Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (13): 2500-2508.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2022.13.002


QTL Mapping for Traits Related to Seed Number Per Pod in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

HAO Jing(),LI XiuKun,CUI ShunLi,DENG HongTao,HOU MingYu,LIU YingRu,YANG XinLei,MU GuoJun,LIU LiFeng()   

  1. College of Agronomy, Hebei Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of North China for Crop Improvement and Regulation/Key Laboratory of Crop Germplasm Resources of Hebei Province, Baoding 071001, Hebei
  • Received:2022-02-07 Accepted:2022-04-08 Online:2022-07-01 Published:2022-07-08
  • Contact: LiFeng LIU;


【Objective】Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the important vegetable oil and cash crop. High yield is always the predominant objective in peanut breeding and determined by seed number per unit area and seed weight. Seed number per unit area is produced by planting density per unit area×number of pods per plant×number of seeds per pod. Therefore, the genetic dissection of the number of seeds per pod is helpful to explore the gene/locus related to this trait, which provides an important theoretical basis for the molecular breeding of yield in peanut.【Method】A RIL population, derived from Silihong×Jinonghei 3, were planted at Qingyuan experimental station of Hebei Agricultural University in Baoding city, Hebei province in 2018(E1) and 2020(E2). Phenotypic values of traits associated with the number of one seed pods per plant, two seeds pods per plant and multiple pods per plant were investigated at harvest stage. By using the genetic linkage map constructed by laboratory of Peanut innovation team, Hebei Agricultural University and software of QTL Icimapping V4.1(the Inclusive composite interval Mapping (ICIM)), QTL mapping for the number of seeds per pod was carried out under two environments.【Result】The results showed that the rates of one seed pods per plant and two seeds pods per plant were normal distribution, while the rate of multiple pods per plant was skewed normal distribution. A total of 11 QTLs were detected for the three traits, which could explain the phenotypic variation of 4.66%-22.34% and the additive effects of -9.35-9.42. Among of them, 5 QTLs for the rate of multiple pods per plant with explained 3.19% to 22.34% of phenotypic variation were obtained. The additive effect of one QTL from Jinonghei 3 was negative (-4.77), while the additive effect of the other four QTLs from Silihong was positive (3.59-9.42). Two QTLs for the rate of one seed pods per plant were mapped with explained 4.97%-6.43% of phenotypic variation. The additive effects of the two QTLs from Jinonghei 3 were negative (-4.45 and -4.54). Four QTLs for the rate of two seed pods per plant were located with explained 4.97%-6.43% of phenotypic variation. The additive effects of the four QTLs from Jinonghei 3 were negative (-9.35--3.84). Among of these QTLs, 6 QTLs were major QTLs, of which qRMSPA05 was repeatedly detected, and the heritable phenotypic variation was 16.58%-17.34%, and the additive effect was 7.69-8.12.【Conclusion】Six major QTLs and one major stable QTL for multiple pods per plant were identified, which will be helpful for improving the yield traits in peanut. The results can be used as important candidate segments for genetic improvement, and molecular marker assisted selection and fine mapping.

Key words: peanut, pod-related traits, the number of seeds per pod, QTL, RILs

Fig. 1

Seed and pods of parents Silihong (left) and Jinonghei 3 (right)"

Table 1

Descriptive statistical results of the RILs and their parents"

Jinonghei 3
RMSP (%)
2018 50.26A 0.00B 0.00 75.76 15.64** 268.52 1.21 1.00
2020 55.17A 0.00B 0.00 70.73 18.98** 333.80 0.91 -0.10
NOPP (%)
2018 17.86A 21.29A 0.00 81.82 33.67** 254.04 0.72 0.43
2020 10.34A 16.67A 0.00 69.39 24.16** 198.68 0.74 0.26
RTSP (%)
2018 30.95A 78.71B 15.79 100.00 50.79** 228.87 -0.08 -0.03
2020 34.48A 83.33B 2.50 94.44 54.68** 398.24 -0.15 -0.61

Fig. 2

Frequency profile for each trait of RIL population in different environments"

Table 2

QTLs detected for one seed pods per plant, two seeds pods per plant and multiple pods per plant in different environments"

Marker interval
LOD 可解释
PVE (%)
Physical interval (Mb)
2018 qRMSPA05 A05 87 Marker148282—Marker146762 85.5—87.5 14.90 17.34 7.69 88.64—91.57
2020 qRMSPA05 A05 87 Marker148282—Marker146762 85.5—87.5 14.98 16.58 8.12 88.64—91.57
2018 qRMSPA06 A06 29 Marker156261—Marker156336 26.5—31.5 6.07 6.73 -4.77 7.33—7.77
2018 qRMSPA09.1 A09 51 Marker248339—Marker250104 49.5—53.5 9.85 10.71 6.05 114.00—119.66
2020 qRMSPA09.2 A09 46 Marker247552—Marker248077 43.5—47.5 18.18 22.34 9.42 110.90—113.16
2020 qRMSPB10 B10 78 AHGS1573_B07—EM_30A 77.5—78.5 3.32 3.19 3.59
2018 qNOPPB06 B06 61 Marker538904—Marker536875 60.5—61.5 3.66 6.43 -4.45 106.84—113.12
2020 qNOPPB02 B02 33 Marker338013—Marker338987 32.5—34.5 5.78 4.97 -4.54 16.78—19.22
2020 qRTSPA05 A05 90 Marker146713—Marker146673 89.5—90.5 15.02 18.14 -8.72 88.26—88.45
2018 qRTSPA09.1 A09 52 Marker248339—Marker250104 49.5—53.5 7.27 13.84 -5.85 114.00—119.66
2020 qRTSPA09.2 A09 46 Marker247552—Marker248077 43.5—47.5 15.49 20.87 -9.35 110.90—113.16
2020 qRTSPB10 B10 78 AHGS1573_B07—EM_30A 77.5—78.5 3.24 3.46 -3.84

Fig. 3

QTLs detected for one seed pods per plant, two seeds pods per plant and multiple pods per plant in RIL population"

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