Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2018, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (17): 3353-3369.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.17.010

• HORTICULTURE • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Diversity of Pear Germplasm Resources Based on Twig and Leaf Phenotypic Traits

ZHANG Ying, CAO YuFen, HUO HongLiang, XU JiaYu, TIAN LuMing, DONG XingGuang, QI Dan, ZHANG XiaoShuang, LIU Chao, WANG LiDong   

  1. Research Institute of Pomology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops (Germplasm Resources Utilization), Ministry of Agriculture, Xingcheng 125100, Liaoning
  • Received:2018-02-14 Online:2018-09-01 Published:2018-09-01

Abstract: 【Objective】The study on the diversity and variation of current-year twig and leaf phenotypic traits of pear germplasm resources was conducted in order to provide valuable basic data and theory foundation for normalization, standardization, preservation and construction of pear core collections, and to promote the efficient utilization of pear germplasm resources.【Method】Data were collected for 23 phenotypic parameters of current-year twig and leaf from 548 accessions of 13 Pyrus species preserved in National Germplasm Repository of Apple and Pear according to the method described in Descriptors and Data Standard for Pear (Pyrus spp.) methods. The distribution frequency, coefficient of variation, Simpson index, Shannon-weaver index, correlation and principal component analysis of pear current-year twig and leaf were analyzed using the SPSS19.0 software, and the intraspecific and interspecific genetic diversities of pear were also analyzed and compared. The frequency distributions of quantitative characters were analyzed by Origin 8.0. The crisp-fleshed and soft-fleshed pears were clustered using MEGA 5.0, respectively, according to morphological data.【Result】Analyzing of 15 character traits of pear leaf phenotype showed that 8 out of 15 traits were abundant, namely, ovate shape, wide wedge-shaped base, sharp-acuate apex, serrate on leaf margin with seta, enclasped status of leaf surface, downward latitude of leaf and redish-green young leaf, which accounted for 90.51%, 58.03%, 66.97%, 81.93%, 87.23%, 59.27%, 86.68% and 35.04%, respectively. Regarding the phenotype of current-year twig, which was ample among yellow brown, rich in lenticels, leaf bud slightly held out, obtuse leaf bud apex, size of bud support medium, pubescence on flower bud absent, which accounted for 87.23%, 78.28%, 87.96%, 83.76%, 73.91% and 99.27%, respectively. The Shannon indexes of the color of young leaf and leaf base shape were found to be as high as 2.197 and 1.597, respectively. The analyses of 8 numeric traits indicated that the average coefficient of variation of leaf length, leaf width, petiole length, current-year twig length, twig thickness, internode length, length of flower bud and thickness of flower bud was 17.25%, 19.04%, 20.06%, 23.70%, 15.08%, 19.33%, 20.62% and 16.66%, respectively. Reference cultivars and 5 groups of each trait were proposed based on the statistical analysis of frequency distribution of numeric traits of current-year twig and leaf. Eight numeric traits, including current-year twig, length of flower bud, leaf width and petiole length, were put forward as comprehensive assessment indexes according to the results of correlation and principal component analyses. There were significant differences in 8 pear numeric traits of current-year twig and leaf among and within populations, while phenotypic differentiation coefficient (VST) of intraspecies and interspecies were 41.10% and 58.90%, respectively. Cluster analysis showed that 233 crisp-fleshed local pear cultivars could be divided into 12 categories and 87 soft-fleshed P. ussuriensis accessions into 6 categories. It was worth mentioning that pear resources which was from southwest China were found in most of the groups.【Conclusion】There were abundant genetic diversity based on the phenotype of current-year twig and leaf of pear. The diversities of character traits of color of young leaf and shape of leaf base were higher than the others. The variation coefficients of numeric traits of current-year twig and length of flower bud were also more obvious than the others. These 4 traits can therefore reflect the differences among pear varieties. The variation in pear germplasm resources based on twig and leaf phenotype traits among populations was higher than within populations, suggesting that the variation among populations was the main variation source. Finally, 5 numeric traits were selected to be as the important comprehensive evaluation indexes used for pear germplasm resources.

Key words: pear, germplasm resources, twig, leaf, phenotypic trait, diversity

[1]    阎爱民, 陈文新. 苜蓿、草木樨、锦鸡儿根瘤菌的表型多样性分析. 生物多样性, 1999, 7(2): 112-118.
YAN A M, CHEN W X. Phenotypic feature diversity of Rhizobia isolated from Medicago sp., Melilotus sp. and Caragana sp. Chinese Biodiversity, 1999, 7(2): 112-118. (in Chinese)
[2]    董玉琛, 刘旭.中国作物及其野生近缘植物. 果树卷. 北京: 中国农业出版社, 2008.
DONG Y C, LIU X. Crops and their wild relatives in China. Volume Fruit Crops. Beijing: China Agriculture Press, 2008. (in Chinese)
[3]    TENG Y W. Genetic relationships of Pyrus species and cultivars native to East Asia revealed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 2002, 127(2): 262-270.
[4]    Cao Y F, Tian L M, Gao Y, Liu F Z. Genetic diversity of cultivated and wild Ussurian pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.) in China evaluated with M13-tailed SSR markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 2012, 59(1): 9-17.
[5]    TIAN L M, GAO Y, CAO Y F, LIU F Z, YANG J. Identification of Chinese white pear cultivars using SSR markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 2012, 59(3): 317-326.
[6]    YU P Y, JIANG S, WANG X X, BAI S L, TENG Y W. Retrotransposon-based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism markers reveal that cultivated Pyrus ussuriensis originated from an interspecific hybridization. European Journal of Horticultural Science, 2016, 81(5): 264-272.
[7]    CHANG Y J, CAO Y F, ZHANG J M, TIAN L M, DONG X G, ZHANG Y, QI D, ZHANG X S. Study on chloroplast DNA diversity of cultivated and wild pears (Pyrus L.) in Northern China. Tree Genetics & Genomes, 2017, 13: 44.
[8]    张冰冰, 宋洪伟, 刘慧涛, 梁英海, 李粤渤. 寒地梨种质资源表型多样性研究. 果树学报, 2009, 26(3): 287-293.
Zhang B B, Song H W, Liu H T, Liang Y H, Li Y B. Study on the diversity of phenotypic characteristics of pear germplasm resources in the cold region. Journal of Fruit Science, 2009, 26(3): 287-293. (in Chinese)
[9]    董星光, 田路明, 曹玉芬, 张莹, 齐丹. 我国南方砂梨主产区主栽品种果实品质因子分析及综合评价. 果树学报, 2014, 31(5): 815-822.
DONG X G, TIAN L M, CAO Y F, ZHANG Y, QI D. Factor analysis and comprehensive evaluation of fruit quality in cultivars of Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai from south China. Journal of Fruit Science, 2014, 31(5): 815-822. (in Chinese)
[10]   张莹, 曹玉芬, 霍宏亮, 田路明, 董星光, 齐丹, 张小双. 基于花表型性状的梨种质资源多样性研究. 园艺学报, 2016, 43(7): 1245-1256.
ZHANG Y, CAO Y F, HUO H L, TIAN L M, DONG X G, QI D, ZHANG X S. Research on diversity of pear germplasm resources based on flowers phenotype traits. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 2016, 43(7): 1245-1256. (in Chinese)
[11]   ALIZADEH K, FATHOLAHI S, Da SILVA J A. Variation in the fruit characteristics of local pear (Pyrus spp.) in the Northwest of Iran. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 2015, 62(5): 635-641.
[12]   王力荣, 朱更瑞, 方伟超. 桃种质资源若干植物学数量性状描述指标探讨. 中国农业科学, 2005, 38(4): 770-776.
WANG L R, ZHU G R, FANG W C. The evaluating criteria of some botanical quantitative characters of peach genetic resources. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2005, 38(4): 770-776. (in Chinese)
[13]   蔡志翔, 严娟, 沈志军, 马瑞娟, 俞明亮. 桃种质资源托叶长度评价与分级体系的建立. 植物遗传资源学报, 2016, 17(3): 461-465
CAI Z X, YAN J, SHEN Z J, MA R J, YU M L. Evaluation and grading of stipule length in peach germplasm resources. Journal of Plant Genetic Resources, 2016, 17(3): 461-465. (in Chinese)
[14]   王永康, 吴国良, 赵爱玲, 李登科. 枣种质资源的表型遗传多样性. 林业科学, 2014, 50(10): 33-41. 
WANG Y K, WU G L, ZHAO A L, LI D K. Phenotypic genetic diversity of jujube germplasm resource. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2014, 50(10): 33-41. (in Chinese)
[15]   李钰, 赵成章, 董小刚, 侯兆疆, 马小丽, 张茜. 高寒草地狼毒枝-叶性状对坡向的响应. 生态学杂志, 2013, 32(12): 3145-3151.
LI Y, ZHAO C Z, DONG X G, HOU Z J, MA X L, ZHANG Q. Responses of Stellera chamaejasme twig and leaf traits to slope aspect in alpine grassland of Northwest China. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 2013, 32(12): 3145-3151. (in Chinese)
[16]   曹玉芬, 刘凤之, 胡红菊, 张冰冰. 梨种质资源描述规范和数据标准. 北京: 中国农业出版社, 2006.
CAO Y F, LIU F Z, HU H J, ZHANG B B. Descriptors and data standard for pear (Pyrus spp.). Beijing: China Agriculture Press, 2006.(in Chinese)
[17]   江锡兵, 龚榜初, 刘庆忠, 陈新, 吴开云, 邓全恩, 汤丹. 中国板栗地方品种重要农艺性状的表型多样性. 园艺学报, 2014, 41(4): 641-652.
JIANG X B, GONG B C, LIU Q Z, CHEN X, WU K Y, DENG Q E, TANG D. Phenotypic diversity of important agronomic traits of local cultivars of Chinese chestnut. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 2014, 41(4): 641-652. (in Chinese)
[18]   李京璟, 马庆华, 陈新, 张日清, 王贵禧. 平榛种质资源坚果农艺性状鉴定与评价研究. 植物遗传资源学报, 2016, 17(3): 483-490.
LI J J, MA Q H, CHEN X, ZHANG R Q, WANG G X. Identification and evaluation of agronomic traits for Corylus heterophylla Fisch. germplasm resources. Journal of Plant Genetic Resources, 2016, 17(3): 483-490. (in Chinese)
[19]   葛颂, 王明庥, 陈岳武. 用同工酶研究马尾松群体的遗传结构. 林业科学, 1988, 24(4): 399-409.
GE S, WANG M X, CHEN Y W. An analysis of population genetic structure of masson pine by isozyme technique. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 1988, 24(4): 399-409. (in Chinese)
[20]   孙珍珠, 李秋月, 王小柯, 赵婉彤, 薛杨, 冯锦英, 刘小丰, 刘梦 雨, 江东. 宽皮柑橘种质资源表型多样性分析及综合评价. 中国农业科学, 2017, 50(22): 4362-4372.
SUN Z Z, LI Q Y, WANG X K, ZHAO W T, XUE Y, FENG J Y, LIU X F, LIU M Y, JIANG D. Comprehensive evaluation and phenotypic diversity analysis of germplasm resources in Mandarin. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2017, 50(22): 4362-4372. (in Chinese)
[21]   OKIE W R, SCORZA R. breeding peach for narrow leaf width. Acta Horticulturae, 2002, 592: 137-141.
[22]   HAMRICK J L, GODT M J W, SHERMAN-BROYLES S L. Factors influencing levels of genetic diversity in woody plant species. New Forests, 1992, 6(1/4): 95-124.
[23]   赵海娟, 刘威生, 刘宁, 张玉萍, 章秋平, 刘硕. 普通杏 (Prunus armeniaca)种质资源数量性状的遗传多样性分析. 果树学报, 2014, 31(1): 20-29.
ZHAO H J, LIU W S, LIU N, ZHANG Y P, ZHANG Q P, LIU S. Genetic diversity analysis for the quantitative traits of common apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm. Journal of Fruit Science, 2014, 31(1): 20-29. (in Chinese)
[24]   刘胤, 陈涛, 张静, 王珏, 王浩, 汤浩茹, 王小蓉. 中国樱桃地方种质资源表型性状遗传多样性分析. 园艺学报, 2016, 43(11): 2119-2132.
LIU Y, CHEN T, ZHANG J, WANG J, WANG H, TANG H R, WANG X R. Genetic diversity analysis of chinese cherry landraces (Prunus pseudocerasus) based on phenotypic traits. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 2016, 43(11): 2119-2132. (in Chinese)
[25]   IBPGR. Pear Descriptors. Rome: International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, 1983.
[26]   UPOV. Guidelines for the conduct of test for distinctness, uniformity and stability (Pyrus communis L.). Geneva: International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, 2000.
[27]   尹明宇, 高福玲, 乌云塔娜. 内蒙古西伯利亚杏种质资源表型多样性研究. 植物遗传资源学报, 2017, 18(2): 242-252.
YIN M Y, GAO F L, WUYUN T N. High-level genetic diversity of siberian apricot (Armeniaca sibirica) in inner mongolia revealed by phenotyping. Journal of Plant Genetic Resources, 2017, 18(2): 242-252. (in Chinese)
[28] CAO Y F, TIAN L M, GAO Y, YANG J, ZHANG S. Evaluation of genetic identity and variation in cultivars of Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai from China using microsatellite markers. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, 2011, 86(4): 331-336.
[29] LIN T, ZHU G, ZHANG J, Zhang J, Xu X, Yu Q, Zheng Z, Zhang Z, Lun Y, Li S, et al. Genomic analyses provide insights into the history of tomato breeding. Nature Genetics, 2014, 46(11): 1220-1226.
[30]   Duan N, Bai Y, Sun H,Wang N, Ma Y, Li M, Wang X, Jiao C, Legall N, Mao L,et al. Genome re-sequencing reveals the history of apple and supports a two-stage model for fruit enlargement. Nature Communications, 2017, 8: 249.
[31]   DONDINI L, PIERANTONI L, GAIOTTI F, CHIODINI R, TARTARINI S, BAZZI C, SANSAVINI S. Identifying QTLs for fire-blight resistance via a European pear (Pyrus communis L.) genetic linkage map. Molecular Breeding, 2005, 14(4): 407-418.
[32]   潘映红. 论植物表型组和植物表型组学的概念与范畴. 作物学报, 2015, 41(2): 175-186.
PAN Y H. Analysis of concepts and categories of plant phenome and phenomics. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2015, 41(2): 175-186. (in Chinese)
[33]   穆金虎, 陈玉泽, 冯慧, 李文建, 周利斌. 作物育种学领域新的革命: 高通量的表型组学时代. 植物科学学报, 2016, 34(6): 962-971.
MU J H, CHEN Y Z, FENG H, LI W J, ZHOU L B. A new revolution in crop breeding: The era of high-throughput phenomics. Plant Science Journal, 2016, 34(6): 962-971. (in Chinese)
[1] LI YiLing,PENG XiHong,CHEN Ping,DU Qing,REN JunBo,YANG XueLi,LEI Lu,YONG TaiWen,YANG WenYu. Effects of Reducing Nitrogen Application on Leaf Stay-Green, Photosynthetic Characteristics and System Yield in Maize-Soybean Relay Strip Intercropping [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(9): 1749-1762.
[2] WANG Miao,ZHANG Yu,LI RuiQiang,XIN XiaoPing,ZHU XiaoYu,CAO Juan,ZHOU ZhongYi,YAN RuiRui. Effects of Grazing Disturbance on the Stoichiometry of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Plant Organs of Leymus chinensis Meadow Steppe [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(7): 1371-1384.
[3] WANG XiuXiu,XING AiShuang,YANG Ru,HE ShouPu,JIA YinHua,PAN ZhaoE,WANG LiRu,DU XiongMing,SONG XianLiang. Comprehensive Evaluation of Phenotypic Characters of Nature Population in Upland Cotton [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(6): 1082-1094.
[4] GUO Yan, ZHANG ShuHang, LI Ying, ZHANG XinFang, WANG GuangPeng. Diversity Analysis of 36 Leaf Phenotypic Traits of Chinese Chestnut [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(5): 991-1009.
[5] XIANG MiaoLian, WU Fan, LI ShuCheng, WANG YinBao, XIAO LiuHua, PENG WenWen, CHEN JinYin, CHEN Ming. Effects of Melatonin Treatment on Resistance to Black Spot and Postharvest Storage Quality of Pear Fruit [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(4): 785-795.
[6] SHI Xi, NING LiHua, GE Min, WU Qi, ZHAO Han. Screening and Application of Biomarkers Related to Maize Nitrogen Status [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(3): 438-450.
[7] HU XueHua,LIU NingNing,TAO HuiMin,PENG KeJia,XIA Xiaojian,HU WenHai. Effects of Chilling on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Characteristics of Leaves with Different Leaf Ages in Tomato Seedlings [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(24): 4969-4980.
[8] JIA XiaoHui,ZHANG XinNan,LIU BaiLin,MA FengLi,DU YanMin,WANG WenHui. Effects of Low Oxygen/High Carbon Dioxide Controlled Atmosphere Combined with 1-Methylcyclopropene on Quality of Yuluxiang Pear During Cold Storage [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(23): 4717-4727.
[9] ZHANG Qi,DUAN Yu,SU Yue,JIANG QiQi,WANG ChunQing,BIN Yu,SONG Zhen. Construction and Application of Expression Vector Based on Citrus Leaf Blotch Virus [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(22): 4398-4407.
[10] DU JinXia,LI YiSha,LI MeiLin,CHEN WenHan,ZHANG MuQing. Evaluation of Resistance to Leaf Scald Disease in Different Sugarcane Genotypes [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(21): 4118-4130.
[11] YOU JiaLing,LI YouMei,SUN MengHao,XIE ZhaoSen. Analysis Reveals the Differential Expression of Genes Related to Starch Accumulation in Chloroplast of Leaf with Different Ages in Pinot Noir Grape [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(21): 4265-4278.
[12] YingLing WAN,MengTing ZHU,AiQing LIU,YiJia JIN,Yan LIU. Phenotypic Diversity Analysis of Chinese Ornamental Herbaceous Peonies and Its Germplasm Resource Evaluation [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(18): 3629-3639.
[13] LI YiMei,WANG Jiao,WANG Ping,SHI Kai. Function of Sugar Transport Protein SlSTP2 in Tomato Defense Against Bacterial Leaf Spot [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(16): 3144-3154.
[14] SHEN ZhiJun, TIAN Yu, CAI ZhiXiang, XU ZiYuan, YAN Juan, SUN Meng, MA RuiJuan, YU MingLiang. Evaluation of Brown Rot Resistance in Peach Based on Genetic Resources Conserved in National Germplasm Repository of Peach in Nanjing [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(15): 3018-3028.
[15] XU Xiao,REN GenZeng,ZHAO XinRui,CHANG JinHua,CUI JiangHui. Accurate Identification and Comprehensive Evaluation of Panicle Phenotypic Traits of Landraces and Cultivars of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench in China [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(11): 2092-2108.
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!