Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (8): 1503-1514.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.08.007


Synergistic Effects of Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Content in Water-Stable Aggregates as well as Microbial Biomass on Crop Yield Under Long-Term Straw Combined Chemical Fertilizers Application

HAN ZiXuan1(), FANG JingJing2(), WU XuePing1(), JIANG Yu3(), SONG XiaoJun1, LIU XiaoTong1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Efficient Utilization of Arid and Semi-arid Arable Land in Northern China (the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081
    2 College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048
    3 Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences/ Heihe Branch National Soil Quality Aihui Observation and Testing Station, Heihe 164300, Heilongjiang
  • Received:2022-03-24 Accepted:2022-04-19 Online:2023-04-16 Published:2023-04-23


【Objective】The effects of long-term straw combined application of chemical fertilizers on the content of aggregates, distributions of aggregate-associated organic carbon and nitrogen, and soil microbial biomass were studied to reveal the promotion of soil fertility and productivity. 【Method】Soil samples were collected from a 40-year long-term experiment. The research was conducted with 4 treatments: pure chemical fertilizer (NP), straw with chemical fertilizer (S+NP), straw with 1/2 chemical fertilizer (S+1/2NP), and straw with 1/4 chemical fertilizer (S+1/4NP), and the straw was returned with the amount of 3 000 kg·hm-2, chemical fertilizer NP was pure N 150 kg·hm-2 and P2O5 150 kg·hm-2 conducted. All soils samples were separated into four aggregate-size classes (>2 mm, 0.25-2 mm, 0.053-0.25 mm, and <0.053 mm) by wet sieving. Organic carbon and total nitrogen content of aggregates and soil microbial biomass content were measured. 【Result】(1) Long-term application of chemical fertilizers with straw reduced soil bulk density, while improved the stability of aggregates. Compared with NP, the bulk density of S+NP decreased by 4.7%, while the proportion of aggregates >2 mm in size, the average weight diameter (MWD) and geometric weight diameter (GWD) increased by 254.4%, 76.5% and 91.3%, respectively. (2) In the three chemical fertilizers combined with straw return, the percentage of aggregates >2 mm, MWD and GWD under S+NP and S+1/2NP were significantly increased by 49.1%-52.4%, 19.43%-22.4% and 24.2%-33.3%, compared with S+1/4NP, respectively. (3) Compared with NP, S+NP, S+1/2NP and S+1/4NP increased the contribution rate of aggregates >2 mm and >0.25 mm to SOC and total nitrogen, and significantly improved the SOC, SMBC and SMBN content in bulk soil. Among them, the SOC content was the highest under S+NP, which was 6.3% and 12.6% higher than that under S+1/2NP and S+1/4NP, respectively. (4) The yield was showed that S+NP>NP>S+1/2NP>S+1/4NP, and S+NP increased wheat yield by 5.83%-83.6% compared with other treatments. (5) Positive correlation was revealed between soil aggregate stability, carbon and nitrogen content and crop yield, and >2 mm aggregate content, while MWD and GWD were significantly or extremely significant with the total soil SOC, SMBC content and wheat yield, respectively.【Conclusion】In the dark brown soil area, the long-term straw returning and fertilizer application of 150 kg N·hm-2 and 150 kg P2O5·hm-2 could improve aggregate stability, soil organic carbon content, microbial biomass and yield, and achieve the synergistic effect of soil structure improvement, fertility improvement and crop yield increase.

Key words: straw returned, chemical fertilizer, dark brown soil, water-stable aggregates, carbon and nitrogen content, microbial biomass, wheat yield

Table 1

The soil bulk density, distribution and stability index of water-stable aggregates under different fertilization treatments"

Bulk density (g·cm-3)
团聚体质量百分比 Proportion of soil aggregates (%) MWD
>2 mm 0.25-2 mm 0.053-0.25 mm <0.053 mm
NP 1.34 ± 0.09 a 9.21 ± 0.23 c 52.79 ± 2.49 a 25.06 ± 1.84 a 12.94 ± 0.78 a 1.96 ± 0.07 c 0.46 ± 0.01 c
S+NP 1.28 ± 0.11 c 32.63 ± 1.43 a 45.95 ± 1.35 c 12.53 ± 1.04 c 8.89 ± 0.39 c 3.46 ± 0.09 a 0.88 ± 0.02 a
S+1/2NP 1.30 ± 0.08 b 33.32 ± 1.49 a 41.77 ± 2.35 d 14.05 ± 0.94 bc 10.86 ± 0.78 b 3.38 ± 0.09 a 0.82 ± 0.03 a
S+1/4NP 1.31 ± 0.10 b 21.87 ± 1.58 b 49.75 ± 3.49 b 16.33 ± 1.01 b 12.06 ± 1.04 a 2.83 ± 0.06 b 0.66 ± 0.01 b

Fig. 1

The contents of SOC and TN under different fertilization treatments Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among treatments (P<0.05). The same below"

Fig. 2

The contents and distributions of SOC and TN in soil water-stable aggregate size fractions under different long-term fertilization treatments"

Table 2

Microbial biomass and wheat yield under different fertilization treatments"

Grain yield (t·hm-2)
NP 178.21 ± 1.10 c 36.27 ± 0.71 c 4.91 ± 0.13 b 1.02 ± 0.13 c 2.87 ± 0.17 b
S+NP 365.34 ± 0.51 b 42.21 ± 0.34 b 8.66 ± 0.11 a 1.74 ± 0.12 b 2.97 ± 0.21 a
S+1/2NP 400.86 ± 0.92 b 46.41 ± 0.73 a 8.64 ± 0.16 a 2.04 ± 0.22 ab 2.12 ± 0.16 c
S+1/4NP 463.74 ± 1.21 a 46.54 ± 0.36 a 9.96 ± 0.18 a 2.46 ± 0.43 a 1.56 ± 0.09 d

Fig. 3

Correlation between water-stable aggregates proportion with SOC, TN content, and wheat yield under chemical fertilizer and combined application of chemical fertilizer with straw return In the Spearman correlation analysis, the individual variable distribution is shown on the diagonal line. Diagonal line Lower left corner Scatter plot. Diagonal upper right-up correlation, among which“·”Means P<0.1,“*”Means significant correlation (P<0.05), “**”and “***”Means extremely significant correlation (P<0.01 and P<0.001). The same as below"

Fig. 4

Correlation between water-stable aggregates proportion with SOC, TN content, and wheat yield under straw return combined with different quantitative chemical fertilizer treatments"

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