Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (3): 441-452.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.03.004


Effects of Different Nitrogen Gradients on Yield and Nitrogen Uptake of Hybrid Seed Maize in Northwest China

LIU Dan1,2,4(), AN YuLi1,3, TAO XiaoXiao5, WANG XiaoZhong1,3, LÜ DianQiu4, GUO YanJun4, CHEN XinPing1,3, ZHANG WuShuai1,3()   

  1. 1College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University/Key Laboratory of Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, Chongqing 400715
    2Xinjiang Agricultural Vocational Technical College, Changji 831100, Xinjiang
    3Interdisciplinary Research Center for Agriculture Green Development in Yangtze River Basin, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715
    4College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715
    5Changji Prefecture Meteorological Bureau, Changji 831100, Xinjiang
  • Received:2022-01-23 Accepted:2022-04-18 Online:2023-02-01 Published:2023-02-14
  • Contact: ZHANG WuShuai;


【Objective】The law of nitrogen uptake and accumulation of maize in seed production in China is unclear. In view of this, the responses of biomass accumulation, yield formation, and the nitrogen uptake to nitrogen supply were studied in order to provide the theoretical basis for green and efficient hybrid maize seed production. 【Method】 Taking the parent varieties combination of large area seed production as the experimental material, the on-site experiment was carried out from 2019 to 2020. A completely random block design was applied to study the effects of different nitrogen gradients on parental biomass, grain yield and nitrogen uptake and accumulation of maize seed production. Four nitrogen gradients were set up as basal fertilizer control (CK), 168, 240 and 320 kg N·hm-2, respectively. 【Result】The accumulation of parental biomass of hybrid maize seed production increased with the increase of nitrogen gradients. The yield of maize seed production increased at first and then remained stable with the increase of nitrogen gradients. N240 treatment achieved higher yield, nitrogen use efficiency and grain nitrogen concentration at the same time, which were consistent in the two years. The yield under N168 treatment was higher than that under N240 treatment in the second year, but the nitrogen concentration was lower than that under N240 treatment. The nitrogen concentration of the whole plant of female parent straw and male parent was higher in high nitrogen gradient treatment than that in low nitrogen gradient treatment. The critical nitrogen concentration of maximum biomass of female parent at filling stage was 15.08 g·kg-1, and there was a linear correlation between female parent biomass and nitrogen concentration at harvest stage. The post-silking biomass of each topdressing nitrogen fertilizer treatment was higher than that of pre-silking stages in two years, and increased with the increase of nitrogen gradients. The change rule of post-silking nitrogen uptake ratio with nitrogen gradients was consistent with the biomass. There was no significant difference in yield level, biomass accumulation, and nitrogen uptake between N320 treatment and N240 treatment. Under the premise of comprehensive consideration of yield and hybrid seed quality, N240 could be regarded as the recommended nitrogen application rate for hybrid maize seed production in this region. 【Conclusion】 The optimal nitrogen application rate could increase yield and nitrogen use efficiency by regulating the ratio of nitrogen uptake for maize parents in pre- and post-silking in seed maize production. This study revealed that optimizing nitrogen application rate to stabilize nitrogen uptake in the pre-silking stage and ensure nitrogen supply after anthesis was the key to achieve high yield and nitrogen use efficiency of seed maize, and provided a theoretical basis for sustainable production of hybrid seed maize.

Key words: hybrid seed maize, biomass, yield, critical nitrogen concentration, nitrogen uptake

Fig. 1

Daily temperature and daily precipitation during the growth period of hybrid seed maize in the experimental site in 2019-2020"

Table 1

Nitrogen application rate and times under different treatments"

基肥 Basal fertilizer 追肥 Topdressing 总施氮量
Total N (kg·hm-2)
施氮量 N rate (kg·hm-2) 施氮量 N rate (kg·hm-2) 次数 Times
CK 36 0 0 36
N168 36 132 6 168
N240 36 204 6 240
N320 36 284 6 320

Table 2

Grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency, and nitrogen harvest index under different treatments"

Yield (Mg·hm-2)
Partial factor productivity from applied N (kg·kg-1)
Nitrogen use efficiency (%)
Agronomic efficiency of applied N (kg·kg-1)
Nitrogen harvest index
2019 CK 4.0b 0.32b
N168 4.8b 28.7a 21c 5.0c 0.34b
N240 6.3a 26.1a 33a 11.0a 0.37a
N320 6.2a 19.5b 29b 6.9b 0.33b
2020 CK 5.1b 0.39c
N168 7.7a 46.2a 28b 16.7a 0.49a
N240 7.5a 31.1b 34a 10.0b 0.41bc
N320 7.2a 22.7c 27b 7.0c 0.44b
显著性 Significance
氮处理N treatment (N) ** ** ** ** **
年份Year (Y) NS ** NS ** **
氮处理×年份N×Y ** ** NS ** **

Fig. 2

Biomass of female and male parents of hybrid seed maize in different nitrogen gradients in 2019-2020 A-D, E-H represented CK, N168, N240, and N320 treatments in 2019 and 2020, respectively"

Fig. 3

The nitrogen concentration changes of female parent straw and the whole plant of male parent in different nitrogen gradients"

Fig. 4

Nitrogen concentration of female parent grain under different nitrogen gradients during different stages in 2019 (A) and 2020 (B). Different letters above columns indicate statistical significance at P<0.05 within the same column."

Fig. 5

Relationships between straw biomass and nitrogen concentration in critical growth stages of female parent (A: filling stage; B: mature stage) *** represented significant correlation at P<0.001, ** denoted significant correlation at P<0.01"

Fig. 6

Nitrogen uptake of female and male parents in different nitrogen gradients"

Table 3

Biomass accumulation and nitrogen uptake in female parent pre- and post-silking stage"

生物量累积 Biomass (Mg·hm-2) 氮素吸收 N uptake (kg N·hm-2) 每吨籽粒需氮量
Nitrogen demand of unit grain weight
Pre-silking stage
Post-silking stage
Pre-silking stage
Post-silking stage
2019 CK 6.4a 6.7c 94b 28b 29.8b
N168 6.9a 8.4bc 111b 44b 32.2ab
N240 7.6a 9.6ab 135a 62a 32.0ab
N320 7.6a 11.4a 145a 78a 36.6a
2020 CK 7.4b 7.0b 108b 33c 19.7b
N168 8.2a 11.6ab 126b 68ab 23.3b
N240 9.0a 10.7ab 157a 56bc 29.3a
N320 8.4a 12.6a 152a 76a 30.1a
显著性 Significance
氮处理 Treatment (N) NS ** ** ** **
年份Year (Y) NS NS NS NS **
氮处理×年份N×Y NS NS NS NS NS
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