Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (7): 1344-1358.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.07.012


Effects of Straw Incorporation Quantity on Soil Physical Characteristics of Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation System in the Central Hilly Area of Sichuan Basin

MA ShengLan1,2(), KUANG FuHong1(), LIN HongYu1,2, CUI JunFang1, TANG JiaLiang1, ZHU Bo1, PU QuanBo3   

  1. 1 Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 Nanchong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanchong 637000, Sichuan
  • Received:2022-02-24 Accepted:2022-05-09 Online:2023-04-01 Published:2023-04-03


【Objective】 The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of straw returning quantity on the soil physical characteristics and to establish a recycling model for planting by-products, so as to provide a scientific basis for the utilization of straw resources in the central hilly area of Sichuan basin.【Method】 Herein, based on long-term field trials (2006-present) using a combination of in situ monitoring and computed tomography microscanning (CT), the effects of different amounts of straw returned to the field (0 straw returned (RMW0), 30% straw returned (RMW30), 50% straw returned (RMW50), and 100% straw returned (RMW100)) on the physical characteristics at the cultivated soil layer of the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system were examined.【Result】 (1) Straw returned to the field could significantly improve soil permeability, water holding capacity and hydraulic conductivity, and the improving effect increased significantly with the amount of straw returned to the field. Compared with RMW0, soil bulk density under RMW30, RMW50, and RMW100 reduced significantly by 15.2%, 11.7%, and 17.9%, respectively; whereas, soil porosity under these treatments were significantly increased by 18.4%, 13.7%, and 21.3%, respectively. In addition, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of RMW100 treatment was as high as 1.62 mm·min-1, and the soil hydraulic conductivity was superior to other treatments. (2) Straw returning promoted the development of existing pores into larger ones and significantly improved pore uniformity and connectivity. The RMW100 and RMW50 treatments improved the macropore composition of the soil better than that under the RMW30 and RMW0 treatments. The average pore diameter of the RMW100 treatment tended to be larger and inter-pore connectivity was optimal. The homogeneity of the pores under the RMW50 treatment was significantly improved and the pore size distribution was more appropriate than that under other treatments. (3) Compared with RMW0 treatment, the number of >2 mm agglomerates increased significantly and the number of 0.25-2 mm agglomerates decreased significantly after straw returned to the field, which was beneficial to the formation of large soil water-stable agglomerates and promoted the transformation of medium to large agglomerates. Both RMW50 and RMW100 treatments improved significantly better than that under RMW30 treatment. (4) Principal components analysis showed soil bulk density, water-stable aggregate with diameter larger than 0.25 mm and large pore were the main indicators of the physical characteristics of cultivated soils in calcareous purple soils. The first and second principal components explained 57.8% and 23.6% of the physical properties of the soil, respectively. The physical characteristics under RMW50 and RMW100 treatments were close to each other, and showed significant divergence from the RMW0 and RMW30 treatments on the PC1 and PC2 axes. 【Conclusion】 On the basis of no significant difference of crop yield in the central hilly area of Sichuan basin, there were differences in the effects of different straw returning quantities on the physical properties of cultivated soil layer, with no significant differences between 50% and 100% straw returning effects, but significantly better than that of 30% and 0 of straw incorporation. The specific straw application rate should be selected according to the local conditions.

Key words: straw returning, purple soil, winter wheat-summer maize rotation system, soil aggregate, soil pore characteristics

Fig. 1

Overview of the study area"

Fig. 2

Monthly average temperature and precipitation distribution of the study area from 2005 to 2019"

Table 1

Crop yield and straw production from 2008 to 2019"

冬小麦季Winter wheat 夏玉米季 Summer maize
Crop yield (kg·hm-2)
3457±164ab 3282±143b 3721±212a 3765±205a 6115±342a 6217±330a 6254±269a 6263±337a
Average straw production
5889±437 6247±272
The quantities of straw returning (kg·hm-2)
0 1874±65 3123±109 6247±272 0 1767±131 2944±219 5889±437

Fig. 3

Construction of microscopic 3D structure of soil macropores"

Table 2

Effects of straw returning quantity on soil particle composition and water stable agglomerates in cultivated soil"

粒径 Size (mm) RMW0 RMW30 RMW50 RMW100
容重Bulk density (g·cm-3) 1.45±0.06a 1.23±0.01b 1.28±0.04b 1.19±0.02b
总孔隙度 Total porosity (%) 45.4±2.34b 53.76±0.46a 51.63±1.60a 55.09±0.69a
饱和含水量Saturated water content (w/w, %) 25.77±2.24a 24.00±0.56a 26.31±1.10a 26.05±1.00a
饱和导水率Saturated hydraulic conductivity (mm·min-1) 0.80±0.01b 0.79±0.03b 1.11±0.26ab 1.62±0.37a
Soil particle composition (%)
0.05-2.0 25.43±4.78ab 22.71±1.62b 26.30±2.11ab 27.64±1.07a
0.002-0.05 43.40±3.65ab 46.59±3.09a 41.01±3.29b 44.13±2.08ab
<0.002 20.09±1.01ab 19.90±1.72ab 21.56±1.49a 16.19±1.05b
Wash loss
11.06±0.91ab 10.79±0.64b 11.13±0.46ab 12.03±0.48a
Water stable agglomerates content (%)
>2 18.14±4.36b 26.09±8.53a 27.99±5.02a 27.21±0.87a
0.25-2 50.66±6.33a 38.59±7.80b 43.47±4.6ab 36.33±2.52b
0.053-0.25 15.38±2.44a 17.40±1.48a 14.74±0.95a 17.40±1.48a
<0.053 15.82±3.48ab 18.02b±0.7ab 13.80±0.33b 22.07±1.84a
土壤团聚度 Soil agglomeration (%) 69.79±1.34a 72.33±0.34a 69.40 ±0.78a 65.80±1.65b

Fig. 4

Effects of straw returning quantity on soil compactness and moisture content in profile"

Table 3

Effects of straw returning quantity on soil pore characteristics of cultivated soil"

(>25 μm)Macro porosity
Macro porosity as a proportion of total porosity (%)
Ratio of pores under different sizes to the number/volume ratio of large pores
Mean pore-throat ratio
Mean sectional area of throat (μm2)
Shape factor-as circle
coordination number of pore
RMW0 13 28.6 51.0/0 41.9/7.0 4.6/6.2 2.6/86.8 0.15 0.22 0.81 0.68
RMW30 8 14.8 41.9/0 49.8/13.5 5.5/12.1 2.8/74.4 0.12 0.17 0.80 0.69
RMW50 7 13.5 33.3/0 43.3/12.7 12.7/37.5 10.7/49.8 0.34 0.13 0.70 0.53
RMW100 17 36.0 41.8/0 39.6/3.2 10.2/5.7 8.4/91.0 0.34 0.25 0.74 0.88

Fig. 5

3D restoration and 3D cross-sectional diagram of undisturbed soil column with different treatments Yellow in the column and sectional diagram represents soil pores, white in the column and gray in the sectional diagram mean soil"

Fig. 6

Correlation analysis of soil physical characteristics under straw returning *Indicated significant difference P<0.05 (minimum significant difference); ** Indicated significant difference P<0.01 (moderately significant difference); *** Indicated significant difference P<0.001 (maximum significant difference)"

Table 4

Commonality of factors and eigenvectors of each indicator in principal component analysis"

容重 Bulk density 0.959
孔隙度 Porosity 0.909
Saturated water content
Saturated hydraulic conductivity
Porosity quantity
25-100 μm 0.930
100-500 μm 0.736
500-1000 μm 0.992
>1000 μm 0.991
Soil particle composition
砂粒Sand 0.853
粉粒Silt 0.929
黏粒Clay 0.836
Water-stable agglomerates
大团聚体Macro aggregate 0.877
中团聚体Medium aggregate 0.958
Clay powder aggregate
微团聚体Micro aggregate 0.850

Fig. 7

Principal components analysis of soil physical properties under straw returning"

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