Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (8): 1589-1603.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2022.08.010


Annual Nutrients Balance and Economic Return Analysis of Wheat with Fertilizers Reduction and Different Rotations

MA XiaoYan1(),YANG Yu1,HUANG DongLin1(),WANG ZhaoHui1,2(),GAO YaJun1,LI YongGang3,LÜ Hui4   

  1. 1College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University/Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Agro-Environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi
    2Northwest A&F University/State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi
    3Fufeng Agriculture Technology Extension Service Center, Fufeng 722200, Shaanxi
    4Fengxiang Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center, Fengxiang 721400, Shaanxi
  • Received:2021-03-03 Accepted:2021-05-26 Online:2022-04-16 Published:2022-05-11
  • Contact: DongLin HUANG,ZhaoHui WANG;;


【Objective】The present study aimed to investigate the soil nutrients balance and economic benefits of different rotations with optimal chemical fertilizer application for wheat production, with the purpose of selecting a proper rotation for wheat production with lower fertilizer application and improvement of economic return for local farmers.【Method】The field experiments with randomized block design were carried out in Wugong county from 2018 to 2020, including four treatments: maize-wheat rotation with farmer accustomed fertilization (CWF), maize-wheat rotation with recommended fertilization (CWR), green manure-wheat rotation (GWR), and soybean-wheat rotation (BWR). Except for treatment of CWF, the fertilizers of rest three treatments were calculated according to the method of soil testing and determining fertilizer recommendations (STDFR). The plants tissues and soil with different depth were sampled for nutrients analysis.【Result】Compared with CWF, with 11.8% reduction of nitrogen and 41.7% reduction of phosphorus, the CWR treatment significantly increased wheat yield, with an average increase of 7.4%, and significantly increased the nitrogen and phosphorus uptake of wheat grain and aboveground shoot, with the nitrogen increase of 10.1% and 8.9% respectively, and the phosphorus increase of 9.8% and 6.4%, respectively. CWR treatment decreased the surplus rate of soil N, P and K by 25.1%, 72.3% and 54.4%, respectively, and increased the economic benefit by 36%. Among three different rotation, CWR rotation had the highest wheat yield, followed by soybean wheat rotation and green manure wheat rotation. GWR rotation had the lowest surplus ratio of NPK among three treatment with optimal fertilizer application, which was significantly lower than that of CWR and GWR rotation, with the decrease range of 87.3%-92.0%, 41.9%-67.7%, and 78.1%-85.3%, respectively, and obtained the highest economic return.【Conclusion】Fertilization recommendation by monitoring soil nutrients techniques could not only decrease fertilizer input and production cost, but also increase wheat yield, increase nutrient uptake of wheat grain, reduce surplus rate of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient balance, and thus improve economic benefits. Compared with maize-wheat rotation, the soybean-wheat rotation not only reduced the input of chemical fertilizer, significantly reduced the surplus of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, but also achieved higher economic benefits. In conclusion, it was recommended that the fertilizers application rates should be optimized for maize-wheat rotation in Guanzhong Plain. However, taking into account of economic return and ecological benefit, the soybean-wheat rotation was prior choice for the purpose of decreasing soil nutrients surplus and enhancing the economic return of farmers.

Key words: fertilizer reduction, maize-wheat rotation, green manure-wheat rotation, soybean-wheat rotation, nutrient balance, economic return, Guanzhong Plain, Shaanxi

Fig. 1

Average precipitation in Wugong County during 2018-2020 and 50 years (1971-2020)"

Table 1

Nutrients within fertilizers applied in different years and treatments"

夏季作物 Summer crop 冬小麦 Winter wheat
N (kg·hm-2 ) P2O5 (kg·hm-2) K2O (kg·hm-2) N (kg·hm-2) P2O5 (kg·hm-2) K2O (kg·hm-2)
2018—2019 CWF 246 45 12 255 180 30
CWR 188 60 72 225 105 45
GWR 0 0 0 225 105 45
BWR 0 0 0 225 105 45
2019—2020 CWF 246 45 12 255 180 30
CWR 158 60 72 225 105 45
GWR 0 0 0 225 105 45
BWR 0 0 0 225 105 45

Table 2

Yield, biomass and nutrient return of different summer crops"

Grain yield
Aboveground biomass (kg·hm-2)
Nitrogen returning (kg·hm-2)
Phosphorus returning (kg·hm-2)
Potassium returning (kg·hm-2)
2018 CWF 4869a 6995a 89.0ab 8.4b 77.5b
CWR 6054a 7318a 129.3a 11.7b 131.5a
GWR 4914b 136.3a 21.3a 72.3b
BWR 667b 1035c 24.6c 6.3b 14.9c
2019 CWF 2917a 6312ab 66.2b 7.0b 50.2ab
CWR 3195a 7515a 80.9ab 7.8b 60.5a
GWR 4346b 92.3a 12.8a 33.5b
BWR 1597b 1572c 27.7c 3.7c 13.2c
平均 Mean CWF 3893a 6654ab 83.5ab 7.7c 115.2ab
CWR 4625a 7417a 109.3a 10.6b 122.1a
GWR 4630b 126a 21.5a 65.6b
BWR 1132b 1304c 32.5b 8.2b 19.3c

Table 3

Contents of aboveground biomass and yield components of wheat yield under different treatments"

Harvest index
Number of spikes per hectare (×104)
Number of grains per spike
1000-weight (g)
2018—2019 CWF 7536a 15574a 48.4b 542b 30a 46.7b
CWR 7687a 16136a 48.9ab 586a 28a 48.0ab
GWR 7892a 16078a 50.8ab 571a 29a 48.7 a
BWR 7440a 15387a 51.3a 481c 29a 49.6 a
2019—2020 CWF 10198bc 15444b 67.6a 629d 32a 46.4a
CWR 11360a 17915 a 66.7a 871a 29b 45.0a
GWR 9972c 14358 c 68.3a 794c 27b 44.3a
BWR 10782ab 15779 b 67.0a 835b 26b 44.9a
平均Mean CWF 8867b 15509b 58.0a 586c 31a 46.5a
CWR 9524a 17025a 57.8a 728a 29b 46.5a
GWR 8932b 15218b 59.5a 682b 28b 46.5a
BWR 9111b 15583b 59.2a 657b 28b 47.2a

Fig. 2

Effects of different treatments on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulations of wheat grains and aboveground parts (two-year average) Different lowercase letters in the figure indicate that the differences among the nutrient accumulations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in grains, over ground parts of wheat under different treatments are significant (P<0.05)"

Table 4

Soil available nutrient content of 0-20 cm at the early sowing and harvest stage of wheat"

2018—2019 2019—2020
Available phosphorus (mg·kg-1)
Available potassium (mg·kg-1)
Available phosphorus (mg·kg-1)
Available potassium (mg·kg-1)
CWF 12.97ab 12.10b 133.0a 14.61a 27.07a 163.6ab
CWR 15.13a 18.23a 136.4a 10.57b 24.02ab 161.0bc
GWR 14.51a 14.50ab 141.4a 9.12b 17.3b 156.7c
BWR 9.25b 16.99ab 123.5a 5.89c 22.08ab 169.6a
CWF 7.22c 10.19a 109.2bc 6.73b 24.01a 143.2ab
CWR 11.78ab 9.71a 123.5ab 9.61a 23.53a 163.2a
GWR 12.44a 10.17a 99.96c 8.69ab 22.36a 144.2ab
BWR 9.95b 12.00a 138.9a 8.86ab 19.83a 137.5b

Table 5

Balance sheet of seasonal nutrient input and output in wheat"

Input (kg·hm-2)
Output (kg·hm-2)
Equilibrium value (kg·hm-2)
Surplus rate (%)
N P2O5 K2O N P2O5 K2O N P2O5 K2O N P2O5 K2O
2018—2019 CWF 344.0 194.6 98.3 195.8b 78.18 c 45.2a 148.2ab 116.4a 53.1c 75.9a 149.0a 117.7c
CWR 354.3 128.4 182.8 218.6ab 83.5bc 44.5a 135.7b 44.9c 138.3a 62.5a 53.7c 310.8a
GWR 390.1 160.7 132.1 221.9a 90.6a 45.0a 168.2a 70.0b 87.1b 76.1a 77.2b 193.4b
BWR 249.6 119.4 63.0 215.0ab 85.2ab 45.1a 34.5c 34.3d 17.9d 16.3b 40.2d 39.6d
2019—2020 CWF 321.2 195.6 90.4 265.4a 89.0b 50.5a 55.9b 106.6a 40.0b 21.1b 120.2a 79.9 b
CWR 305.9 122.9 117.9 277.1a 100.0a 51.4a 28.8c 23.0c 66.5a 10.6c 23.4c 130.2a
GWR 317.3 134.2 85.3 243.0b 86.4b 44.3b 74.3a 47.8b 41.1b 30.6a 55.3b 94.2 b
BWR 252.7 113.5 60.9 266.9a 106.6a 49.1a -14.2d 6.9d 11.8c -5.3d 6.5d 24.0c
2018—2020 CWF 665.2 390.2 188.7 461.2b 167.2c 95.6a 204.1b 223.0a 93.1c 44.3b 133.4a 97.3c
CWR 660.1 251.3 300.7 495.6a 183.5ab 95.9a 164.5c 67.8c 204.8a 33.2c 37.0c 213.4a
GWR 707.4 294.9 217.5 464.9b 177.1bc 89.3a 242.6a 117.8b 128.2b 52.2a 66.5b 143.5b
BWR 502.3 232.9 123.8 481.9ab 191.7a 94.2a 20.4d 41.2d 29.6d 4.2d 21.5d 31.4d

Table 6

Economic Benefit Analysis Table of each treatment (yuan/hm2)"

other expenses
Total cost
Total revenue
Net profit
2018—2019 CWF 3552 1650 4781 9053 19036 26415 7380ab
CWR 3563 1650 4781 9053 19047 29142 10095a
GWR 1851 2100 4931 6578 15460 17362 1902c
BWR 1851 2100 4931 6578 15460 20368 4908bc
2019—2020 CWF 3552 1650 4781 9053 19036 28328 9292c
CWR 3452 1650 4781 9053 18936 31446 12510b
GWR 1851 2100 4931 6578 15460 21939 6479d
BWR 1851 1500 4931 6578 14860 33302 18442a
平均 Mean CWF 3552 1650 4781 9053 19036 27372 8336b
CWR 3508 1650 4781 9053 18992 30294 11302a
GWR 1851 2100 4931 6578 15460 19651 4191c
BWR 1851 1800 4931 6578 15160 26835 11675a
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