果形端正整齐,大小均匀,横径75—85 mm
The shape of the fruit is neat and even, with a transverse diameter of 75-85 mm
The fruit surface is clean and the skin is smooth, with a reddish color and even coloring, without obvious spots or defects

The meat is delicate, excellent slagging properties
Second class (3-4)
75 mm或者85—90 mm
The fruit shape is relatively upright and neat, with a uniform size and a transverse diameter of 70-75 or 85-90 mm
The fruit surface is relatively clean and smooth, with a yellowish color, allowing for one to two small spots or defects
Sour and sweet
The meat is tender, good slagging properties
Third class (2-3)
No obvious abnormal fruit, but overall poor performance
No obvious large spots or defects, but overall poor performance

Overall poor performance

Table 3

Grades classification of citrus comprehensive fruit quality"

等级 Class 得分 Score
一等品 First class ≥8
二等品 Second class 7.5-8
三等品 Third class 7-7.5
四等品 Fourth class <7

Table 4

Fruit external quality of Newhall navel orange in different orchards"

FL (mm)
FW (mm)
PFW (g)
LH -45.2±0.2gh 83.8±2.4fg 81.8±3.3def 306.7±41.6 bcd
YX -40.5±0.4c 87.5±4.9de 86.6±4.2b 300.0±10.3 cd
PY1 -36.9±1.6a 86.9±3.2def 77.9±1.3hij 263.3±20.4 fg
PY2 -43.8±1.6d 86.2±2.0def 77.3±2.1hij 223.3±10.2 fg
均值 Mean -41.6±3.7 86.1±1.6 80.9±4.2 273.3±38.4
Northern Guangxi-Southwest Jiangxi-Southwest Hunan
DB -37.1±0.3a 82.8±0.8h 77.2±0.5ij 236.7±14.6 hi
GC -38.8±0.8b 84.5±1.0efg 78.6±1.1ghij 256.7±7.1 fgh
FC -35.7±0.1a 91.4±2.3bc 82.2±1.4def 300.0±7.5 cd
XF -46.6±0.4fgh 92.4±1.8b 85.6±0.6b 313.3±5.9 bc
SY -44.2±0.4de 101.9±2.1a 89.6±0.9a 343.3±11.4 a
ZG -45.1±1.6def 84.6±1.8efg 81.0±1.3defg 266.7±17.1 ef
YZ -44.3±0.1de 91.3±1.1bc 84.9±0.7bc 326.7±3.8 ab
GY -48.5±0.2ij 69.1±0.9k 68.8±0.2l 160.0±0.5 k
均值 Mean -42.6±4.7 87.3±9.5 81.0±6.3 275.4±59.1
Western Hubei-Western Hunan
LS -47.0±2.6gh 77.9±1.2i 79.0±1.2ghij 261.1±17.1 fgh
XN -44.5±0.7de 78.1±0.7i 79.6±1.0fghi 250.5±8.4 fgh
BJ -45.8±0.2efg 82.3±0.2h 82.3±0.8de 287.5±3.8 de
ZJ -48.7±0.1ij 84.4±0.5efg 80.1±0.4efgh 265.8±3.9 ef
YD -51.0±1.6k 79.1±0.8i 76.4±0.5j 243.8±2.6 fgh
DJK -51.2±0.1k 72.1±1.0j 69.1±0.4l 178.3±5.8 k
均值 Mean -48.1±2.7 79.0±4.24 77.8±46.5 248.3±37.6
The middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River
YY -47.9±0.3hi 72.8±0.2j 73.3±0.8k 209.6±3.6 j
FJ -48.7±0.1ij 81.9±0.5gh 77.6±0.2hij 237.7±1.7 ghi
BB -50.0±0.5jk 74.2±0.1j 73.6±0.1k 209.6±3.6 j
均值 Mean -48.9±1.1 76.3±4.9 74.8±2.4 220.0±17.3
四川 Sichuan LB -51.2±0.1k 89.0±0.6cd 82.9±0.7cd 296.1±0.01 cd
云南 Yunnan JS -45.1±0.1def 86.9±0.2def 77.0±0.1ij 240.2±0 ghi
整体均值 Overall mean -41.3±18.8 83.5±7.5 79.2±5.2 260.3±41.6

Table 5

Fruit internal quality of Newhall navel orange in different orchards"

TSS (%)
TA (‰)
Vc (mg/100 mL)
JR (%)
ER (%)
LH 10.2±0.2l 6.1±0.6e 17.0±2.1g 42.1±1.9k 57.5±1.3a 74.2±0.5bcde
YX 12.8±0.2f 6.3±0.6de 20.3±1.8de 58.6±5.5de 57.7±1.0a 71.9±0.5fgh
PY1 12.0±0.1hi 4.4±0.1hi 27.2±0.8b 52.9±0.7fgh 49.9±0.7hi 70.2±0.9hij
PY2 12.1±0.1h 4.4±0.1i 27.8±1.0b 65.8±2.1a 51.5±1.4fgh 71.7±1.4fghi
均值 Mean 11.8±1.1 5.3±1.0 23.1±5.3 54.9±10.0 54.2±4.0 72.1±1.6
Northern Guangxi-Southwest Jiangxi-Southwest Hunan
DB 12.3±0.2gh 6.6±0.1d 18.7±0.7fg 49.3±0.2ij 57.6±1.4a 74.2±2.1bcde
GC 13.2±0.0e 6.4±0.2de 20.6±0.5de 63.1±2.8ab 53.6±1.9cde 71.9±0.9fgh
FC 11.4±0.1j 5.3±0.1g 21.5±0.6d 54.0±0.7fg 50.5±0.6ghi 73.3±0.2cdef
XF 14.4±0.1bc 4.1±0.4i 35.0±1.1a 51.2±0.8ghi 52.3±0.4efg 68.25±0.1kl
SY 11.6±0.2j 4.6±0.2hi 25.2±0.9c 52.0±0.1ghi 46.7±0.8k 67.6±2.1l
ZG 14.0±0.2d 4.9±0.0gh 28.5±1.1b 55.5±0.7ef 49.4±1.0ij 67.2±0.7l
YZ 14.7±0.1ab 6.3±0.1de 23.3±1.9c 61.8±0.3bc 47.9±0.8jk 70.5±0.2ghij
GY 14.9±0.2a 6.2±0.4de 23.8±0.6c 57.5±1.2de 47.7±0.2jk 69.9±0.8ijk
均值 Mean 13.3±1.2 5.6±1.0 24.6±5.1 55.2±5.6 50.7±3.6 70.3±2.6
Western Hubei-Western Hunan
LS 12.3±0.4gh 8.4±0.1a 14.7±0.4i 60.1±0.6bcd 58.1±0.7a 77.2±2.3a
XN 14.2±0.3cd 7.3±0.1c 19.4±0.7ef 59.4±2.7cd 54.2±0.5cde 71.2±1.2ghi
BJ 13.9±0.0d 8.3±0.4a 16.7±0.8gh 50.8±1.0ghij 55.2±1.0bcd 74.5±0.0bcd
ZJ 11.1±0.1k 6.3±0.3de 17.6±0.6fg 57.7±0.1de 55.4±1.2bc 72.5±0.2defg
YD 12.6±0.0fg 7.2±0.3c 17.5±0.7fg 53.7±0.2fg 57.3±0.3a 72.3±1.6efg
DJK 13.5±0.1e 7.5±0.2bc 18.0±0.7fg 50.9±0.7ghij 58.2±0.9a 75.0±0.6bc
均值 Mean 12.9±1.0 7.5±0.7 17.3±1.5 55.2±3.8 56.4±1.7 73.8±2.2
The middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River
YY 11.8±0.1ij 7.8±0.1b 15.0±0.0hi 48.0±0.8j 54.8±0.8bcd 75.7±0.0ab
FJ 11.7±0.1ij 6.4±0.3de 18.5±1.1fg 60.1±0.6bcd 53.3±0.9def 71.9±0.5fgh
BB 12.4±0.0gh 6.0±0.3ef 21.1±1.2de 58.2±0.8de 56.6±0.9ab 76.0±0.5ab
均值 Mean 12.0±0.3 6.7±1.0 18.1±2.8 55.1±6.3 54.9±1.6 74.5±2.3
四川 Sichuan LB 12.2±0.2h 4.3±1.0i 28.0±0.6b 53.2±0.3fgh 53.6±1.0cde 71.1±0.5 ghi
云南 Yunnan JS 12.8±0.2f 5.4±1.0fg 23.6±0.4c 50.2±1.4hij 51.3±2.1ghi 69.0±0.5 jkl
整体均值 Overall mean 12.7±1.2 6.1±1.2 21.7±5.0 55.1±5.7 53.5±3.6 72.1±2.8

Fig. 1

Classification of sensory quality grades"

Fig. 2

Correlation analysis of quality indicators Red and blue colors represent positive and negative correlations, respectively. *and** indicate significant correlation at 0.05 and 0.01 level, respectively"

Table 6

Score coefficient, contribution rate and represents metric of principal component"

主成分Principal component
1 2 3 4 5
CCI -0.11 0.11 -0.06 0.97* 0.03
FW -0.48 0.81* -0.16 0.16 -0.03
FL -0.18 0.97* -0.01 0.05 -0.01
PFW -0.12 0.96* -0.03 0.03 -0.14
TSS -0.17 -0.11 0.94* -0.07 0.13
TA 0.91* -0.19 0.29 -0.08 -0.01
TSS/TA -0.90* 0.15 0.12 -0.02 0.03
Vc -0.09 -0.12 0.12 0.03 0.97*
JR 0.76* -0.13 -0.25 -0.19 -0.14
ER 0.83* -0.29 -0.29 -0.03 -0.01
特征值 Eigenvalue 3.29 2.75 1.19 1.03 1.02
累计方差贡献 Cumulative variance contribution 32.95 60.54 72.48 82.87 93.09
代表指标 Representative index TSS/TA PFW TSS CCI Vc

Fig. 3

Cluster analysis chart of citrus quality index"

Table 7

Judgement atrix and consistency check"

CCI TSS TSS/TA Vc PFW 特征向量 Eigenvector 权重 Weight
CCI 1.00 0.33 0.20 0.50 0.25 0.11 0.06
TSS 3.00 1.00 0.33 2.00 0.50 0.30 0.16
TSS/TA 5.00 3.00 1.00 4.00 2.00 0.78 0.42
Vc 2.00 0.50 0.25 1.00 0.33 0.18 0.10
PFW 4.00 2.00 0.50 3.00 1.00 0.49 0.26

Fig. 4

Linear regression of three comprehensive evaluation indexes and sensory evaluation of three kinds of fruit quality AHP: The analytic hierarchy process; PCA: The principal component weight method; FCA: The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method"

Table 8

Validation of AHP evaluation model in different years"

年份 Year
2019—2020 2021
ZG 0.74 一等 First class 0.68 一等 First class
LB 0.67 一等 First class 0.77 一等 First class
PY 0.61 一等 First class 0.58 二等 Second class
GC 0.53 二等 Second class 0.52 二等 Second class
SY 0.46 二等 Second class 0.49 二等 Second class
DJK 0.31 三等 Third class 0.40 三等 Third class
YY 0.24 四等 Fourth class 0.17 四等 Fourth class

Fig. 5

Overview of meteorological data from different orchards PRE8-10: The amount of precipitation from August to October; PRE10-12: The amount of precipitation from October to December; APRE: The annual precipitation; SSD: The annual sunshine durations; AAT: The annual accumulated temperature; EAT: The annual effective accumulated temperature; DTR10-12: The diurnal temperature range from October to December; LST: The land surface temperature"

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