Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (1): 64-78.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.01.005

• PLANT PROTECTION • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Susceptibility of Some Strains to Fungicides in Jilin Province

CHAI HaiYan1,2(),JIA Jiao2,BAI Xue2,MENG LingMin2,ZHANG Wei2,JIN Rong1,2,WU HongBin2,SU QianFu2()   

  1. 1. College of Plant Protection, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130022
    2. Institute of Plant Protection, Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Integrated Crop Pest Management in Northeast China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Changchun 130033
  • Received:2022-07-21 Accepted:2022-09-06 Online:2023-01-01 Published:2023-01-17
  • Contact: QianFu SU;


【Objective】The objective of this study is to clarify the population distribution of Fusarium spp. of maize ear rot in Jilin Province and the inhibitory effect of fungicides on the growth of Fusarium mycelium, and to provide a basis for the targeted control of maize ear rot. 【Method】149 samples of maize ear rot collected from 36 cities and counties in Jilin Province in 2020 were isolated and identified by tissue isolation and molecular biology methods. The specific toxin synthesis primers of related genes were synthesized using Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) toxin. The toxigenic chemotypes were detected, and the pathogenicity of some FGSC was determined. The inhibitory effect of 7 fungicides on FGSC was determined by the mycelial growth rate method. 【Result】A total of 233 Fusarium strains were isolated, belonging to 4 Fusarium complex species, including 9 Fusarium species, which were F. verticillioides, F. boothii, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum, F. asiaticum, F. chlamydosporum, F. fujikuroi, F. equiseti and F. subglutinans. The isolation frequencies were 33.05%, 26.18%, 25.32%, 12.45%, 0.86%, 0.86%, 0.43%, 0.43% and 0.43%, respectively. The isolate frequency of FGSC was the highest, which was 52.36%, and it was the dominant pathogen of maize ear rot in Jilin Province. The proportions of F. boothii, F. graminearum and F. asiaticum in FGSC were 50.00%, 48.36% and 1.46%, respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed that the interspecific and intraspecific genetic diversity of FGSC was rich. The results of pathogenicity assay showed that 52.73% of FGSC were medium pathogenic strains. F. graminearum isolated from the main maize producing areas in the east had the strongest pathogenicity. Toxigenic chemotype detection showed that F. asiaticum produced nivalenol (NIV) chemotype, F. graminearum and F. boothii produced 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-AcDON) chemotype. The EC50 of the 7 fungicides for inhibiting the growth of FGSC ranged from 0.02 to 19.45 μg·mL-1. Fludioxonil (FS), imazalil (FS), flusilazole (EC), tebuconazole (TC) and myclobutanil (EW) had good inhibitory effects on FGSC and the difference was not significant. The EC50 of FGSC was less than 1.20 μg·mL-1 and EC90 was less than 100 μg·mL-1. The difference of EC50 between F. graminearum and F. boothii was significant under 30% pyraclostrobin treatment. The EC50 of F. graminearum was 10.24 times higher than that of F. boothii. 【Conclusion】The dominant pathogenic Fusarium of maize ear rot in different maize producing areas of Jilin Province is different. F. graminearum and F. boothii are dominant species in the east and west, and F. verticillioides is dominant species in the middle. The interspecific and intraspecific genetic diversity of FGSC is rich. Fludioxonil, imazalil, flusilazole, tebuconazole and myclobutanil have better antifungal effect on FGSC. There is no significant difference in the fungicides susceptibility among FGSC.

Key words: maize, ear rot, Fusarium spp., Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC), fungicide

Table 1

Specific primers for Fusarium spp. identification"

Primer sequence (5′-3′)
Target fragment (bp)
Tm (℃)
Fusarium spp.
F. graminearum species complex
F. verticillioides
F. proliferatum
F. subglutinans

Fig. 1

Conidia of some Fusarium spp."

Table 2

Isolation frequency of Fusarium spp. causing maize ear rot in different main maize areas of Jilin Province"

Fusarium spp.
Total isolation frequency (%)
分离频率<BOLD>I</BOLD>solation frequency (%)
东部East 中部Central 西部West
禾谷镰孢 F. graminearum 25.32 33.85 19.86 36.36
亚洲镰孢 F. asiaticum 0.86 0 1.37 0
布氏镰孢 F. boothii 26.18 30.77 13.01 54.55
拟轮枝镰孢 F. verticillioides 33.05 27.69 40.41 0
层出镰孢 F. proliferatum 12.45 6.15 17.12 0
厚垣镰孢 F. chlamydosporum 0.86 1.54 0.68 4.55
藤仓镰孢 F. fujikuroi 0.43 0 0 0
木贼镰孢F. equiseti 0.43 0 0.68 0
亚黏团镰孢 F. subglutinans 0.43 0 0 4.55

Fig. 2

Specific PCR products of F. graminearum species complex (280 bp)"

Fig. 3

Construction of phylogenetic tree of some F. graminearum species complex strains based on TEF-1α gene sequence"

Table 3

The average disease grade of ear rot caused by F. graminearum species complex"

禾谷镰孢 F. graminearum 亚洲镰孢 F. asiaticum 布氏镰孢 F. boothii
Number of strains
Average disease grade
Number of strains
Average disease grade
Number of strains
Average disease grade
东部East 3 5.23 - - 2 3.42
中部Middle 18 4.47 2 3.47 18 4.48
西部West 3 3.73 - - 9 3.29
合计Total 24 4.55 2 3.47 29 4.13

Table 4

Analysis of pathogenicity and toxigenic chemotype of F. graminearum species complex"

Average disease grade
Pathogenic type
Toxigenic chemotype
DASJ-1 F. b 大安Daan 1.48 LV 15-AcDON
DASJ-2 F. b 大安Daan 3.51 MV 15-AcDON
DASJ-4 F. b 大安Daan 4.00 MV 15-AcDON
DASJ-5 F. b 大安Daan 3.29 SL 15-AcDON
DATSZ-1 F. b 大安Daan 3.68 MV 15-AcDON
DATSZ-2 F. b 大安Daan 4.26 MV 15-AcDON
DHXST-1 F. a 德惠Dehui 4.43 MV NIV
DHXST-2 F. g 德惠Dehui 4.28 MV 15-AcDON
DHXST-3 F. g 德惠Dehui 5.29 SH 15-AcDON
DHXST-4 F. g 德惠Dehui 3.86 MV 15-AcDON
DHXCZ-2 F. g 德惠Dehui 6.06 MV 15-AcDON
DHXCZ-3 F. b 德惠Dehui 2.95 SL 15-AcDON
DF-1 F. g 东丰Dongfeng 3.69 MV 15-AcDON
DFHH-3 F. b 东丰Dongfeng 3.97 MV 15-AcDON
DL-1 F. g 东辽Dongliao 2.95 SL 15-AcDON
DL-2 F. g 东辽Dongliao 5.55 SH 15-AcDON
FYYP-1 F. b 扶余Fuyu 4.48 MV 15-AcDON
SJZ-1 F. b 扶余Fuyu 6.77 SH 15-AcDON
SJZ-2 F. b 扶余Fuyu 3.60 MV 15-AcDON
SJZ-3 F. b 扶余Fuyu 5.59 SH 15-AcDON
SJZ-4 F. g 扶余Fuyu 4.22 MV 15-AcDON
SJZ-5 F. b 扶余Fuyu 3.05 SL 15-AcDON
SJZ-6 F. b 扶余Fuyu 3.34 SL 15-AcDON
HLZ-11 F. g 公主岭Gongzhuling 5.12 MV 15-AcDON
HLZ-12 F. a 公主岭Gongzhuling 2.52 SL NIV
HLZ-25 F. g 公主岭Gongzhuling 4.28 MV 15-AcDON
HLZ-26 F. g 公主岭Gongzhuling 6.42 SH 15-AcDON
HLZ-35 F. b 公主岭Gongzhuling 5.42 MV 15-AcDON
JHXZWHC-2 F. g 蛟河Jiaohe 5.00 MV 15-AcDON
JHXZWHC-3 F. g 蛟河Jiaohe 5.98 SH 15-AcDON
JYXJ-1 F. g 靖宇Jingyu 4.62 MV 15-AcDON
LY-1 F. g 辽源市区Liaoyuan 4.39 MV 15-AcDON
LYDT-2 F. b 辽源市区Liaoyuan 5.63 SH 15-AcDON
NAXQKJ-1 F. g 农安Nongan 6.57 SH 15-AcDON
NAXQKJ-2 F. g 农安Nongan 8.58 HV 15-AcDON
QG-1 F. b 前郭Qianguo 5.04 SH 15-AcDON
QG-2 F. b 前郭Qianguo 5.72 SH 15-AcDON
QG-4 F. g 前郭Qianguo 4.05 MV 15-AcDON
QG-5 F. b 前郭Qianguo 6.35 SH 15-AcDON
1SL-1 F. g 舒兰Shulan 3.27 SL 15-AcDON
SLSYZ-1 F. g 舒兰Shulan 1.70 SL 15-AcDON
SL-1 F. b 双辽Shuangliao 2.79 SL 15-AcDON
SYSNJQ-1 F. b 松原市区Songyuan 4.36 MV 15-AcDON
SYSNJQ-2 F. b 松原市区Songyuan 5.15 MV 15-AcDON
SYSNJQ-3 F. b 松原市区Songyuan 3.76 MV 15-AcDON
TNHS-1 F. g 洮南Taonan 3.61 MV 15-AcDON
TNHS-2 F. g 洮南Taonan 3.74 MV 15-AcDON
TYNLB-1 F. g 洮南Taonan 3.85 MV 15-AcDON
WQ-1 F. b 汪清Wangqing 2.76 SL 15-AcDON
WQ-3 F. b 汪清Wangqing 4.09 MV 15-AcDON
YJ-1 F. g 永吉Yongji 2.00 MV 15-AcDON
TJT-2 F. b 榆树Yushu 3.33 SL 15-AcDON
CL-2 F. b 长岭Changling 3.10 SL 15-AcDON
CL-3 F. b 长岭Changling 3.69 MV 15-AcDON
CL-8 F. b 长岭Changling 1.67 SL 15-AcDON

Fig. 4

Chemotype-specific PCR amplification product of F. graminearum species complex toxin"

Table 5

Determination of laboratory toxicity of 7 fungicides to F. graminearum species complex"

Toxic regression equation (y=)
Correlation coefficient (r)
P value
EC50 (μg·mL-1) EC90
1% Fludioxonil (FS)
F. g 6.7459+1.1782x 0.9867 0.0003 0.03 0.40
F. a 7.0660+1.3816x 0.9864 0.0003 0.03 0.27
F. b 6.5108+0.8802x 0.9956 0 0.02 0.55
97% Tebuconazole (TC)
F. g 5.1913+0.6573x 0.9810 0.0001 0.51 45.57
F. a 5.2057+0.6911x 0.9901 0 0.50 36.05
F. b 5.1031+0.6849x 0.9817 0.0001 0.71 52.55
400 g·L-1氟硅唑
400 g·L-1 Flusilazole (EC)
F. g 5.5130+0.7766x 0.9944 0.0000 0.63 28.36
F. a 5.0412+0.7940x 0.9755 0.0009 0.89 36.48
F. b 5.2173+0.6697x 0.9963 0 0.47 38.84
10% Imazalil (FS)
F. g 5.4567+2.4924x 0.9642 0.0019 0.66 2.14
F. a 5.2131+2.1992x 0.9397 0.0053 0.80 3.06
F. b 6.0591+2.1246x 0.9525 0.0033 0.32 1.27
12.5% Myclobutanil (EW)
F. g 5.0197+0.8285x 0.9829 0.0004 0.95 33.35
F. a 4.9353+0.9961x 0.9821 0.0005 1.16 22.46
F. b 5.1448+0.9618x 0.9961 0 0.71 15.20
80% Famous Double (WG)
F. g 4.5324+0.4878x 0.9697 0.0003 9.09 3855.64
F. a 4.5260+0.5899x 0.9820 0.0001 6.36 946.20
F. b 4.4917+0.7141x 0.9739 0.0002 5.15 320.84
30% Pyraclostrobin (SC)
F. g 4.6753+0.2519x 0.9619 0.0021 19.45 2378665.18
F. a 4.7013+0.2785x 0.9661 0.0017 11.81 471493.34
F. b 4.9428+0.2048x 0.9601 0.0024 1.90 3434875.02
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