Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (7): 1371-1384.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2022.07.009


Effects of Grazing Disturbance on the Stoichiometry of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Plant Organs of Leymus chinensis Meadow Steppe

WANG Miao1(),ZHANG Yu1,LI RuiQiang2,XIN XiaoPing1,ZHU XiaoYu3,CAO Juan1,ZHOU ZhongYi4,YAN RuiRui1()   

  1. 1Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/National Field Scientific Observation and Research Station of Hulunbuir Grassland Ecosystem, Beijing 100081
    2Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Environmental Online Monitoring Centre, Hohhot 010055
    3Environmental Protection Research and Monitoring Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Tianjin 300191
    4Career Development Center of Yakeshi Forestry and Grassland Administration, Yakeshi 022150, Inner Mongolia
  • Received:2021-03-01 Accepted:2021-07-22 Online:2022-04-01 Published:2022-04-18
  • Contact: RuiRui YAN;


【Objective】Taking above-ground communities, stems and leaves as research objects, the effects of different grazing intensities on the contents of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) elements and stoichiometric characteristics of plant components and plant communities were investigated, which provided a scientific basis for in-depth analysis of grassland ecosystem degradation process under grazing disturbance and promotion of adaptive management of grassland grazing. 【Method】Based on the long-term controlled grazing test platform of Leymus chinensis meadow grassland in Hulunbuir, the plant communities and plant samples of different components were collected. The contents of C, N and P were determined by elemental analysis method, and then the changes of C, N and P contents and the measurement ratio under different grazing intensities were analyzed. 【Result】With the increase of grazing intensity, the C content of plant stem, leaf and community showed a significant linear decrease, and the C content of heavy to extremely heavy grazing was significantly lower than that of no grazing (P<0.05). The N and P contents of the community were linearly increased, and the heavy to extremely grazing was significantly higher than that of no grazing (P<0.05). The stem-leaf ratio of C content was the lowest in moderate grazing (G0.46), while the stem-leaf ratio of N content was the highest in heavy grazing (G0.69), and the highest in P content (G0.34). The coefficients of variation of C content and N/P ratio in different plant organs were small, but the coefficients of variation of N and P contents were large. The variation coefficients of C content and N/P ratio of different components ranged from 4.01% to 5.74% and 2.84% to 8.54%, respectively. The variation coefficients of N and P contents of plants ranged from 11.47% to 14.96% and 11.13% to 22.88%, respectively, and the variation coefficients of C/N and C/P ratios ranged from 10.64% to 16.00% and 8.88% to 13.57%, respectively; among them, the coefficient of variation of the N/P ratio of plant leaves is the smallest, and the coefficient of variation of plant stem P content is the largest. The N/P ratio of leaves was between 14 and 16 under light grazing G0.34 and extremely heavy grazing G0.92, which was restricted by both N and P elements; while the other components were all lower than 14 under different grazing intensities, which was restricted by N. There was a significant negative correlation between grazing intensity and C content and C/N ratio of stem, leaf and community, and N/P ratio of stem and community, whilst they were significantly positively related to N content of stem, leaf and community, P content of plant leaf and community, and the N/P ratio of plant stem. The soil moisture was significantly positively correlated with the C content of plant leaves and community, the C/N ratio of stem, leaf and community, and the C/P ratio of stem and community, however, which were significantly negatively correlated the N content of stem, leaf and community and the P content of leaf and community. 【Conclusion】Grazing caused significant changes in plant C, N, P content, ecological stoichiometric ratio, and total community C, N, and P content. Overgrazing not only decreased the C content, C/N ratio and C/P ratio of plant stem, leaf and community, but also reduced the total C, N, and P content of the community, increased the N and P content of plant stem, leaf and community, and N/P ratio of plant stem, leaf and community. Moderate grazing decreased the C/N ratio of stem and leaf, and increased the C/P ratio and N/P ratio of stem and leaf, which was beneficial to promote the sustainable and stable development of grassland ecological functions.

Key words: meadow steppe, grazing intensity, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content, ecological stoichiometry characteristics, stem and leaf, community, Hulunbuir

Fig. 1

Design diagram of different grazing intensities The upper letter is the “test plot number”, where W-west, M-middle, E-east; the lower numbers and letters are “livestock grazing intensity”"

Table 1

Soil physical and chemical properties of different grazing intensities in 2020"

Grazing intensity
(Cow.Au·hm-2 )
Soil organic carbon
Soil total nitrogen
Soil total phosphorus
Soil moisture
Soil temperature
G0.00 40.78±0.22ab 3.66±0.02ab 0.58±0.02a 32.47±0.76a 21.97±1.85a
G0.23 38.35±2.15ab 3.42±0.13b 0.55±0.05a 30.60±1.46ab 23.36±2.91a
G0.34 40.49±0.10ab 3.93±0.25a 0.56±0.02a 31.06±0.73ab 23.14±2.65a
G0.46 41.55±0.66a 3.56±0.21ab 0.59±0.03a 31.14±0.43ab 23.12±2.92a
G0.69 37.71±0.50b 3.42±0.07b 0.58±0.03a 29.04±1.01ab 23.21±3.03a
G0.92 39.06±0.35ab 3.58±0.01ab 0.59±0.06a 27.78±2.18b 23.12±3.01a

Table 2

Variation characteristics of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents in different organs under different grazing intensities"

Coefficient of variation (%)
2019 C (g·kg-1) 茎Stem 369.72 331.84 407.31 5.99
叶Leave 376.84 357.05 401.41 2.81
群落Community 384.14 360.05 404.52 3.41
N (g·kg-1) 茎Stem 14.66 10.24 17.94 14.50
叶Leave 20.40 16.93 23.75 7.78
群落Community 20.09 16.85 25.93 12.70
P (g·kg-1) 茎Stem 1.40 1.05 1.72 13.47
叶Leave 1.60 1.20 1.89 10.54
群落Community 1.63 1.26 1.97 12.81
2020 C (g·kg-1) 茎Stem 389.51 342.75 457.27 7.86
叶Leave 361.90 326.62 408.33 5.64
群落Community 373.33 330.63 424.29 6.13
N (g·kg-1) 茎Stem 14.51 10.85 20.70 17.60
叶Leave 23.00 17.42 44.51 26.31
群落Community 19.70 16.87 23.37 11.97
P (g·kg-1) 茎Stem 1.46 1.02 3.57 37.38
叶Leave 1.60 0.92 2.09 17.25
群落Community 1.44 0.81 1.82 15.03
Two years
C (g·kg-1) 茎Stem 379.62 345.14 425.42 5.74
叶Leave 369.37 350.74 393.39 3.09
群落Community 378.73 358.97 402.68 4.01
N (g·kg-1) 茎Stem 14.59 11.59 19.32 14.11
叶Leave 21.70 18.56 32.68 14.96
群落Community 19.89 16.93 24.65 11.47
P (g·kg-1) 茎Stem 1.43 1.12 2.64 22.88
叶Leave 1.60 1.20 1.99 11.13
群落Community 1.54 1.04 1.83 12.57

Fig. 2

Annual stoichiometric characteristics of stem, leaf and community under different grazing intensities Different letters indicate significant difference (P<0.05), while same letters indicate no significant difference (P>0.05). The same as below"

Fig. 3

Carbon content in stem, leaf and community and ratio of stem to leaf under different grazing intensities"

Fig. 4

Nitrogen content in stem, leaf and community and ratio of stem to leaf under different grazing intensities"

Fig. 5

Phosphorus content in stem, leaf and community and ratio of stem to leaf under different grazing intensities"

Table 3

Correlation between measurement ratio of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content in plant stem and leaves and grazing intensity"

C (g·kg-1) N (g·kg-1) P (g·kg-1) C﹕N C﹕P N﹕P
Grazing intensity
茎Stem -0.656** 0.825** 0.304 -0.876** -0.598** 0.505*
叶Leave -0.737** 0.706** 0.535* -0.839** -0.449 0.428
群落Community -0.753** 0.861** 0.840** -0.900** -0.752** 0.172
Soil temperature (℃)
茎Stem 0.19 0.205 0.574* -0.146 -0.252 -0.143
叶Leave -0.467 -0.056 0.051 -0.112 -0.204 -0.135
群落Community 0.007 0.184 0.187 -0.133 -0.421 -0.377
Soil moisture (%)
茎Stem 0.364 -0.670** -0.402 0.671** 0.619** -0.17
叶Leave 0.674** -0.558* -0.474* 0.686** 0.414 -0.283
群落Community 0.470* -0.644** -0.720** 0.611** 0.751** 0.182
Soil carbon content
茎Stem 0.289 -0.656** -0.504* 0.631** 0.631** -0.105
叶Leave 0.639** -0.556* -0.409 0.668** 0.416 -0.269
群落Community 0.471* -0.583* -0.781** 0.564* 0.706** 0.196
Soil nitrogen content (g·kg-1)
茎Stem 0.401 -0.636** -0.291 0.658** 0.567* -0.212
叶Leave 0.657** -0.522* -0.495* 0.654** 0.384 -0.275
群落Community 0.438 -0.650** -0.622** 0.608** 0.738** 0.158
Soil phosphorus content (g·kg-1)
茎Stem -0.316 0.392 0.314 -0.348 -0.247 0.239
叶Leave -0.145 0.183 0.169 -0.051 0.051 0.258
群落Community -0.104 0.005 0.046 -0.049 0.088 0.146

Fig. 6

Community biomass and total uptake of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus under different grazing intensities"

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