Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (24): 4808-4822.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2022.24.003


Effects of Ethylene-Chlormequat-Potassium on Root Morphological Construction and Yield of Summer Maize with Different Nitrogen Application Rates

FANG MengYing1(),LU Lin1,WANG QingYan2,DONG XueRui1,YAN Peng1(),DONG ZhiQiang1()   

  1. 1Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Crop Eco-physiology and Cultivation, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081
    2College of Agriculture, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319, Heilongjiang
  • Received:2022-01-17 Accepted:2022-08-02 Online:2022-12-16 Published:2023-01-04
  • Contact: Peng YAN,ZhiQiang DONG;;


【Objective】 Root is an important organ for maize to obtain water and nutrients, and a developed root structure is the key to maximum maize yield potential, which is currently an important issue to be solved in maize cultivation research. Ethylene- chlormequat-potassium and nitrogen application can affect the development of the maize root system. The aim of this study was clarify the effects of ethylene-chlormequat-potassium on the construction of summer maize root morphology and yield under different nitrogen application rates, so as to provide the theoretical and technical basis for the improvement of high yield and efficient cultivation management and rational fertilization of maize. 【Method】In 2019 and 2020, the field experiments were carried out in Daliudian village, Yanjiao town, Langfang city, Hebei province, and Shunyi Experimental Base, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shunyi district, Beijing, respectively, using maize single cross Yudan 9953 as experimental material. A split-zone experimental design was used, with the ethylene-chlormequat-potassium treatment (ECK) and the clear water control (CK) as the main zones, and the six nitrogen levels of 0 (N0), 96 (N96), 132 (N132), 168 (N168), 204 (N204) and 240 kg·hm-2 (N240) as the secondary zones, aiming to analyze the effects of ECK on root morphology and yield of summer maize at different nitrogen application rates. 【Result】The nitrogen application significantly increased root dry weight, number of aerial roots, root length, root surface area and root volume. Compared with no nitrogen application, root dry weight, the number of aerial roots, root length, root surface area and root volume increased by 15.0%-25.2%, 31.7%-71.7%, 15.5%-30.8%, 19.0%-40.9% and 28.8%-54.0% on average with different nitrogen application rates, respectively. Compared with CK, ECK treatment increased root dry weight, number of root layers, number of roots in 1 to 2 layers and the number of aerial roots in summer maize with different nitrogen application rates by 10.4%-17.0%, 5.8%-12.6%, 10.8%-33.9% and 12.5%-79.6%, respectively; On the construction of root morphology, compared with CK, ECK treatment significantly increased the total root length, root surface area and root volume of summer maize with different nitrogen application rates by 7.5%-21.0%, 8.4%-29.3% and 14.3%-38.8%, respectively, and the root length with root diameter > 1.0 mm was significantly increased at medium and high nitrogen levels (N≥N204). Compared with CK, ECK treatment had no significant effect on summer maize yield per unit area in 2019 and 2020 under N0-N168, but significantly increased summer maize yield in 2019 and 2020 under N204 and N240, which increased by an average of 6.3% with N204 and 3.2% with N240. Correlation analysis showed that kernel number, 1000-kernel weight, root length, root surface area and root volume were positively correlated with summer maize yield, and the correlation coefficient between yield and root length was the highest. 【Conclusion】ECK and nitrogen could synergistically promote maize root development and increase summer maize yield under high nitrogen conditions. In the current study, spraying ECK at the V6 growth stage combined with 204 kg·hm-2 N fertilizer was a suitable cultivation technique and N fertilizer management practice for high-yielding summer maize in the Beijing-Tianjin area.

Key words: ethylene-chlormequat-potassium, nitrogen, summer maize, root morphology construction, Beijing-Tianjin area

Fig. 1

Cumulative daily rainfall (bar) and daily mean temperature (line) during the summer maize growing season in 2019 and 2020"

Table 1

Basic soil fertility of topsoil in the test sites in 2019 and 2020"

Experiment year
Experiment site
Organic content
Total N
Available N
Available P
Available K
2019 燕郊 Yanjiao 15.2 1.1 90.0 40.3 139.3
2020 顺义 Shunyi 14.5 1.0 108.1 43.2 102.6

Fig. 2

Diagram of summer maize root morphology at flowering stage CK: Control, spraying the same amount of water treatment; ECK: Ethylene-chlormequat-potassium treatment; N0, N96, N132, N168, N204 and N240 denote nitrogen application rates of 0, 96, 132, 168, 204 and 240 kg·hm-2, respectively"

Fig. 3

Effect of ethylene-chlormequat-potassium on root dry weight in summer maize with different nitrogen application rates A: Root dry weight at flowering stage in 2019; B: Root dry weight at harvesting stage in 2019; C: Root dry weight at flowering stage in 2020; D: Root dry weight at harvesting stage in 2020; Different lowercase letters in the figure indicate significant differences at 0.05 level between different treatments in the same year; *, ** and *** mean significant difference at 0.05, 0.01 and 0.001 levels, respectively. The same below"

Fig. 4

Effect of Ethylene-chlormequat-potassium on number of root layers in summer maize with different nitrogen application rates"

Table 2

Effect of ethylene-chlormequat-potassium on the number of roots per root layer of summer maize with different nitrogen application rates"

Nitrogen application rate (kg·hm-2)
Number of roots in the first to second layers
Number of roots
of the third layer
Number of roots
of the fourth layer
Number of roots
of the fifth layer
Number of aerial roots
2019 N0 CK 11.1d 8.1bcd 6.7c 6.8f 9.3d
ECK 12.7bc 7.4cd 7.9bc 8.4e 10.3d
N96 CK 11.5cd 8.7abc 9.3ab 8.9de 10.7d
ECK 14.0ab 10.3a 9.9a 11.0abc 14.7c
N132 CK 12.1cd 9.1abc 7.7bc 8.2e 10.3d
ECK 13.9ab 9.3abc 8.9ab 10.4abcd 13.8c
N168 CK 11.7cd 9.8ab 10.1a 10.0cd 10.0d
ECK 14.9a 9.0abc 10.5a 10.1bcd 22.9ab
N204 CK 11.3cd 8.7abc 8.9ab 10.1bcd 10.3d
ECK 15.2a 8.7abc 8.2bc 11.8a 24.0a
N240 CK 12.7bcd 7.0d 7.8bc 9.3de 10.0d
ECK 14.2ab 9.6ab 9.0ab 11.6ab 22.5b
2020 N0 CK 10.3f 7.3abc 7.8ab 10.0bcd 9.4f
ECK 13.2bcd 6.7abc 7.8ab 10.8bcd 12.2e
N96 CK 13.8abc 6.9abc 7.7ab 10.0bcd 15.5c
ECK 15.6a 8.5a 7.2b 9.1d 14.8cd
N132 CK 11.7def 7.0abc 8.0ab 10.7bcd 14.3cd
ECK 12.6bcde 8.3abc 8.4ab 11.5b 16.1c
N168 CK 12.0def 7.5abc 7.6ab 11.0bc 15.5cd
ECK 11.8def 7.3abc 8.8ab 10.4bcd 22.5a
N204 CK 11.4ef 8.2ab 8.5ab 9.6cd 10.7f
ECK 15.2a 6.4c 8.9a 13.3a 13.7de
N240 CK 12.0cde 6.6bc 8.4ab 10.8bcd 16.0c
ECK 14.1ab 6.7abc 8.7ab 11.2bc 20.0b
F-value 年份Year 0.3ns 43.4*** 8.2** 21.5*** 20.1***
施氮量Nitrogen application 94.7*** 1.0** 5.4*** 32.0*** 558.1***
乙矮合剂ECK 6.0*** 3.4ns 4.7* 9.2*** 89.8***

Table 3

Effect of Ethylene-chlormequat-potassium on root morphology and configuration in summer maize with different nitrogen application rates at flowering stage"

Nitrogen rate
Root length
Root surface
area (cm2/plant)
Root volume
根长 Root length (cm)
0 < D 0.5 mm 0.5 <D ≤1.0 mm 1.0 <D 2.0 mm D >2.0 mm
2019 N0 CK 2552.4de 463.2ef 8.0de 1779.0de 301.4c 303.3de 180.6ef
ECK 2257.3e 387.5f 6.3e 1576.0e 228.8d 298.4de 128.7f
N96 CK 2745.2d 531.8de 9.5d 2118.5cd 343.7bc 298.7de 184.2ef
ECK 3535.1ab 706.2b 13.9b 2388.2abc 371.2ab 409.1a 283.5ab
N132 CK 2751.0d 530.8de 9.8d 2097.8cd 354.1bc 322.9de 202.9de
ECK 3657.1ab 703.4b 12.5b 2740.8ab 424.3a 390.5ab 261.1bc
N168 CK 2547.3de 450.6ef 8.0de 1962.5cde 324.4bc 287.0e 175.8ef
ECK 3338.0abc 649.8bc 13.2b 2195.1cd 333.4bc 348.9bcd 241.9bcd
N204 CK 3255.3bc 603.1cd 10.0cd 2346.9bc 344.2bc 331.9cde 211.2cde
ECK 3717.2a 789.3a 14.2b 2789.6a 420.5a 416.5a 271.6ab
N240 CK 2919.0cd 669.5bc 12.1bc 2220.8cd 329.7bc 326.6cde 264.7abc
ECK 3791.2a 861.5a 17.3a 2687.1ab 369.8ab 379.5abc 317.8a
2020 N0 CK 4162.9d 712.8g 10.9de 3258.8c 441.4d 333.1d 253.4d
ECK 4979.4c 965.8cd 15.6c 3564.9bc 521.9cd 407.2abc 362.4bc
N96 CK 5206.8c 987.2cd 15.6c 3767.6bc 561.4bcd 375.8cd 364.4bc
ECK 5002.1c 999.7cd 16.5bc 3621.1bc 521.3cd 401.5bc 380.1ab
N132 CK 4710.2c 757.9fg 11.8de 3466.1bc 451.6cd 372.9cd 291.8cd
ECK 6233.0ab 1257.3a 20.0a 4792.2a 707.9a 453.3ab 452.4a
N168 CK 5064.9c 875.2de 13.8cd 3685.9bc 511.0cd 368.0cd 330.0bcd
ECK 5266.0c 995.0c 16.1bc 4068.9b 525.9bcd 444.8ab 345.2bc
N204 CK 4915.6c 805.8efg 9.9e 3393.6bc 507.9cd 355.7cd 260.0d
ECK 6024.5b 1130.3b 19.5ab 4866.8a 573.4bc 445.1ab 444.2a
N240 CK 5144.8c 835.0ef 13.1cde 3605.1bc 563.5bc 410.7abc 330.7bcd
ECK 6607.0a 1224.6ab 20.4a 4799.9a 641.3ab 469.9a 453.7a
F-value 年份Year 1051.7*** 666.5*** 96.0*** 518.2*** 264.0*** 58.2*** 206.3***
施氮量Nitrogen application 23.5*** 29.9*** 12.9*** 12.0*** 7.5*** 5.2*** 11.2***
乙矮合剂ECK 108.5*** 226.4*** 116.8*** 52.9*** 17.0*** 67.1*** 69.0***

Table 4

Effect of ethylene-chlormequat-potassium on root morphology and configuration in summer maize with different nitrogen application rates at harvesting stage"

Nitrogen rate
Root length
Root Surface area
Root volume
根长 Root length (cm)
0 < D 0.5 mm 0.5 <D ≤1.0 mm 1.0 <D 2.0 mm D >2.0 mm
2019 N0 CK 3691.0e 683.1d 11.0e 2328.4e 447.5de 413.4e 214.7d
ECK 3878.0de 829.0c 14.2d 2609.6cde 531.0c 535.0bcd 299.2c
N96 CK 4464.7bcd 897.5bc 15.5d 2833.9bcd 517.5cd 520.8cd 313.8bc
ECK 4077.6cde 861.7bc 15.7d 2579.6cde 562.3bc 588.3ab 301.7c
N132 CK 3575.1e 792.4cd 15.5d 2413.2de 397.0e 501.2cd 321.1bc
ECK 3674.0e 837.2bc 15.3d 2447.9de 484.0cd 509.2cd 303.4c
N168 CK 3883.6cde 858.3bc 15.0d 2746.8bcde 480.0cd 492.1d 320.1bc
ECK 4533.5bc 999.6b 19.3bc 2863.5bc 550.8bc 565.6abc 390.8ab
N204 CK 4771.6bc 881.4bc 15.2d 3149.6b 555.4c 539.7bcd 340.3bc
ECK 4411.6bcd 902.9bc 16.3cd 2996.4bc 564.2bc 566.2abc 324.4bc
N240 CK 5620.1a 1144.1a 20.0b 3533.8a 702.3a 610.4a 417.2a
ECK 4946.4b 1185.0a 23.7a 3152.2ab 634.1ab 591.8ab 420.7a
2020 N0 CK 2709.0c 756.5a 13.9b 2314.4a 438.7a 405.4abc 301.7c
ECK 3939.8ab 832.1a 15.6ab 2532.6a 469.1a 404.7abc 347.6abc
N96 CK 3488.9b 876.2a 17.2ab 2436.1a 517.2a 399.6abc 357.1abc
ECK 3972.4ab 907.9a 18.0ab 2651.4a 485.6a 419.2abc 378.8abc
N132 CK 3567.5ab 835.0a 15.1ab 2632.7a 528.8a 371.1c 331.4bc
ECK 4142.8a 945.5a 19.1ab 2540.0a 449.8a 482.6a 426.2a
N168 CK 3522.9b 828.7a 15.5ab 2515.8a 512.6a 418.2abc 316.8bc
ECK 4143.5a 942.8a 18.9ab 2575.8a 521.6a 467.6ab 423.8a
N204 CK 3658.8ab 841.2a 15.6ab 2631.8a 461.1a 407.3abc 348.2abc
ECK 3876.6ab 868.9a 16.9ab 2491.9a 471.0a 426.4abc 373.4abc
N240 CK 3790.5ab 793.4a 13.9b 2638.2a 493.9a 394.3bc 309.2c
ECK 3898.7ab 885.0a 17.8ab 2387.7a 470.8a 424.5abc 394.7ab
F-value 年份Year 53.9*** 4.4* 0ns 13.8*** 10.3** 152.2*** 8.2**
施氮量Nitrogen application 13.5*** 7.2*** 8.0*** 4.0** 4.2** 3.6** 6.6***
乙矮合剂ECK 8.8** 9.2** 21.9*** 0.2ns 0.6ns 19.7*** 17.2***

Table 5

Effect of ethylene-chlormequat-potassium on yield and yield components of summer maize with different nitrogen application rates"

Nitrogen rate (kg·hm-2)
Kernel number (m-2)
1000-kernel weight (g)
Yield (kg·hm-2)
2019 N0 CK 3722.6a 273.1cd 9576.8bc
ECK 3033.4a 262.6cd 7614.7d
N96 CK 3707.4a 278.7abcd 10123.2abc
ECK 3309.3a 261.7d 9427.4c
N132 CK 3663.1a 278.7abcd 10683.5abc
ECK 3553.8a 280.9abc 10141.1abc
N168 CK 3521.8a 278.6abcd 11766.8a
ECK 3785.7a 279.5abcd 10241.9abc
N204 CK 3856.1a 274.4bcd 10999.3abc
ECK 3500.9a 294.7bc 11572.7ab
N240 CK 3647.7a 276.9abcd 11121.8abc
ECK 3500.8a 295.3a 11625.5a
2020 N0 CK 3932.7ab 284.2cde 9533.4e
ECK 3652b 298.6abc 9318.6e
N96 CK 3817.6ab 273.5e 11143.7bcd
ECK 3862.6ab 297.6abcd 11155.8bcd
N132 CK 4226.8a 282.8cde 11848.5a
ECK 3832.7ab 302.2ab 11834.4a
N168 CK 3965.1ab 293.5bcd 11239.3bcd
ECK 4009.4ab 302.4ab 10974cd
N204 CK 4227.8a 288.9bcde 10795.3d
ECK 3915.2ab 306.2a 11593.8ab
N240 CK 3943.3ab 291.2de 11491.3abc
ECK 3947.7ab 299.2ab 11699.6ab
(F-value) 年份Year 17.6*** 52.6*** 12.6**
施氮量Nitrogen application 1.1ns 4.7** 18.1***
乙矮合剂ECK 2.9ns 23.1*** 2.1ns

Table 6

Correlation analysis between root morphology index, root dry weight and yield"

Kernel number
1000-kernel weight
Root dry weight
Number of
root layers
Root length
Root surface
Root volume
产量 Yield 1
粒数 Kernel number 0.546** 1
千粒重 1000-kernel weight 0.573** 0.193 1
根干重 Root dry weight 0.363 -0.321 0.270 1
根层数 Number of root layers -0.288 -0.562** -0.139 0.361 1
根长 Root length 0.599** 0.145 0.772** 0.381 -0.158 1
表面积 Root surface area 0.579** 0.047 0.751** 0.551** -0.058 0.942** 1
体积 Root volume 0.538** -0.042 0.675** 0.682** 0.082 0.840** 0.960** 1
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