Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (15): 3264-3278.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2021.15.011


Effects of Drip Irrigation Methods on Photosynthetic Characteristics, Yield and Irrigation Water Use of Apple

LIU Xing(),CAO HongXia(),LIAO Yang,ZHOU ChenGuang,LI HuangTao   

  1. College of Water Conservancy and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University/Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of Ministry of Education, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi
  • Received:2020-09-08 Accepted:2020-12-25 Online:2021-08-01 Published:2021-08-10
  • Contact: HongXia CAO;


【Objective】 The aim of this study was to explore a high-efficient production drip irrigation model of apple tree in Loess Plateau.【Method】 In this study, 8-year-old Hanfu apple trees were took as the research object with different irrigation amount and pattern experiments. These experiments were divided into three treatment groups of root-divided alternative irrigation(ADI), single pipe drip irrigation(UDI) and double pipe drip irrigation(BDI). ADI, UDI and BDI were supplied with three different irrigation levels: high water (W1), middle water (W2) and low water (W3), respectively. Therefore, there were nine treatments based on orthogonal experiment design in number. Then, the responses of the important apple tree parameters, including canopy structure, photosynthetic characteristics, yield and irrigation efficiency, were studied.【Result】 The results showed that less irrigation amount (W2 and W3) significantly reduced leaf area index, leaf inclination angle and clumping index (P<0.05), and increase the irrigation water use efficiency. Compared with single pipe drip irrigation, the drip pattern of alternate root division significantly increased leaf area index (P<0.05), and significantly decreased leaf inclination angle and clumping index (P<0.05). The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and carboxylation efficiency of apple leaves at 11:00 increased at first and then decreased with the increase of DAF. At the fruit expansion stage (DAF=80 d), the net photosynthetic rate, carboxylation efficiency and leaf instantaneous water use efficiency under ADI-W2 were higher than that under other patterns. The diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate of apple leaves under different water treatments showed “M” pattern. The phenomenon of “midday depression” of net photosynthetic rate under ADI treatment was not obvious. The peak value of instantaneous water use efficiency of leaves of all treatments appeared at 10:00 a.m, besides the treatment of ADI-W2. ADI-W2 delayed the emergence of peak value, and exhibited a highest daily average instantaneous water use efficiency (3.22 μmol·mmol-1). Furthermore, ADI-W2 had the best hardness (9.09 kg·cm-2), fruit shape index (0.88), big fruit rate (63.46%), single fruit weight (224.12 g) and yield (33 010.15 kg·hm-2). The combination with W3 could improve the irrigation water use efficiency, and the irrigation water use efficiency under ADI-W3 treatment (36.21 kg·m-3) was the highest.【Conclusion】 Finally, ADI-W2 treatment could be defined to be the best drip irrigation mode of water-saving and yield increasing of apple comprehensive scoring method in Loess Plateau area in this study. The results provided a scientific theoretical support for apple drip irrigation management in Loess Plateau.

Key words: drip irrigation method, irrigation amount, photosynthetic characteristics, yield, root-divided alternative irrigation, comprehensive evaluation, Loess Plateau region

Fig. 1

Temperature and rainfall during the trial period of 2018-2019"

Table 1

Irrigation amount of each treatment in 2018-2019"

Irrigation level
Irrigation quota (m3·hm-2)
Irrigation frequency
2018 2019 2018 2019
W1 1363 1453 7 8
W2 1023 1089 7 8
W3 749 800 7 8

Table 2

Effects of drip irrigation methods and irrigation amount on canopy structure parameters of apple trees"

Canopy index
Drip irrigation
Irrigation amount
开花后天数 Days after flowering (d)
2018 2019
20 80 140 20 80 140
Leaf area index

BDI W1 1.19abc 1.79bcd 2.08bc 1.19bc 1.77abcd 2.06b
W2 1.13c 1.71cd 2.12bc 1.06d 1.66cd 2.08b
W3 1.12c 1.73cd 1.94d 1.19bc 1.71bcd 1.96bc
ADI W1 1.24ab 1.81abc 2.13b 1.27ab 1.81abc 2.03bc
W2 1.27ab 1.92a 2.24a 1.35a 1.92a 2.35a
W3 1.17bc 1.76bcd 2.04c 1.15cd 1.87ab 1.95bc
UDI W1 1.28a 1.86ab 2.05bc 1.25b 1.82abc 2.05bc
W2 1.17bc 1.8abc 1.92d 1.11cd 1.81abc 1.9bc
W3 1.10c 1.67d 1.86d 1.18bc 1.62d 1.87c
Leaf inclination
BDI W1 23.59a 18.43b 16.89ab 23.44a 19.11a 17.02a
W2 23.46a 17.3cd 16.68abc 22.98a 17.12c 16.97a
W3 22.27bc 16.01e 14.19f 22.61ab 15.72e 14.48b
ADI W1 23.27ab 17.71bc 17.30ab 24.17a 18.01b 17.34a
W2 21.72cd 19.57a 17.36a 22.23b 19.44a 17.79a
W3 20.32e 16.26de 15.60de 19.63c 16.24de 14.81b
UDI W1 23.44a 16.80cde 16.38bcd 22.48ab 17.04cd 16.84a
W2 20.15e 16.68cde 15.83cde 20.30c 16.89cd 15.59b
W3 20.96de 16.40de 14.97ef 19.33c 16.7cd 15.51b
Clumping index
BDI W1 0.80a 0.74ab 0.60ab 0.77ab 0.76a 0.66a
W2 0.65bcd 0.63d 0.58ab 0.71bc 0.66ab 0.53cd
W3 0.63cd 0.61d 0.55bc 0.67c 0.57b 0.52d
ADI W1 0.71b 0.71bc 0.59ab 0.75ab 0.73c 0.56bcd
W2 0.62d 0.60d 0.50c 0.66c 0.61c 0.52d
W3 0.61d 0.53e 0.49c 0.56d 0.53cd 0.42e
UDI W1 0.81a 0.78a 0.63a 0.82a 0.80cd 0.57bcd
W2 0.71b 0.71bc 0.61ab 0.71bc 0.65de 0.59bc
W3 0.70bc 0.65cd 0.57ab 0.67c 0.62e 0.62ab
叶面积指数 Leaf area index 叶倾角 Leaf inclination 丛生指数 Clumping index
开花后天数 Days after flowering (d) 开花后天数 Days after flowering (d) 开花后天数 Days after flowering (d)
2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019
20 80 140 20 80 140 20 80 140 20 80 140 20 80 140 20 80 140
滴灌方式Method ns * * ns * ** ns * ** ns ns * ns ** * ns * ns
灌水量Irrigation amount * * ns ns * ** ns * ** ns * ** ** ** * ** ** *
Method×Irrigation amount
ns ns * ns ns ** ns ns * ns ns * ns ns ns ns ns ns

Fig. 2

Effects of drip irrigation methods and irrigation amount on photosynthetic characteristics of apple trees in different periods"

Fig. 3

Effects of drip irrigation methods and irrigation amount on diurnal variation of photosynthetic characteristics of apple trees"

Table 3

Correlation analysis of average day photosynthetic characteristic index"

LI 0.41 1
CI 0.13 0.44 1
Pn 0.66* 0.80** 0.59 1
Ci -0.65* -0.79** -0.46 -0.93** 1
Tr 0.67* 0.39 0.82** 0.55 -0.30 1
Gs 0.47 0.34 0.84** 0.47 -0.26 0.85** 1
CE 0.53 0.83** 0.53 0.85** -0.69* 0.43 0.35 1
LWUE 0.68* 0.67* 0.11 0.80** -0.91** -0.16 -0.12 0.87** 1

Table 4

Effects of different treatments on apple appearance, yield and water use efficiency"

Coloring degree
Fruit firmness
Fruit shape index
Big fruit percentage (%)
Fruit number per tree
Single fruit weight (g)
Fruit yield (kg·hm-2)
Irrigation water use efficiency (kg·m-3)
2018 BDI-W1 1.93ab 7.25cde 0.85ab 61.03a 141ab 200.84abc 28374.67b 20.82d
BDI-W2 1.95ab 7.67cd 0.85ab 51.76c 132abcd 194.58bc 25720.15d 25.14c
BDI-W3 1.97ab 8.08bc 0.84ab 47.66cd 128bcd 193.22bc 24731.36e 33.02ab
ADI-W1 1.91ab 8.04bcd 0.88a 60.06a 136ab 214.57ab 29120.15b 21.37d
ADI-W2 2.11a 9.09a 0.88a 63.46a 147a 224.12a 33010.15a 32.27b
ADI-W3 2.12a 9.04ab 0.86ab 53.55bc 133abc 204.48abc 27120.15c 36.21a
UDI-W1 1.96ab 6.03f 0.78bc 58.01ab 130abcd 193.5bc 25131.36de 18.44de
UDI-W2 1.83b 6.56ef 0.8abc 43.67d 118cd 195.36bc 23131.36f 15.92e
UDI-W3 1.79b 7.04de 0.75c 43.04d 115d 184.45c 21131.36g 19.40de
2019 BDI-W1 2.22a 7.01d 0.82abc 55.97bc 203a 195.42bc 39670.85c 27.30e
BDI-W2 2.11ab 7.28d 0.85abc 58.15ab 174bc 193.26bc 33649.83e 30.90de
BDI-W3 2.06abc 8.38bc 0.84abc 52.08cd 162cd 186.96c 30210.90f 37.76bc
ADI-W1 2.08ab 8.91ab 0.88a 62.02a 198ab 213.43ab 42249.43b 29.08de
ADI-W2 2.15ab 9.01ab 0.86ab 63.65a 196ab 223.88a 43970.58a 40.38b
ADI-W3 2.08ab 9.51a 0.88a 54.66bc 186abc 199.03bc 37089.37d 46.36a
UDI-W1 1.98bcd 5.65e 0.81abc 53.03bcd 169cd 188.65c 31931.06ef 21.98f
UDI-W2 1.88cd 7.39cd 0.8bc 47.49de 147d 193.79bc 28489.92g 26.16ef
UDI-W3 1.83d 7.27d 0.77c 42.01e 147d 182.46c 26769.12g 33.46cd
双因素方差分析(F 值检验)Two-Way ANOVA (F value test)
2018 M ns ** ns * * * ** **
I ns ** ns * ns ns ** **
M×I ns ns ns * ns ns * **
2019 M ns * ns * * ** ** **
I ns * ns * * ns * **
M×I ns ns ns * * ns ** **

Table 5

Comprehensive evaluation of subordinate function on Apple appearance, yield and water use efficiency"

Drip irrigation
Irrigation amount
Coloring degree
Fruit firmness
Fruit shape index
Big fruit percentage
Fruit number
Single fruit weight (g)
Fruit yield
Irrigation water use efficiency
Comprehensive score
2018 BDI W1 0.42 0.40 0.77 0.88 0.81 0.41 0.61 0.24 0.55 4
W2 0.48 0.54 0.77 0.43 0.53 0.26 0.39 0.45 0.47 5
W3 0.55 0.67 0.69 0.23 0.41 0.22 0.30 0.84 0.47 6
ADI W1 0.36 0.66 1.00 0.83 0.66 0.76 0.67 0.27 0.73 3
W2 0.97 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.81 0.89 1
W3 1.00 0.98 0.85 0.51 0.56 0.50 0.50 1.00 0.78 2
UDI W1 0.52 0.00 0.23 0.73 0.47 0.23 0.34 0.12 0.22 7
W2 0.12 0.17 0.38 0.03 0.09 0.28 0.17 0.00 0.20 8
W3 0.00 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.06 9
CV 0.06 0.16 0.04 0.12 0.12 0.07 0.18 0.24
权重 Weight 0.06 0.16 0.05 0.13 0.12 0.07 0.18 0.24
2019 BDI W1 1.00 0.35 0.45 0.65 1.00 0.31 0.75 0.22 0.53 4
W2 0.72 0.42 0.73 0.75 0.48 0.26 0.40 0.37 0.46 6
W3 0.59 0.71 0.64 0.47 0.27 0.11 0.20 0.65 0.52 5
ADI W1 0.64 0.84 1.00 0.92 0.91 0.75 0.90 0.29 0.59 3
W2 0.82 0.87 0.82 1.00 0.88 1.00 1.00 0.75 0.95 1
W3 0.64 1.00 1.00 0.58 0.70 0.40 0.60 1.00 0.75 2
UDI W1 0.38 0.00 0.36 0.51 0.39 0.15 0.30 0.00 0.30 7
W2 0.13 0.45 0.27 0.25 0.00 0.27 0.10 0.17 0.12 8
W3 0.00 0.42 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.47 0.03 9
CV 0.06 0.14 0.05 0.14 0.08 0.06 0.13 0.30
权重 Weight 0.06 0.14 0.06 0.14 0.08 0.06 0.13 0.30
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