Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (5): 948-961.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2022.05.009


Effect of Organic Fertilizer Replacing Chemical Fertilizers on Greenhouse Gas Emission Under the Conditions of Same Nitrogen Fertilizer Input in Maize Farmland

LI XiaoLi(),HE TangQing,ZHANG ChenXi,TIAN MingHui,WU Mei,LI ChaoHai,YANG QingHua,ZHANG XueLin()   

  1. Agronomy College, Henan Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science/Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops for 2011, Zhengzhou 450002
  • Received:2021-01-17 Accepted:2021-04-22 Online:2022-03-01 Published:2022-03-08
  • Contact: XueLin ZHANG;


【Objective】 The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of organic fertilizer replacing chemical fertilizer on soil greenhouse gas emission and global warming potential (GWP), so as to provide the theoretical basis for keeping crop yield stable, reducing fertilizer input and nitrogen (N) loss, and improving N use efficiency.【Method】In 2018 and 2019, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different organic fertilizers replacing chemical fertilizers rate on soil N2O flux, CO2 flux and GWP and carbon footprint by using static chamber and gas chromatography in maize yield. Four treatments, including control (CK), single application of inorganic fertilizer (NPK), organic fertilizer replacing 30% inorganic fertilizers (inorganic fertilizers 180 kg N·hm-2+ organic fertilizer 90 kg N·hm-2, NPKM30), and organic fertilizer replacing 50% inorganic fertilizers (inorganic fertilizers 135 kg N·hm-2+organic fertilizer 135 kg N·hm-2, NPKM50), were established during maize growth periods.【Result】There was no significant difference of maize grain yield among NPK, NPKM30 and NPKM50 in 2018 and 2019. During the maize growth periods, the N2O emission flux showed temporal variations, and the average fluxes under three fertilizer treatments were higher than that under CK. Compared with NPK, NPKM30 increased the N2O cumulative emission by 5.22%, while reduced by 7.92% for NPKM50 treatment. The N2O cumulative emission over the maize growth periods accounted for 12.91? -18.74? of soil total N. During the maize growth periods, soil CO2 flux showed similar temporal patterns among the four treatments, and the average flux for the two years ranged from 74.53 to 367.04 mg·m-2·h-1. Fertilization input significantly increased the cumulative CO2 emission, and the average CO2 accumulation under NPKM30 and NPKM50 treatments increased by 0.91% and 5.79% than that under NPK treatment, respectively. The average GWP under NPKM30 and NPKM50 treatments was 2.07% and 2.10% higher than that under NPK treatment, respectively. Compared with the NPK treatment, the GHGI and carbon emissions from per unit yield under NPKM30 treatment decreased by 2.46% and 1.43%, respectively, and increased by 3.37% and 1.43% under NPKM50 treatment, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Suitable organic fertilizer rate replacing some chemical fertilizer could keep maize yield stable, increase greenhouse gas emission and global warming potential, while reduce greenhouse gas emission intensity and carbon emissions from per unit yield. Considering the ecological benefits of maize production and greenhouse gas emissions, the organic fertilizer replacing 30% inorganic fertilizers would be a more ideal proportion of organic fertilizer to replace chemical fertilizer.

Key words: organic fertilizer replacing chemical fertilizer, greenhouse gas, global warming potential, greenhouse gas emission intensity, carbon footprint

Fig. 1

Temporal variations of rainfall and climate temperature during maize and wheat growth periods in 2018 and 2019"

Table 1

Application of organic fertilizer N and inorganic fertilizer N rate during maize growth periods"

基肥Base fertilizer (kg·hm-2) 追肥Topdressing (kg·hm-2)
有机肥 Organic fertilizer 无机肥 Inorganic fertilizer 拔节期 Jointing period 大喇叭口期Big trumpet period
CK 0 0 0 0
NPK 0 135 67.5 67.5
NPKM30 90 45 67.5 67.5
NPKM50 135 0 67.5 67.5

Table 2

Different production factors input items during maize growth periods"

杀虫剂 Pesticide
灌溉量 Irrigation
Diesel oil
Maize seed
CK 0 0 0 0.45 6 975 31.5 22.5
NPK 270 90 120 0.45 6 975 31.5 22.5
NPKM30 270 90 120 0.45 6 975 31.5 22.5
NPKM50 270 90 120 0.45 6 975 31.5 22.5

Table 3

Carbon emission indexes of different input items during maize growth periods"

生产资料 Input items 碳排放系数Index of carbon emission (by CO2)
氮肥 N 1.53 kg·kg-1
磷肥 P2O5 1.63 kg·kg-1
钾肥 K2O 0.65 kg·kg-1
杀虫剂 Pesticide 16.61 kg·kg-1
除草剂Herbicide 10.15 kg·kg-1
灌溉电力Electricity 0.80 kg·kWh-1
柴油Diesel oil 3.10 kg·kg-1
玉米种子Maize seed 1.93 kg·kg-1

Table 4

The difference of maize yield, soil N2O, CO2 emissions and global warming potential among the treatments"

处理Treatment 产量
N2O flux
N2O cumulative emission (kg·hm-2)
N2O emission intensity (kg·t-1)
N2O emission factor
Ratio (?)
CO2 flux
CO2 cumulative emission
GHGI (kg·kg-1)
CK 6399.10±288.53c 211.72±5.99c 4.52±0.32b 0.67±0.03a 0 14.76±1.04b 177.34±36.30c 3674.15±335.41c 5020.37±263.72c 0.79±0.08a
NPK 8522.88±55.98ab 253.81±1.39b 6.23±0.22a 0.69±0.02a 0.59±0.15a 20.36±0.73a 234.81±11.55b 4333.53±153.99b 6189.98±106.11b 0.73±0.02a
NPKM30 8807.15±329.88a 275.86±18.60a 6.25±0.49a 0.67±0.06a 0.59±0.14a 20.43±1.61a 235.20±16.59b 4393.73±36.33b 6256.85±150.52b 0.71±0.03a
NPKM50 8349.92±122.83b 247.16±14.35b 5.89±0.30a 0.67±0.04a 0.48±0.21a 19.25±0.99a 284.30±6.32a 4808.55±190.86a 6564.02±233.98a 0.79±0.04a
CK 7861.60±417.66b 168.22±5.19c 3.38±0.17d 0.41±0.02a 0 11.05±0.54d 192.64±3.22c 3583.36±82.41b 4590.76±115.45c 0.58±0.02a
NPK 12166.58±1455.93a 269.58±18.25a 4.67±0.17b 0.37±0.03b 0.46±0.11b 15.27±0.57b 227.76±14.48b 4486.64±266.95a 5879.17±241.34ab 0.49±0.05b
NPKM30 12886.34±1178.23a 275.96±12.12a 5.22±0.15a 0.39±0.02ab 0.66±0.07a 17.06±0.50a 237.48±2.14ab 4506.71±70.87a 6062.18±100.08a 0.47±0.03b
NPKM50 12326.96±348.83a 216.09±14.06b 4.15±0.21c 0.33±0.02c 0.28±0.09c 13.56±0.69c 241.87±7.31a 4522.70±61.36a 5758.99±91.02b 0.47±0.02b

Table 5

Effects of different treatments on maize plant biomass, N accumulation and soil nutrient content in 2018 and 2019"

参数 Parameter 时期 Period CK NPK NPKM30 NPKM50
生物量 Biomass (g/plant)
地上部 Aboveground 2018 拔节期 Jointing stage 12.76±1.09b 18.99±2.44a 18.64±0.94a 18.52±1.51a
2018 吐丝期 Silking stage 69.38±16.75b 106.90±4.57a 112.78±3.67a 119.95±1.59a
2018 成熟期 Maturity stage 226.06±10.71b 403.20±60.39a 385.51±51.45a 405.39±41.86a
2019 拔节期 Jointing stage 9.27±2.11b 17.37±1.39a 16.77±2.14a 17.07±0.38a
2019 吐丝期 Silking stage 148.28±4.07c 167.71±9.36b 169.70±4.85b 191.72±6.03a
2019 成熟期 Maturity stage 236.94±22.11b 387.47±23.05a 415.29±21.05a 393.20±7.71a
根 Root 2018 拔节期 Jointing stage 0.57±0.12c 0.90±0.03ab 0.66±0.12bc 1.00±0.23a
2018 吐丝期 Silking stage 8.46±0.95b 11.28±1.08a 10.68±0.20a 10.61±1.50a
2018 成熟期 Maturity stage 5.84±2.00a 6.72±2.14a 7.79±1.70a 8.99±1.37a
2019 拔节期 Jointing stage 0.55±0.12c 0.96±0.03ab 0.80±0.15bc 1.13±0.26a
2019 吐丝期 Silking stage 9.37±1.13b 10.07±1.19b 10.81±1.12a 12.89±1.50ab
2019 成熟期 Maturity stage 5.50±1.84b 9.25±1.88a 11.89±0.70a 12.04±1.00a
氮素积累量 N accumulation (mg N/plant)
籽粒Grain 2018 成熟期 Maturity stage 1062.06±155.77b 1796.03±47.25a 1853.35±65.03a 1891.79±137.66a
2019 成熟期 Maturity stage 1404.98±281.75b 2527.99±85.31a 2776.74±220.55a 2868.92±625.98a
地上部Aboveground 2018 拔节期 Jointing stage 316.20±36.52b 578.95±49.54a 576.95±38.64a 576.21±35.50a
2018 吐丝期 Silking stage 730.92±193.87b 1622.22±108.39a 1877.26±133.01a 1737.69±24.44a
2018 成熟期 Maturity stage 1855.88±381.54b 4545.08±276.53a 4637.18±52.01a 4641.32±432.87a
2019 拔节期 Jointing stage 283.00±72.24b 716.77±36.09a 711.64±68.94a 694.13±10.83a
2019 吐丝期 Silking stage 1879.96±503.84c 2920.41±142.82b 3305.00±247.48ab 3741.69±67.14a
2019 成熟期 Maturity stage 2039.42±328.46b 4836.64±178.49a 4948.44±23.72a 5043.64±374.47a
非根际土壤 Non-rhizosphere soil (mg·kg-1)
铵态氮 NH4+-N (mg·kg-1) 2019 拔节期 Jointing stage 6.75±0.74a 7.26±0.39a 6.80±0.57a 6.99±0.80a
2019 吐丝期 Silking stage 6.98±0.18d 57.78±2.59a 32.35±5.43b 10.16±3.78c
2019 成熟期 Maturity stage 3.34±0.03a 4.05±0.57a 3.24±0.83a 3.27±0.41a
硝态氮 NO3--N (mg·kg-1) 2019 拔节期 Jointing stage 5.89±0.28c 18.45±2.18b 26.11±4.96a 27.82±2.44a
2019 吐丝期 Silking stage 6.75±1.16d 166.70±8.39a 138.92±6.86b 72.11±5.85c
2019 成熟期 Maturity stage 7.81±0.04b 24.82±0.56a 25.98±0.03a 25.35±2.15a
无机氮 INN (mg·kg-1) 2019 拔节期 Jointing stage 12.64±0.94c 25.71±2.00b 32.92±5.99a 35.21±2.04a
2019 吐丝期 Silking stage 13.73±1.08d 224.49±6.01a 171.27±6.58b 82.27±6.15c
2019 成熟期 Maturity stage 11.15±0.06b 29.15±0.27a 28.75±0.13a 28.62±2.51a
根际土壤 Rhizosphere soil (mg·kg-1)
铵态氮 NH4+-N (mg·kg-1) 2019 拔节期 Jointing stage 5.87±0.52a 9.55±5.34a 5.45±0.27a 7.16±2.17a
2019 吐丝期 Silking stage 4.98±0.15a 7.11±2.12a 5.79±0.12a 5.63±0.35a
2019 成熟期 Maturity stage 3.08±0.31ab 5.20±0.77a 4.19±2.40ab 2.62±0.18b
硝态氮NO3--N (mg·kg-1) 2019 拔节期 Jointing stage 6.13±1.68b 12.08±4.19a 8.40±0.13ab 10.36±1.14ab
2019 吐丝期 Silking stage 7.21±0.73c 17.73±0.09a 7.98±1.00c 12.81±3.49b
2019 成熟期 Maturity stage 5.12±0.86b 6.56±0.32b 8.54±1.25a 6.35±1.09b
无机氮INN (mg·kg-1) 2019 拔节期 Jointing stage 12.00±2.16b 21.62±6.84a 13.84±0.37b 17.52±1.06
2019 吐丝期 Silking stage 12.19±0.83c 24.84±2.16a 13.77±0.89c 18.44±3.70b
2019 成熟期 Maturity stage 8.20±0.56c 11.76±0.64ab 12.73±3.25a 8.97±1.00bc

Fig. 2

The difference of maize root length, root surface area and root volume among treatments in 2018 and 2019"

Fig. 3

Temporal variations of soil N2O and CO2 fluxes under different treatments during maize growth periods"

Table 6

Carbon emissions of each input in the production process and carbon footprint of unit yield"

处理Treatment 化肥Fertilizer 杀虫剂
Diesel oil
Mazie seed
Direct emissions
Total emission
Carbon emissions of unit yield (kg·kg-1)
CK 0 7.47 60.9 360 97.65 43.43 4805.57 5375.02 0.75
NPK 637.8 7.47 60.9 360 97.65 43.43 6034.57 7241.82 0.70
NPKM30 637.8 7.47 60.9 360 97.65 43.43 6159.51 7366.76 0.69
NPKM50 637.8 7.47 60.9 360 97.65 43.43 6161.51 7368.76 0.71
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