Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2020, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (11): 2232-2240.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2020.11.009


Evolution of Fluvo-Aquic Soil Productivity Under Long-Term Fertilization and Its Influencing Factors

WANG Le1,CHEN YanHua1,2,ZHANG ShuXiang1(),MA ChangBao3,SUN Nan1,LI ChunHua1()   

  1. 1Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning/ National Engineering Laboratory for Cultivated Land Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081
    2Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097
    3National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center, Beijing 100026
  • Received:2019-08-05 Accepted:2019-11-20 Online:2020-06-01 Published:2020-06-09
  • Contact: ShuXiang ZHANG,ChunHua LI;


【Objective】The fluvo-aquic soil in North China is the main producing area of wheat and corn grain crops in China. The aim of the study was to clarify the changing laws of fluvo-aquic soil productivity and to identify the main factors affecting the productivity of fluvo-aquic soil, so as to provide a theoretical basis for crop yield increase and sustainable development in fluvo-aquic soil. 【Method】This study used the long-term monitoring points of national fluvo-aquic soil as the platform, and used time trend analysis and median analysis methods to summarize the trends of productivity and soil fertility factors in different monitoring periods. 【Result】The monitoring results of fluvo-aquic soil productivity in North China under conventional fertilization in the past 31 years showed: under the conventional fertilization in fluvo-aquic soil, wheat yield increased during the whole monitoring period, and the average wheat yield was 6 443 kg·hm -2. The average wheat yield from 1988 to 1993 was 2 814 kg·hm -2, and the average wheat yield in 2014-2018 was 6 902 kg·hm -2; compared with the initial monitoring period (1988-1993), the wheat yield in 2014-2018 increased by 145%, with an average annual growth of 132 kg·hm -2. The maize yield in conventional fertilization area increased significantly with time. The average yield of corn in 1988-1993 was 2 667 kg·hm -2, and the average yield of corn in 2014-2018 was 8 267 kg·hm -2, which was earlier than the initial monitoring period (1988-1993); which increased by 210%, with an average annual growth of 180 kg·hm -2. Corn yield and its yield increase were significantly higher than wheat. The average contribution rate of soil fertility to wheat and maize yield was 48% and 51%, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of fertilizer applied and crop yield increase. As the number of years of fertilization increased, the sustainability of crops increased. The results of stepwise regression and path analysis indicated soil available phosphorus was a major factor affecting overall crop yield. The order of factors with a direct effect on wheat yield was organic matter, nitrogen application rate, and potassium application rate. The direct effect of maize yield was total nitrogen, available phosphorus, nitrogen application rate, and phosphorus application rate. 【Conclusion】 During the whole monitoring period, the fluvo-aquic soil productivity was significantly improved in the later stage of monitoring. The soil productivity was mainly affected by nitrogen fertilizer, organic matter and available phosphorus. Therefore, the improvement of productivity in fluvo-aquic soil areas required the improvement of soil fertility and the scientific application of fertilizer.

Key words: long-term fertilization, fluvo-aquic, productivity, crop yield, sustainability index, North China

Table 1

Grading standards of soil properties"

pH 有机质
xa 4.5 10 0.75 3 40
xc 6.5 20 1.5 10 100
xp 8.5 30 2 20 150

Fig. 1

Crop yields in conventional fertilization treatment of the long-term observation sites of fluvo-aquic soil The lower and upper edge lines represent the 5% and 95% of the data, the solid points represent the vertical outliers. The lower and upper quartiles of the boxplots represent 25% and 75% of data, and the solid lines represent the median values and the dash lines represent the average values. Different letters above the boxplot indicate significant differences among the three mentoring periods at 0.05 level. The same as Fig.4"

Table 2

Sustainable yield index (SYI) of wheat and maize in blank control and fertilization treatment"

年份 Year 小麦 Wheat 玉米 Maize
1988-1993 0.27 0.24
1994-1998 0.46 0.27
1999-2003 0.53 0.50
2004-2008 0.56 0.50
2009-2013 0.58 0.52
2014-2018 0.60 0.49

Fig. 2

The effect of basic soil fertility on crop yield"

Fig. 3

Relationships between crop yield increase and fertilizer application amount in fluvo-aquic soil"

Fig. 4

Evolution characteristics of soil comprehensive fertility index under conventional fertilization treatment"

Table 3

Path analysis of crop (wheat and maize) yield with fertilizer amount and soil fertility"

小麦 Wheat 项目
玉米 Maize
x2-y x6-y x8-y x3-y x4-y x6-y x7-y
有机质SOM (x2) 0.723 0.273 0.061 全氮TN (x3) 0.436 0.056 0.231 0.224
施氮量 (x6) 0.236 0.301 0.043 有效磷AP (x4) 0.245 0.217 0.135 0.021
施钾量 (x8) 0.014 0.019 0.300 施氮量 (x6) 0.143 0.126 0.396 0.064
施磷量 (x7) 0.103 0.049 0.213 0.296
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