Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (2): 379-390.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.02.014

• ANIMAL SCIENCE·VETERINARY SCIENCE • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Study on Milk Quality Based on Circadian Rhythm

YANG GaiQing1(),WANG LinFeng2(),LI WenQing3,ZHU HeShui4(),FU Tong2,LIAN HongXia2,ZHANG LiYang2,TENG ZhanWei2,ZHANG LiJie2,REN Hong2,XU XinYing2,LIU XinHe2,WEI YuXuan2,GAO TengYun2()   

  1. 1Laboratory and Equipment Management Office of Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046
    2College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046
    3College of Life Science, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002
    4College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046
  • Received:2021-09-18 Accepted:2022-06-24 Online:2023-01-16 Published:2023-02-07


【Background】 Circadian rhythm is a common natural phenomenon undergoing in the biological world. With the change of day-night cycle, there are plenty of diverse reactions and changes taking place in living cells. So does it in animals, circadian rhythm affects the metabolism and physiological function inside the body, and further affects the growth, production, and reproductive of animals. Milk is the popular and near-perfect food in the world. On account of technological limitation, the knowledge on milk is just rested on the nutrition, ignored the physicochemical property and physiological function, especially physicochemical property and physiological function of day and night milk responding to circadian rhythm. 【Objective】 Through the research on the physical and chemical characteristics and physiological function of milk in day and night, it was proposed to collect milk according to the physiological function of milk in different periods, which could lay a theoretical basis for the classification, processing and scientific drinking of milk in day and night. 【Method】 This research collected night milk (5:00, produced from 21:00 to 5:00) and day milk (13:00, produced from 6:00 to 13:00) to detecte milk nutrients composition and fatty acids composition by lipidomics. The tiny molecular composition were investigatued by metabonomics and physicochemical properties antioxidation ability, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), gluathione reductase (GR), malondialdehyde (MDA), and metabolism related hormones, such as melatonin (MT), growth hormone (GH), triiodothyronine (T3), insulin (INS) and glucagon, as well as immune factors, such as immune globulin A (IgA), immune globulin G (IgG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferons-γ (IFN-γ), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) etc. 【Result】 The milk fat, protein, lactose, and total milk solids were not different between night milk and day milk, but the small molecules, metabolites, lipids, hormones and cytokines differed between day milk and night milk. Night milk was differ from day milk in physicochemical property, for antioxidant activity and immunity activity of night milk were significant high than that of day milk. The content of MT and IFN-γ in night milk were markedly higher than those in day milk, and the content of MDA, heat shock protein (HSP70, HSP90) were significantly increased. The result of metabolomics revealed that there were 36 differential metabolites were detected between night-milk and day-milk. Except 3 of them in night-milk were lower than that of day-milk, the rest 33 in night-milk were higher than that of day-milk. These metabolites were belonging to carbohydrate (such as dihydroxyacetone phosphate, D-glucose 6-phosphate, D-lactose, 2-ethoxyethanol, dihydroxyacetone, acetyl phosphate, acamprosate, alpha-D-glucose, D-galacturonic acid, raffinose, D-sorbitol, cis-aconitate, etc.), lipid (such as DL-α-hydroxybutyric acid, cis-9-palmitoleic acid, stearidonic acid, myristoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, cholic acid, tridecylic acid, myo-inositol, DL-2-aminoadipic acid, etc.), amino acids (such as L-citrulline, D-ornithine, D-proline, taurine, N6-acetyl-L-lysine, N-acetylneuraminic acid, lys-leu, L-alanine, etc; N6-methyl-L-lysine, etc.) and other aromatic compounds (such as S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine, 2'-O-methylcytidine, 2'-deoxyuridine, etc.). Lipidomics analyses showed a total of 21 lipid classes and 1 094 lipid species were detected in the milk samples. The majority of the lipid species were TGs (379), accounts for 34%. These lipids included triglycerides (TG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI), sphingomyelin (SM), ceramide (Cer), O-acyl-ω-hydroxy fatty acid (OAHF), and diacylglycerol (DAG) categories. The composition of the lipids was very different between night milk and day milk. 【Conclusion】 Based on these differents, this research put forward a strategic method on milk classifying, processing, selling and drinking, in an attempt to meet the demands of people at different period and physiological status. This could make full use of the milk physiological property and better serve for human health at the time of providing nutrition and better serve the health of human beings.

Key words: circadian rhythm, milk, physiological property, classification, process, human health

Table 1

Nutrition composition, physicochemical property and related hormones of day-milk and night-milk"

项目 Item 白天奶 Day-milk 夜间奶 Night-milk 标准误 SEM PP-value
乳脂肪Milk fat (%) 4.12 4.44 0.22 0.260
乳蛋白Milk protein (%) 3.25 3.33 0.20 0.714
乳糖Milk lactose (%) 4.85 4.89 0.12 0.771
总固形物Total milk solids (%) 13.50 13.68 0.62 0.780
超氧化物歧化酶 SOD (μg·mL-1) 1.27 1.37 0.07 0.212
谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶 GSH-Px (ng·mL-1) 18.56 16.51 1.45 0.212
谷胱甘肽还原酶GR (ng·mL-1) 1.90 1.97 0.27 0.806
丙二醛 MDA (ng·mL-1) 6.01 5.24 0.33 0.044
褪黑素MT (pg·mL-1) 90.21 120.07 7.21 0.002
皮质醇CORT (ng·mL-1) 113.72 102.69 7.99 0.198
三碘甲腺原氨酸T3 (ng·mL-1) 176.55 168.05 15.77 0.602
胰高血糖素GC (ng·mL-1) 2.68 2.56 0.252 0.653
生长激素 GH (ng·mL-1) 4.85 4.76 0.808 0.915
胰岛素 INS (ng·mL-1) 0.81 0.80 0.087 0.910
肾上腺素ADR (ng·mL-1) 10.32 8.25 0.996 0.065

Table 2

Immune parameters of day-milk and night-milk"

项目Item 白天奶Day-milk 夜间奶Night-milk 标准误SEM PP-value
免疫球蛋白A IgA (mg·mL-1) 0.92 0.98 0.055 0.332
免疫球蛋白G IgG (mg·mL-1) 3.67 3.72 0.334 0.876
肿瘤坏死因子α TNF-α (pg·mL-1) 85.72 88.61 5.31 0.599
白介素1β IL-1β(pg·mL-1) 78.60 73.93 8.87 0.611
白介素6 IL-6 (pg·mL-1) 191.31 141.46 21.52 0.059
白介素8 IL-8 (pg·mL-1) 64.79 68.56 4.44 0.416
干扰素γ IFN-γ(pg·mL-1) 55.54 70.40 5.01 0.014
热休克蛋白70 HSP70 (ng·mL-1) 5.50 4.19 0.36 0.005
热休克蛋白90 HSP90 (ng·mL-1) 3.83 3.42 0.147 0.022
T-辅助淋巴细胞4 CD4 (ng·mL-1) 4.23 3.97 0.264 0.374
T-抑制细胞8 CD8 (ng·mL-1) 2.39 1.99 0.320 0.236
CD4/CD8 1.86 2.00 0.173 0.431

Fig. 1

Volcano plot of metabolomics showing the positive (A) and negative (B) ion modes Red points represent significantly different metabolites based on the results of fold change (FC) analysis and the t-test in positive and negative modes (FC>1.5 and P<0.05). FC=fold change, mean value of peak area obtained from day-milk group/mean value of peak area obtained from night-milk group"

Table 3

The prominently difference triglyceride between day-milk and night-milk via lipidomics"

Lipid ion
Ion formula
TG(16:0/14:0/18:2)+NH4 TG C51 H98 O6 N1 820.74 22.95 0.58 2.54 0.019
TG(19:1/18:1/18:2)+NH4 TG C58 H108 O6 N1 914.82 23.30 0.54 1.62 0.023
TG(18:1/18:1/22:4)+NH4 TG C61 H110 O6 N1 952.83 23.20 0.70 1.51 0.030

Fig. 2

Enlightenment of rhythm on milk production, category, processing and drinking"

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