Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (6): 1019-1034.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.06.001


Identification of Excellent Wheat Germplasms and Classification of Source-Sink Types

NAN Rui1(), YANG YuCun1, SHI FangHui1, ZHANG LiNing1, MI TongXi1, ZHANG LiQiang2, LI ChunYan2, SUN FengLi1, XI YaJun1, ZHANG Chao1()   

  1. 1 College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University/Key Laboratory of Wheat Biology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi
    2 Baoji Longxian Seed Workstation, Baoji 712100, Shaanxi
  • Received:2022-11-17 Accepted:2023-01-03 Online:2023-03-16 Published:2023-03-23


【Objective】 The aim of this study is to screen the evaluation indexes of wheat source-sink and classify the source-sink types. In addition, the relationships between different source-sink types and the agronomic traits, yield and grain quality of wheat were also clarified, which provides a better understanding of wheat source-sink metabolism and wheat breeding. 【Method】 In this study, the related agronomic traits of source metabolism and sink metabolism of 190 wheat varieties which from different regions were measured. Then, the source-sink metabolic capacity of wheat was evaluated by principal component analysis, and the superior wheat materials were selected according to the composite score. Furthermore, the hierarchical clustering was conducted based on the source size (leaf area), source activity, sink number and sink activity. Then, based on the clustering results, the source-sink types of wheat were classified and the source-sink characteristics of different region of wheats were analyzed. Meanwhile, the agronomic, yield and quality traits of different wheat source-sink types were compared and analyzed. 【Result】 For better understanding the results, six indicators related to source activity were converted into three independent indicators (photochemical quenching coefficient, maximum photosynthetic potential, chlorophyll content), and five indicators related to sink activity were converted into two independent indicators (maximum filling rate, filling duration) based on the principal component analysis. The cumulative contributions of three source activity indicators and two sink activity indicators were 82.80% and 92.90%, respectively. Then the top 10 wheat varieties were screened based on the source activity, source size (leaf area), sink activity, and sink number (number of spike grains). According to the source-library relationship, all the wheat varieties were divided into three major categories and eight subcategories, including sufficient source-weak sink type (medium source-weak sink type, strong source-medium sink type), weak source-sufficient sink type (medium source-strong sink type, weak source-medium sink type) and source-sink balance type (weak source-weak sink type limited by sink activity, weak source-weak sink type limited by source activity and grain number per spike, medium source-medium sink type, and strong source-strong sink type). 76.84% of wheat lines were contained in three subcategories (weak source-weak sink type, the medium source-strong sink type, and strong source-strong sink type), other wheat lines were distributed in other subcategories evenly. Most wheat varieties of China showed similar source-sink relationship, which presented the medium level of source activity, leaf area and grain number per spike, while the sink activity was high. But the sink activity of wheat varieties which were cultivated at the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River is low. The plant height, length of uppermost internode and spikelet number in different categories indicated that the sufficient source-weak sink type>source-sink balance type>weak source-sufficient sink type, and the dry protein content, dry wet gluten content and sedimentation value in different categories showed that source-weak sink type > source-sink balance type > weak source-sufficient sink type. Grain water absorption showed that the stronger the sink activity had the higher the water absorption rate. The yield of per plant was different among different source-bank groups, but it was positively correlated with the source activity and the number of grains per spike in the three subcategories which contained most wheat varieties. 【Conclusion】 In this study, photochemical quenching coefficient, maximum photosynthetic potential and chlorophyll content could be used as the main indexes to evaluate the activity of wheat source. The maximum filling rate and filling duration could be used as the main indexes to evaluate the activity of wheat sink. In practical production, the wheat yield could be improved by increasing the number of grains per spike and the activity of source. When the supply capacity of source is stronger than the absorption capacity of sink, the plant height, peduncle length, spikelet number, dry protein content, dry wet gluten content and sedimentation value would be increased. Strong sink activity would help us to improve the water absorption of wheat grains.

Key words: wheat, evaluation indicators, source-sink type, agronomic traits, yield traits, quality traits

Table 1

Variation range and genetic diversity of source-sink indexes in wheat"

Minimum value
Maximum value
Coefficient of variation
Diversity index
Source traits
SPAD 30.15 67.58 0.11 2.00
Fv’/Fm 0.03 0.32 0.30 2.05
Fv/Fm 0.81 0.87 0.01 1.83
NPQ 0.26 1.43 0.27 2.04
qP 0.06 0.53 0.26 2.03
Fm 11259.33 28458.33 0.19 2.02
叶面积 Leaf area (cm2) 14.04 59.40 0.26 1.96
Sink traits
灌浆持续期 Grain filling duration (d) 27.00 49.14 0.10 2.02
平均灌浆速率 Average filling rate (g·d-1) 0.73 1.78 0.16 2.09
最大灌浆速率 Maximal filling rate (g·d-1) 1.01 2.71 0.17 2.08
千粒重 thousand-grain weight (g) 22.41 60.11 0.16 2.07
籽粒面积 Grain area (mm2) 12.14 23.99 0.11 2.05
穗粒数 Grain number per spike 21.73 63.56 0.19 2.08

Table 2

Initial eigenvalue, variance contribution rate and cumulative contribution rate of wheat source active and sink active principal components"

初始特征值Initial eigenvalues 提取载荷平方和Extraction eigenvalues
Variance (%)
Cumulative (%)
Variance (%)
Cumulative (%)
Source activity
1 2.44 40.62 40.62 2.44 40.62 40.62
2 1.52 25.37 65.99 1.52 25.37 65.99
3 1.01 16.81 82.80 1.01 16.81 82.80
4 0.70 11.61 94.41
5 0.32 5.27 99.68
6 0.02 0.32 100.00
Sink activity
1 3.49 69.89 69.89 3.49 69.89 69.89
2 1.15 23.01 92.89 1.15 23.01 92.89
3 0.26 5.13 98.02
4 0.08 1.63 99.65
5 0.02 0.34 100.00

Table 3

Principal component load matrix of wheat source activity and sink activity"

特征 Characteristic 性状 Trait 第一主成分 Component 1 第二主成分 Component 2 第三主成分 Component 3
Source active
SPAD -0.27 0.56 0.55
NPQ 0.61 -0.55 0.41
Fv’/Fm 0.80 0.54 -0.22
Fv/Fm -0.28 0.60 0.42
qP 0.86 0.45 -0.21
Fm -0.72 0.23 -0.52
Sink activity
灌浆持续期 Grain filling duration (d) -0.18 0.96
平均灌浆速率 Average filling rate (g·d-1) 0.95 -0.21
最大灌浆速率 Maximal filling rate (g·d-1) 0.96 -0.14
千粒重 Thousand-grain weight (g) 0.93 0.30
籽粒面积 Grain area (mm2) 0.88 0.27

Table 4

Top ten wheat varieties with source activity and their principal component scores"

Component 1 score
Component 2 score
Component 3 score
Comprehensive score of sink activity
IR39 5.44 -0.17 -0.42 2.09
红粒无名 Hongliwuming 3.52 2.60 -0.04 2.09
西农1376 Xinong1376 2.78 0.80 0.13 1.36
印度蓝粒 Yindulanli 3.32 -0.27 -0.21 1.24
MK186 2.49 1.17 -0.57 1.21
豫麦54 Yumai54 1.45 1.97 0.41 1.16
SIRMIONE 2.78 0.01 0.15 1.16
西农100 Xinong100 1.59 3.08 -1.67 1.14
开麦21 Kaimai21 1.78 1.83 -0.31 1.14
疙绉麦 Gezhoumai 1.88 0.65 1.12 1.12

Table 5

Top ten wheat varieties in source size"

材料 Matera 叶面积 Leaf area (cm2)
GRIFONE 235 59.40
H 798 48.38
LOHARI Y91-92 No.123 46.84
西昌76-9 Xichang76-9 42.02
RED-BOBS-222 40.91
中国春 China Spring 40.85
Claudia 40.74
MK186 39.51

Table 6

Top ten wheat varieties in sink activity and their principal component scores"

Wheat materal
Component 1 score
Component 2 score
Comprehensive score of sink activity
开麦21 Kaimai21 4.43 0.25 3.15
豫麦19 Yumai19 4.26 0.41 3.07
西农928 Xinong928 3.94 0.89 2.95
中麦578 Zhongmai578 4.09 0.12 2.89
宁麦12 Ningmai12 3.39 1.41 2.7
FS056 3.55 -0.38 2.39
周麦26 Zhoumai26 3.12 0.68 2.33
内乡182 Neixiang182 3.59 -0.84 2.31
豫农949 Yunong949 3.72 -1.33 2.29
丰抗8号 Fengkang8 3.29 -0.14 2.27

Table 7

Top ten wheat varieties in sink"

Wheat materal
Grain number per spike
洲元9369 Zhouyuan9369 63.56
Claudia 58.28
YDSS 58.17
红粒(zh)Hongli(zh) 58.14
焦麦266 Jiaomai266 57.07
IR89 56.95
IR202 56.95
西昌76-9 Xichang76-9 54.95
IR4 54.06
IR211 39.11

Fig. 1

Source-sink characteristics and clustering results of 190 wheat materials"

Table 8

Distribution of 190 wheat materials in eight groups"

Source activity
Leaf area (cm2)
Sink activity
Grain number per spike
0.19±0.46b 21.54±2.79de -1.68±0.73de 46.10±4.91ab
1.81±0.49a 18.75±2.73e -0.95±1.27de 42.37±7.85bc
-1.89±0.51c 20.92±3.74e 1.04±0.84a 38.67±2.44cde
-0.21±0.88b 30.57±5.97bc -1.73±0.92e 34.43±5.52e
-0.24±0.55b 26.69±5.16cd 0.16±0.61b 35.41±5.42de
0.14±0.60b 23.89±4.38de 1.19±0.96a 40.63±6.00bcde
-0.05±0.93b 53.64±5.53a 0.00±0.88bc 41.19±5.48bcd
0.22±0.67b 32.50±6.23b -0.79±0.81cd 49.69±5.94a

Table 9

Growth period and source - sink type distribution of wheat in different regions"

Huang-huai winter wheat area
Wheat region in the middle and lower reaches of yangtze river
Southwest spring wheat region
Northern winter wheat region
5 1 6
2 1 1
1 13
26 4 1 21
32 2 4 3 14
8 1 1 16
开花时间(月/日)Flowering time (M/D) 4/11-5/03 4/12-4/17 4/13-4/19 4/13-4/20 4/09-4/30
Average flowering time (M/D)
4/16 4/13 4/15 4/17 4/17
成熟时间(月/日)Maturity time (M/D) 5/16-6/04 5/18-5/29 5/21-6/01 5/22-6/02 5/16-6/09
Average maturity time (M/D)
5/25 5/23 5/24 5/26 5/25

Table 10

Agronomic and yield traits of wheat with different source-sink types"

Plant height
Length of uppermost internode (cm)
Sikelet number per spike
Thousand-grain weight (g)
Gain number per spike
Single plant yield
104.29±19.32bc 33.84±8.59bc 10.67±2.26a 35.96±4.78e 46.10±4.78ab 17.56±4.46ab
100.40±15.04bc 33.67±6.95bc 10.27±0.41a 39.82±5.54de 42.37±6.41bc 17.75±4.56ab
95.28±18.61bc 32.27±4.77bc 8.90±2.88a 49.07±1.25ab 38.67±2.11cde 16.99±6.05ab
119.73±31.20ab 40.89±13.06ab 11.02±2.36a 35.09±5.22e 34.43±5.33e 13.11±3.63b
107.96±22.54abc 35.69±6.70abc 9.72±2.84a 45.44±3.45bc 35.41±5.37de 15.77±4.37ab
93.95±18.55c 31.67±6.85c 8.85±2.27a 50.74±5.19a 40.48±5.88bcde 17.84±4.28ab
130.00±32.49a 42.93±4.68a 11.27±0.38a 43.99±4.23cd 41.19±4.48bcd 20.31±2.23a
108.47±21.57abc 36.03±6.22abc 9.31±2.35a 40.21±4.50de 49.69±5.84a 18.27±4.74ab

Table 11

Quality Traits of Different Groups of Wheat"

Dry protein content (%)
Moisture content
Sedimentation value (mL)
Dry wet gluten content (%)
Water absorption
Volumetric weight (g·L-1)
15.59±1.53a 9.58±0.37a 49.47±5.52ab 34.16±3.13a 57.90±2.91ab 811.84±16.98a
16.08±1.46a 9.81±0.11a 51.80±2.82a 34.40±2.20a 57.67±4.18ab 814.93±7.28a
14.88±2.94a 9.84±0.37a 45.76±12.93ab 33.20±6.75a 58.87±3.88ab 808.56±18.77a
16.42±2.95a 10.08±0.37a 51.92±9.15a 35.62±5.72a 55.97±2.34b 810.66±18.46a
14.54±1.58a 9.86±0.44a 44.30±5.87b 32.28±3.48a 59.49±2.67a 802.91±15.11a
14.39±1.26a 9.88±0.45a 43.81±4.52b 32.54±2.47a 60.80±2.51a 801.98±14.94a
15.61±1.70a 9.79±0.11a 52.06±5.31a 33.44±4.29a 59.34±1.48a 817.58±3.93a
14.45±1.50a 9.90±0.43a 45.97±6.33ab 31.88±2.98a 58.73±2.23ab 811.42±14.35a
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