Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (12): 2398-2412.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2022.12.011

• HORTICULTURE • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Development and Evaluation of a Coating Substitute for Individual Polyethylene Film Packaging of Citrus Fruit

ZOU YunQian,LIN ZiZhen,XU RangWei(),CHENG YunJiang()   

  1. College of Horticulture and Forestry Science, Huazhong Agricultural University/National R&D Center for Citrus Preservation, Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Biology and Germplasm Genetic Improvement (Fruit Crops), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430070
  • Received:2021-10-13 Accepted:2021-12-14 Online:2022-06-16 Published:2022-06-23
  • Contact: RangWei XU,YunJiang CHENG;


【Background】 Individual polyethylene film packaging is the most popular way to maintain citrus quality during storage in China. This method has been applied nationwidely since the 1970s. In recent years, the environmental pollution problems caused by the use of polyethylene films aroused caused concerns of the public. Besides, the conflict between labor-intensive property of individual polyethylene film treatment and the shrinking workforce as well as increasing labor costs in China makes it urgent to develop a substitute of polyethylene film to achieve mechanization in citrus postharvest preservation industry. 【Objective】 A new formula of coating called “BC” (Beeswax-Candelilla Wax Coating) based on beeswax and candelilla wax was developed, and its potential to replace polyethylene film and the effects on the improvement of postharvest quality and the extension of shelf life of satsuma mandarin were evaluated. 【Method】 The optimal formulas among different groups were selected to treat satsuma mandarin fruit. Satsuma mandarin fruit were used as experimental material for the packaging (TD) or coating treatment. The indicators were tested at different time points during storage, including the rate of weight loss, firmness, color index, TSS (Total soluble solid)/TA (Titratable acid), total phenol and flavonoid contents in the peels, respiration rate, internal CO2 concentration of fruits and the content of off-flavor substances. The primary metabolits contents in the peel were tested by GC-MS (Gas chromatography mass spectrometry). The microstructure of fruit surface was examined by SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscopy). Besides, the glossiness, off-flavor, flavor, juiciness, sweetness, acidity and overall satisfaction of satsuma mandarin were assessed by sensory evaluation. 【Result】 The weight loss of “BC” coated fruit sharply dropped from 22.62% to 3.83% after one month of storage at 23-25℃. “BC” coating delayed changes in firmness, color deterioration, TSS and TA loss, and increase in TPC, TFC and primary metabolites contents. The increased internal CO2 levels led to a striking decrease in respiration intensity from 43.36 mL·kg-1·h-1 to 16.75 mL·kg-1·h-1. “BC” coating also significantly improved the sensory quality compared with the control treatment, with the score increasing from 3.09 to 3.69. No differences (P<0.05) were found between TD and “BC” groups except for the content of off-flavor substances and respiration rate. The ethanol concentration of “BC” coating group (777.9 mg·L-1) was significantly lower than human perception threshold (1 500 mg·L-1) and that of commercial wax treatment (2 021.2 mg·L-1). 【Conclusion】 The optimal formula of “BC” coating could enhance water retention capacity of satsuma mandarins. No significant differences were found in internal quality, appearance and other biochemical indicators between the polyethylene film packaged fruit and those from “BC” coating treatment. The advantages such as high productivity, low cost and less environmental pollution in modern postharvest handling of fruits and vegetables made “BC” coating a promising alternative to polyethylene films.

Key words: citrus, beeswax, candelilla wax, packaging, postharvest storage

Fig. 1

Weight loss of Praecox Tanaka satsuma mandarin fruit after coating treatment at different concentrations Different lower case letters indicate significant difference (P<0.05). The same as below"

Fig. 2

Ethanol (A) and acetaldehyde (B) contents of Praecox Tanaka satsuma mandarin fruit after coating treatment at different concentrations"

Fig. 3

Effects of different treatments on the weight loss of Praecox Tanaka satsuma mandarin fruit CK:Control group; TD: Individual polyethylene film packaging; XL: Commercial coating 402D; BC: “BC” coating. The same as below"

Fig. 4

Effects of different treatments on the firmness of Praecox Tanaka satsuma mandarin fruit"

Fig. 5

Effects of different treatments on the surface morphology of Praecox Tanaka satsuma mandarin fruit A, E: control treatment; B, F: TD treatment; C, G: XL treatment; D, H: BC treatment"

Fig. 6

Effects of different treatments on the color index of Praecox Tanaka satsuma mandarin fruit"

Fig. 7

Effects of different treatments on the appearance of Praecox Tanaka satsuma mandarin fruit (scale=1 cm)"

Fig. 8

Effects of different treatments on the respiratory intensity (A) and contents of CO2 (B) of Praecox Tanaka satsuma mandarin fruits"

Fig. 9

Effects of different treatments on the TSS (A) and TA (B) contents of Praecox Tanaka satsuma mandarin fruits"

Fig. 10

Effects of different treatments on the contents of alcohol (A) and acetaldehyde (B) in Praecox Tanaka satsuma mandarin fruits"

Fig. 11

Effects of different treatments on the TPC (A) and TFC (B) in Praecox Tanaka satsuma mandarin fruits"

Fig. 12

Effects of different treatments on the contents of primary metabolites in Praecox Tanaka satsuma mandarin fruits"

Fig. 13

Sensory attributes of Praecox Tanaka satsuma mandarin fruit under different treatments"

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