Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (7): 1319-1331.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2022.07.005


Analysis of Sustainability of Multiple Cropping Green Manure in Wheat-Maize Intercropping After Wheat Harvested in Arid Irrigation Areas

GOU ZhiWen(),YIN Wen(),CHAI Qiang(),FAN ZhiLong,HU FaLong,ZHAO Cai,YU AiZhong,FAN Hong   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science/College of Agronomy, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070
  • Received:2021-06-13 Accepted:2021-10-08 Online:2022-04-01 Published:2022-04-18
  • Contact: Qiang CHAI;;


【Objective】In the oasis irrigated agricultural region, the low resource utilization efficiency and the ratio of output/input are the most prominent constraints for crop production. In this study, the characteristics of light use efficiency, irrigation water productivity and economic benefit in different cropping patterns were investigated in the areas. Research on the sustainability of different cropping patterns would benefit crop production to save cost and increase income in this region. 【Method】A field experiment was carried out in a typical arid irrigation area, Wuwei, Gansu province, from 2018 to 2020, to determine the effects of different cropping patterns on leaf area duration, grain yields light utilization efficiency, irrigation water productivity and economic benefit of crops. The sustainability of different cropping patterns was evaluated based on the above indexes. 【Result】Multiple cropping of green manure after spring wheat harvested significantly increased the leaf area duration of the main-cultivate crops during the whole growth period. W-G//M increased leaf area duration of the main-cultivate crops by 7.7%-7.8%, compared with W//M. Compared with sole cropping and spring wheat-green manure multiple cropping, the intercropping increased the grain yield of main-cultivate crops and the inputs of production cost, simultaneously. There was no significant difference in the total grain yield between W-G//M and W//M in 2018 and 2019. However, W-G//M increased the total grain yield by 8.7% in comparison to W//M in 2020. Compared with M, W-G and W, W-G//M increased net return by 16.7%-26.5%, 78.5%-132.2% and 35.9%-78.8%, respectively. In two intercropping patterns, the net return of the W-G//M decreased by 7.2% in comparison to W//M treatment in 2018. However, the net return of two intercropping treatments showed not significantly different in 2019 and 2020, and the ratio of output/input showed a similar result. Multi-planting green manure after wheat harvested could significantly improve the light use efficiency of crops. W-G//M treatment increased light use efficiency by 7.2%-14.1% compared with W//M. The light use efficiency under W-G was increased by 23.5%-52.1% in comparison to W treatment. Compared with W, the productivity of irrigation water under W-G was significantly reduced by 48.6%-54.3% (irrigation water use efficiency) and 30.9%-39.8% (Economic benefit per cubic meter irrigation water), while there was no significant difference in the productivity of irrigation water under W-G//M and W//M. W-G//M had the highest sustainability index across three years. 【Conclusion】Grain yield of main-cultivate crops and economic benefits were improved by intercropping and multiple cropping green manure after wheat harvested. The irrigation water productivity and light utilization efficiency were also increased, thereby improved the sustainability of this cropping pattern. Therefore, multiple cropping green manure after wheat harvested in wheat/maize intercropping could be used as a high-efficient utilization of resources and sustainable cropping pattern in arid irrigation areas.

Key words: multiple cropping after wheat harvest, leguminous green manure, economic benefit, irrigation water productivity, sustainability evaluation

Table 1

Monthly meteorological data during the growing season in Wuwei station in 2018, 2019 and 2020"

Entire growing period
2018 降水量 Precipitation (mm) 1.0 21.1 4.3 8.2 27.5 161.5 13.1 4.9 241.6
气温 Temperature (℃) 7.0 11.0 17.4 21.9 23.1 20.7 13.6 5.9 15.1
2019 降水量 Precipitation (mm) 0.0 7.5 26.4 61.3 31.0 25.2 19.9 20.8 192.1
气温 Temperature (℃) 3.3 13.2 15.2 20.2 21.5 21.1 16.1 7.3 14.7
2020 降水量 Precipitation (mm) 1.8 0.0 11.4 10.3 28.4 31.5 64.3 2.0 149.7
气温 Temperature (℃) 4.0 10.7 16.4 21.4 22.6 20.9 15.8 7.3 14.9

Table 2

Sowing date and harvest date of crops in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (M-D)"

播种 Sowing 收获/翻压 Harvest/Return
2018 2019 2020 2018 2019 2020
小麦 Wheat 03-12 03-17 03-19 07-13 07-18 07-21
玉米 Maize 04-19 04-20 04-20 09-23 09-24 09-25
绿肥 Green manure 07-29 08-01 07-31 10-22 10-19 10-21

Fig. 1

Leaf area duration of main-cultivated crops in different cropping patterns W-G//M: Multiple cropping green manure in wheat/maize intercropping after wheat harvested; W//M: Wheat/maize intercropping; M: Sole cropping maize; W-G: Spring wheat-green manure multiple cropping; W: Sole cropping spring wheat. Different letters in the same year mean significant differences among treatments at 0.05 level. The same as below"

Fig. 2

Grain yields of main-cultivated crops in different cropping patterns"

Fig. 3

Cost input composition of different cropping patterns"

Table 3

Effect of different cropping patterns and multiple cropping green manure on economic benefit (yuan/hm2)"

总收入Gross revenue 纯收益Net benefit 产投比Output/input
2018 2019 2020 2018 2019 2020 2018 2019 2020
W-G//M 34709a 32425a 36740a 20825b 18631a 22843a 2.50b 2.35b 2.64a
W//M 35325a 30671a 34769b 22443a 17987a 21972a 2.74a 2.42b 2.72a
M 29286b 26029b 27842c 18629c 15420b 17368b 2.75a 2.45b 2.66a
W-G 20748c 21190c 22225d 9665e 10078d 11091d 1.87c 1.91c 2.00b
W 20176c 20761c 20440d 12556d 13239c 12936c 2.65a 2.76a 2.72a

Table 4

Effect of different cropping patterns on light use efficiency, irrigation water use efficiency and economic benefit per cubic meter irrigation water"

Light use efficiency (%)
Irrigation water use efficiency
Economic benefit per cubic meter irrigation water (yuan·hm-2·m-3)
2018 2019 2020 2018 2019 2020 2018 2019 2020
W-G//M 2.32a 2.39a 2.43a 3.06b 2.86ab 2.91a 4.34b 3.88b 4.76b
W//M 2.00b 2.23b 2.13b 3.11b 2.66bc 2.68b 4.68b 3.75b 4.58b
M 1.77c 1.92c 1.74c 3.32a 2.94a 2.95a 4.60b 3.81b 4.29b
W-G 1.78c 1.68c 1.75c 1.67d 1.65d 1.69d 2.42c 2.52c 2.77c
W 1.17d 1.36d 1.23d 2.78c 2.58c 2.45c 5.23a 5.52a 5.39a

Table 5

Effects of intercropping and multiple cropping green manure on the sustainability of production systems"

评价指标 Evaluation component 可持续评价指数
Evaluation index
Lear area duration
Grain yield
Total cost
Net return
Light use efficiency
Irrigation water use efficiency
Economic benefit per cubic meter irrigation water
W-G//M 0.14 0.17 0.07 0.14 0.06 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.88a
W//M 0.13 0.16 0.07 0.12 0.06 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.83b
M 0.14 0.15 0.09 0.11 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.09 0.83b
W-G 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.06 0.55d
W 0.07 0.08 0.12 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.08 0.12 0.68c
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