Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (19): 3710-3722.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2022.19.003


Effects of High Temperature Stress in Different Periods on Dry Matter Production and Grain Yield of Summer Maize

ZHANG Chuan1(),LIU Dong1,WANG HongZhang1,REN Hao1,ZHAO Bin1,ZHANG JiWang1,REN BaiZhao1,LIU CunHui2(),LIU Peng1()   

  1. 1State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology/College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong
    2Shandong Seed Management Station, Ji’nan 250100
  • Received:2021-12-05 Accepted:2022-06-29 Online:2022-10-01 Published:2022-10-10
  • Contact: CunHui LIU,Peng LIU;;


【Objective】 Frequent, recurrent and prolonged high temperature stress had significant effects on grain yield of summer maize in Huang-Huai-Hai region. In this study, we investigated the effects of high temperature stress at the V12 stage and VT stage on leaf photosynthetic characteristics, carbon assimilate accumulation, distribution and grain yield of maize varieties with different heat tolerance. 【Method】 In this study, heat resistant maize variety Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) and heat sensitive maize variety Xianyu 335 (XY335) were used as materials. The normal temperature treatments (day 32℃12 h /night 22℃12 h) were set as the control at the same time. High temperature greenhouse equipped with automatic temperature and humidity control facilities was used to simulate the effect of natural field high temperature, the high temperature stress treatments (day 38℃12 h/night 28℃12 h) were set at V12 and VT stage, respectively. The dynamic characteristics of leaf area index (LAI), carbon metabolism enzyme activities, photosynthetic rate and carbon assimilate accumulation and allocation were compared after high temperature stress, aimed to determine the response mechanism of dry matter production performance and grain yield to high temperature stress. 【Result】 After high temperature stress, LAI, carbon metabolism enzyme activities, net photosynthetic rate and dry matter accumulation of two cultivars were significantly decreased. LAI, RuBP carboxylase activity, PEP carboxylase activity, net photosynthetic rate and dry matter accumulation of ZD958 and XY335 decreased by 2.98%-4.21%, 40.38%-54.46%, 16.88%-30.60%, 18.14%-25.49%, 12.83%-19.38% and 3.80%-5.07%, 56.56%-76.16%, 26.33%-33.66%, 22.37%-34.62%, 22.07%-26.72%, respectively. The decrease range of high temperature stress in VT stage was larger than that in V12 stage. After high temperature stress, transpiration rate of summer maize leaves increased, while leaf water use efficiency decreased significantly. Under high temperature stress, 13C assimilation of ZD958 and XY335 decreased by 18.48% and 22.82%, respectively, and the proportion of 13C assimilation in grains decreased. The high temperature stress significantly decreased grain number per spike and grain yield, although 1000 grain weight increased slightly. Compared to the optimum temperature, after V12 high temperature stress, the grain number per spike and yield of ZD958 decreased by 62.53% and 45.87%. After VT high temperature stress, grain number per spike and yield decreased by 70.53% and 66.89%. After V12 high temperature stress, the grain number per spike and yield of XY335 decreased by 70.50% and 62.87%. After VT high temperature stress, grain number per spike and yield decreased by 85.41% and 80.61%. The decrease range of high temperature stress in VT stage was larger than that in V12 stage, and XY335 decreased more than ZD958. 【Conclusion】 The high temperature stress reduced LAI, RuBP carboxylase and PEP carboxylase activities, and significantly reduced photosynthetic rate and dry matter production performance of summer maize. Under high temperature stress, the grain number per spike decreased significantly, which inhibited the transportation of carbohydrate from leaf and stem to grain, resulting in lower grain yield. The effects of high temperature stress on dry matter performance and grain yield of summer maize in VT stage was significantly greater than that in V12 stage. The decrease of heat sensitive variety XY335 was significantly greater than that of heat resistant variety ZD958 in two periods.

Key words: summer maize, high temperature stress, carbon metabolism enzyme activity, carbon assimilate accumulation and distribution, yield

Table 1

Effect of high temperature stress on field microclimate of summer maize"

Average light intensity (μmol·m-2·s-1)
Average CO2 concentration (μmol·mol-1)
Relative humidity (%)
2019 CK 1141.6a 420.0a 80.0a
HT 1136.8a 416.3a 78.8a
2020 CK 1127.3a 419.3a 84.5a
HT 1114.5a 411.9a 82.8a

Fig. 1

The average daily temperature in different treatments during high temperature stress"

Fig. 2

Effect of high temperature stress on leaf area index of summer maize ZD-CK: ZD958 normal temperature treatment; ZD-HT: ZD958 high temperature stress treatment; XY-CK: XY335 normal temperature treatment; XY-HT: XY335 high temperature stress treatment. V12+7: High temperature treatment for 7 days at the 12-leaf stage; VT: flowering stage; VT+7: High temperature treatment for 7 days at the flowering stage; R2: Grain filling stage; R3: Milk-ripe stage; R5: Ripening stage; R6: Maturity stage. The same as below"

Fig. 3

Effect of high temperature stress on RuBPcase activity of summer maize"

Fig. 4

Effect of high temperature stress on the PEPCase activity of summer maize"

Fig. 5

Effect of high temperature stress on net photosynthetic rate of summer maize leaf"

Fig. 6

Effect of high temperature stress on transpiration rate of summer maize leaf"

Fig. 7

Effect of high temperature stress on leaf water use efficiency of summer maize"

Table 2

Effect of high temperature stress on 13C assimilate accumulation and distribution of summer maize at maturity stage"

Treatments stage
13C同化量 13C assimilate amount (mg/plant) 所占比例 Proportion (%)
2019 V12 ZD-CK 20.02a 4.95a 2.51d 12.56a 24.73 12.54 62.74
ZD-HT 16.32bc 6.25a 4.18c 5.87b 38.30 25.61 35.97
XY-CK 19.19ab 4.86a 2.30d 12.03a 25.33 11.99 62.69
XY-HT 14.81c 6.52a 4.55b 3.73d 44.02 30.72 25.19
VT ZD-CK 19.70a 4.86a 2.53d 12.31a 24.67 12.84 62.49
ZD-HT 15.64c 6.97a 4.13c 4.55c 44.57 26.41 29.09
XY-CK 19.74a 4.73a 2.37d 12.63a 23.96 12.01 63.98
XY-HT 13.34c 6.18a 5.05a 2.12e 46.33 37.86 15.89
2020 V12 ZD-CK 20.69a 4.53a 4.07a 12.09b 21.89 19.67 58.43
ZD-HT 18.33bc 6.70a 4.19a 7.43c 36.55 22.86 40.53
XY-CK 20.07ab 4.42a 3.86a 11.8b 22.02 19.23 58.79
XY-HT 14.90de 6.63a 4.12a 4.16e 44.50 27.65 27.92
VT ZD-CK 21.87a 4.40a 3.89a 13.57a 20.12 17.79 62.05
ZD-HT 16.96cd 6.50a 5.38a 5.10d 38.33 31.72 30.07
XY-CK 21.51a 5.10a 4.10a 12.31b 23.71 19.06 57.23
XY-HT 13.59e 5.74a 4.57a 3.28f 42.24 33.63 24.14

Table 3

Effects of high temperature stress on dry matter accumulation and grain yield of summer maize"

Dry matter accumulate amount (g/plant)
per ear
weight (g)
大喇叭口期 V12 开花期 VT 完熟期 R6
2019 V12 ZD-CK 111.63a 143.15c 311.50bc 591.2a 299.12bc 151.93a 0.49a
ZD-HT 90.00c 120.78e 219.68d 219.5d 306.17a 82.25b 0.37c
XY-CK 104.28b 157.03b 308.48c 515.2c 298.64bc 153.26a 0.49a
XY-HT 76.42d 115.89e 211.52d 152.0e 308.10a 57.44c 0.26d
VT ZD-CK 153.35b 329.54a 562.6ab 293.87c 159.58a 0.47b
ZD-HT 133.68d 221.2d 165.8e 304.90ab 52.83c 0.24e
XY-CK 177.53a 320.09ab 544.3bc 293.70c 151.26a 0.48ab
XY-HT 138.35cd 199.92e 79.4f 301.83ab 29.33d 0.14f
2020 V12 ZD-CK 97.31a 140.18b 311.12b 571.1a 305.195d 173.46a 0.56ab
ZD-HT 86.80b 116.49c 275.84c 247.1b 311.663bc 99.69d 0.35d
XY-CK 84.04b 140.34b 284.78c 545.5a 309.672c 161.39bc 0.58a
XY-HT 64.73c 102.42d 243.80e 188.1cd 318.725a 64.47f 0.26ef
VT ZD-CK 152.81a 326.09a 544.5a 311.207bc 169.35ab 0.51c
ZD-HT 139.68b 260.05d 194.9c 314.107b 77.92e 0.28e
XY-CK 146.00ab 300.27b 550.4a 309.438c 157.59c 0.53bc
XY-HT 124.94c 212.47f 151.9d 321.509a 52.77g 0.24f
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