Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (20): 4035-4048.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.20.009


Effects of Long-Term Straw Return and Nitrogen Application Rate on Organic Carbon Storage, Components and Aggregates in Cultivated Layers

GUO RongBo1(), LI GuoDong1, PAN MengYu1, ZHENG XianFeng1(), WANG ZhaoHui1,2, HE Gang1,2   

  1. 1 College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University/Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Agro-Environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi
    2 State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Area, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi
  • Received:2022-11-16 Accepted:2023-02-08 Online:2023-10-16 Published:2023-10-31
  • Contact: ZHENG XianFeng


【Objective】The results of carbon sequestration studies on combining straw returning with nitrogen fertilizer are controversial. Aimed at such problem, this experiment was carried out to reveal the effects of combining straw returning with nitrogen fertilizer on Carbon sequestration capacity and mechanism of farmland, so as to provide a reference for the future research. 【Method】Based on 11 years of long-term positioning experiments, this paper adopted split-zone design, the main treatment included straw returning to soil and removal straw from field, and the subplots included three N application rate, which were no nitrogen (N0), 168 kg·hm-2 (N168, nitrogen), and 336 kg·hm-2 (N336, excessive nitrogen application). 【Result】Compared with wheat without nitrogen fertilizer, wheat yield increased by 14.4%-19.5% with nitrogen fertilizer. The effect of straw returning to the field on yield was not significant. Straw returning significantly increased the cumulative input of soil carbon by 70.8% (P<0.05), but had no significant effect on soil organic carbon storage. Compared N0, the nitrogen application significantly increased soil carbon accumulation input and soil organic carbon storage by 7.7%-8.5% (P<0.05) and 4.7%-8.1% (P<0.05), respectively. The application of nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased the carbon fixation rate by 32.7%-56.1% (P<0.05), and N336 significantly increased the soil carbon fixation efficiency by 51.8% (P<0.05); straw returning to the field did not significantly improve the soil carbon fixation rate, but significantly reduced the carbon fixation efficiency by 30.9% (P<0.05). Both nitrogen application and straw returning could improve soil carbon pool capacity, and N0 and N168 have reached carbon saturation. The content of soluble organic carbon (DOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and easily oxidized organic carbon (EO) in the soil increased by 4.6%, 11.2% and 4.5% respectively after returning straw to the field. Compared N0, DOC under N168 and N336 increased by 14.12% and 29.54% respectively; MBC decreased by 14.0% and 28.0% on average, respectively; EO increased by 8.2% and 11.5%, respectively. Straw returning to the field was beneficial to the improvement of soil DOC/SOC and microbial entropy. Applying nitrogen fertilizer was beneficial to the increase of DOC/SOC, but reduced the microbial entropy. Both straw returning and nitrogen fertilizer application had no effect on soil EO/SOC. Both straw returning and nitrogen application were beneficial to the improvement of macroaggregates (>0.25 mm), and straw returning significantly increased the organic carbon content of macroaggregates by 5.2%. The average weight diameter (MWD) and geometric average diameter (GMD) of aggregates under non-return showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increase of nitrogen level, while under straw returning, it showed an increase with the increase of nitrogen level. Straw returning increased the MWD and GMD of aggregates by 8.8% and 7.5% respectively, and the application of nitrogen fertilizer increased the MWD and GMD by 14.1%-22.7% and 16.8%-23.4% respectively, compared with CK. Both straw returning and nitrogen application could improve the distribution of organic carbon in large aggregates. 【Conclusion】Straw returning with nitrogen fertilizer could increase carbon input, increase activated organic carbon content, reduce microbial activity, and improve the protection of organic carbon by aggregates.

Key words: straw returning, nitrogen fertilizer, tillage layer, carbon storage, activated carbon components, aggregates

Table 1

Analysis of variance of wheat yields and soil carbon"

Wheat yield
固碳效率SOCSE 微生物量碳
Straw returning (S)
0.002NS 14511** 5.5NS 5.5NS 22.3** 8.5** 0.6NS 1.8NS 2.2NS 1.9NS
N rate (N)
47.2** 36.3** 6.4* 6.4* 4.4** 45.6** 6.5** 4.3* 13.1** 14**
N╳S 1.4NS 1.1NS 0.5NS 0.5NS 1.3NS 1.1NS 0.12NS 0.5NS 6.6** 3.2NS

Fig. 1

Wheat yield and cumulative carbon inputs The solid and dashed lines of the box plot represent the median and average, respectively. The upper and lower boundaries of the box plot represent the 75% and 25% quartiles, respectively. The upper and lower edges of the box plot represent the percentiles of 95% and 5%, respectively. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences between different treatments (P<0.05). The same as below"

Table 2

Effects of straw return and nitrogen fertilizer on organic carbon storage, carbon sequestration rate and carbon sequestration efficiency of cultivated layer"

处理 Treatment 有机碳储量 SOCs (t·hm-2) 固碳量 ∆SOCs( t·hm-2) 固碳速率 SOCSR (kg·hm-2·a-1) 固碳效率 SOCSE (%)
N0 30.0 b 3.6 b 331.0 b 8.2 bc
N168 31.9 ab 5.5 ab 501.4 ab 11.6 ab
N336 33.2 a 6.8 a 620.1 a 14.3 a
S+N0 31.7 ab 5.3 ab 480.7 ab 7.0 c
S+N168 32.7 a 6.3 a 575.6 a 7.8 bc
S+N336 33.5 a 7.1 a 646.8 a 8.8 bc

Fig. 2

Relationship between changes in soil organic carbon stocks and carbon input under different treatments The change in organic carbon storage is the difference between the current organic carbon stock and the initial organic carbon stock"

Fig. 3

Effects of straw return and nitrogen fertilizer on organic carbon content and activated carbon components of cultivated layer"

Table 3

Effect of straw returning to field with nitrogen fertilizer on the proportion of active organic carbon in soil"

处理 Treatment 可溶性有机碳/总有机碳 DOC/SOC (%) 微生物熵 MBC/SOC (%) 易氧化有机碳/总有机碳 EO/SOC (%)
N0 1.6 b 1.2 a 25.6 a
N168 1.7 ab 1.0 ab 27.1 a
N336 1.8 ab 0.8 b 26.4 a
S+N0 1.5 b 1.3 a 26.5 a
S+N168 1.7 ab 1.0 ab 26.7 a
S+N336 1.9 a 0.9 ab 27.0 a

Table 4

Effects of straw return and nitrogen fertilizer on aggregate composition and organic carbon content"

团聚体大小 Aggregate size (mm)
>2 2-1 1-0.5 0.5-0.25 <0.25
Aggregate composition
N0 7.7 b 10.0 c 21.8 c 18.7 a 41.9 a
N168 9.4 ab 12.3 b 30.0 ab 18.0 ab 33.3 c
N336 8.2 b 12.0 bc 26.3 ab 19.8 a 33.8 bc
S+N0 7.8 b 11.0 bc 23.9 bc 18.5 a 38.9 ab
S+N168 8.1 b 12.9 b 27.2 a 18.5 a 33.3 c
S+N336 11.8 a 15.7 a 28.7 a 15.7 b 29.7 c
SOC of aggregates
N0 13.7 ab 13.5 b 12.9 ab 11.0 ab 11.1 ab
N168 12.8 b 13.7 ab 12.4 ab 10.6 b 11.0 b
N336 14.61 a 14.0 ab 12.1 b 10.5 b 10.7 b
S+N0 14.1 ab 14.1 ab 12.9 ab 10.8 ab 10.7 b
S+N168 14.4 a 14.0 ab 13.2 a 11.4 a 11.6 ab
S+N336 15.2 a 14.7 a 13.0 a 11.1 ab 12.1 a
Distribution percentage of SOC in aggregates (%)
N0 9.1 b 11.2 c 23.4 c 17.1 a 39.1 a
N168 10.2 ab 14.3 b 28.3 ab 16.1 a 31.1 bc
N336 10.1b 14.2 b 27.3 ab 17.7 a 30.7 bc
S+N0 9.2 b 12.9 bc 26.0 b 16.7 a 35.1 ab
S+N168 9.4 b 14.3 b 28.6 a 16.8 a 30.8 bc
S+N336 13.5 a 17.5 a 28.3 a 13.3 b 27.3 c

Fig. 4

Effects of straw returning to field with nitrogen fertilizer on the average weight diameter and geometric average diameter of aggregates"

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