Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2018, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (21): 4040-4051.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.21.004


Effects of Different Sowing Dates on Emergence Rates and Seedling Growth of Cotton Under Mulched Drip Irrigation in Xinjiang

LongLong SUI1(),JingShan TIAN1,HeSheng YAO1,PengPeng ZHANG1,FuBin LIANG1,Jin WANG2,WangFeng ZHANG1()   

  1. 1Agricultural College of Shihezi University/Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology Agriculture, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Shihezi 832003, Xinjiang
    2Wulanwusu Agro-Meteorological Experiment Station of Xinjiang, Shihezi 832003, Xinjiang
  • Received:2018-03-05 Accepted:2018-08-30 Online:2018-11-01 Published:2018-11-01
  • Contact: LongLong SUI,WangFeng ZHANG;


【Objective】Dry soil seeding with drip irrigation are widely used in field cotton in Xinjiang. And only seedling temperature has to be considered under dry soil seedling with drip irrigation. In this paper, according to the temperature requirement of cotton seedling, cotton was sown under different temperature conditions and different sowing dates. The emergence rate, seedling growth condition and yield of cotton under mulched drip irrigation were observed. The effects of sowing conditions on emergence rate, growth states and development of yield in harvest period were analyzed to provide theoretical basis for cultivating strong seedlings of cotton under mulched drip irrigation.【Method】According to the changes of air temperature and soil temperature, 3-4 sowing dates were set up. The earliest sowing date was based on the biological low temperature for cotton seeds germination and emergence. The morphological indexes, such as emergence rate, seedling height, cotyledon node height and total dry weight, were determined to demonstrate the effects of sowing under different temperature conditions on seedling indexes in cotton.【Result】Under “5 cm deep-18.7℃-3 days before sowing” condition, the germinate rate and emergence rate were the highest. Compared with early sowing at lower temperature treatment, the plant height under “5 cm deep-24.7℃-late sowing” condition was 3.52%-8.64% higher during seedling to three -leaf stage, the height of cotyledon section was 8.82%-20.59% higher, the total root length was 1.79%-6.59% longer, and the root length was 14.84%-25.93% greater. Under “5 cm deep-9.5℃-3 days before sowing” condition, the root dry matter accumulation was higher, and the ratio of root to shoot was the maximum.【Conclusion】Under “5 cm deep-3 days before sowing” condition steady passage 13.8℃-15.7℃, if the average temperature was in 16℃-18℃ after sowing 1 week, the cotton seedling emergence rate could be more than 90%. But if the air temperature was in 6.7℃-14.1℃ under “5 cm deep-9.5℃-17.6℃-3 days before sowing” condition, the average temperature was 18.5℃-19.5℃ and air accumulated temperature was in 110℃-120℃ during the emergence stage to trilobites stage, the unit of cotton seedling dry matter accumulation would be larger with stronger root and increasing boll number and single boll weight. Therefore, earlier sowing could support a good foundation for cotton yield.

Key words: cotton, soil temperature under mulch, sowing date, emergence rate, seedling growth

Fig. 1

Changes of air temperature and soil temperature under mulching film before and after different sowing dates Dot lines in the figure represent the onset time of different sowing dates (4-8, 4-12, 4-21, 4-29 in 2016, 4-8, 4-16, 4-22 in 2017, respectively). MST: Mean soil temperature; MDT: Mean daily temperature; HT: The high temperature; LT: The low temperature"

Table 1

Changes of mean daily temperature over three days before sowing date and soil temperature under mulching film at different sowing dates"

Sowing date name
Sowing date(M-D)
MDT (℃)
HT (℃)
LT (℃)
MST (℃)
2016 第一播期 First sowing date 4-08 14.1±0.30 21.7±2.52 6.9±2.83 17.6±0.49
第二播期 Second sowing date 4-16 13.8±1.87 18.7±1.72 9.2±3.70 18.4±1.53
第三播期 Third sowing period 4-22 17.5±0.67 26.2±1.39 8.1±1.11 22.2±1.22
2017 第一播期 First sowing date 4-08 6.7±2.26 11.3±1.19 1.8±3.04 9.5±1.41
第二播期 Second sowing date 4-12 10.0±1.89 16.2±3.05 3.7±2.66 12.0±2.36
第三播期 Third sowing period 4-21 15.7±0.68 23.9±2.67 7.5±2.21 18.7±2.30
第四播期 Fourth sowing date 4-29 17.6±1.54 18.2±2.43 17.0±1.45 24.7±3.05

Table 2

Changes of seedling emergence rate and emergence days at different sowing dates"

年份 Year
2016 2017
播前3 d膜下5 cm土壤平均温度
Soil mean temperature averaged over three days before sowing date under 5 cm for mulching film (℃)
17.6 18.4 22.2 9.5 12.0 18.7 24.7
出苗率 Emergence rate (%) 86.0±1.01b 93.0±1.85a 91.5±1.04a 84.0±1.21c 86.5±0.40b 94.0±1.15a 91.0±0.98b
出苗天数 Emergence days (d) 9 8 10 15 12 7 8

Table 3

Changes of temperature (heat) index from sowing to emergence at different sowing dates"

播前3 d膜下5 cm土壤平均温度
Soil mean temperature averaged over three days before sowing date under 5 cm for mulching film (℃)
播种至出苗期 Sowing to emergence date
Mean air temperature (℃)
膜下5 cm土壤平均温度
Soil mean temperature under 5 cm for mulching film (℃)
Growing degree days in soil (℃)
Daily heat effect under mulching film
2016 17.6 13.5 19.1 45.9 0.4636
18.4 17.7 21.9 63.2 0.7182
22.2 16.6 21.0 59.3 0.5391
2017 9.5 13.9 17.3 80.4 0.4123
12.0 15.5 18.6 79.6 0.5103
18.7 18.1 23.3 79.2 0.8703
24.7 16.5 21.4 75.2 0.7231

Table 4

Correlation and path coefficient between temperatures and emergence rate from sowing to emergence date"

Correlation coefficient
Directly path coefficient
间接通径系数Indirectly path coefficient
x1→y x2→y x3→y x4→y
x1 0.9800** 0.4699 0.7090 -0.0109 -0.2180
x2 0.9500** 0.7853 0.4243 -0.0007 -0.2297
x3 0.0100 -0.0411 0.1251 0.0133 -0.0647
x4 0.8900** -0.2459 0.4167 0.7335 -0.0108

Fig. 2

Changes of plant height and cotyledon node height from seedling to three-leaf stage at different soil temperatures The picture temperature of the soil mean temperature averaged over three days before sowing date under 5 cm for mulching film. The same as below"

Fig. 3

Changes of above-ground dry matter and root dry matter from seedling to three-leaf stage at different soil temperatures"

Fig. 4

Changes of seedling total root length and special root length from seedling to three-leaf stage at different soil temperatures"

Fig. 5

Changes of dry matter accumulation of plant height in the part of above-ground and root-shoot ratio from seedling to three- leaf stage at different soil temperatures"

Table 5

Changes of temperature index from seedling to three-leaf stage at different sowing dates"

播前3 d膜下5 cm土壤平均温度
Soil mean temperature averaged over three days before sowing date under
5 cm for mulching film (℃)
Mean air temperature
膜下5 cm土壤平均温度
Soil mean temperature under 5 cm for mulching film (℃)
Growing degree days in soil (℃)
Growing degree days in air
Daily heat effect air
2016 17.6 16.5 19.9 175.6 82.2 0.17
18.4 16.1 19.3 149.4 65.9 0.15
22.2 17.2 19.9 171.6 96.1 0.21
2017 9.5 18.5 23.9 228.4 96.1 0.30
12.0 18.9 24.5 231.1 113.9 0.32
18.7 19.2 24.8 227.3 115.4 0.36
24.7 21.7 27.6 245.5 138.9 0.52

Table 6

Correlation analysis of seedling index and temperature from seedling to three-leaf stage at different temperatures"

Air mean temperature
膜下5 cm土壤平均温度
Soil mean temperature under 5 cm for mulching film
Growing degree days in soil
Growing degree
days in air
Daily heat effect air
株高 Plant height 0.93** 0.87** 0.84** 0.97* 0.91**
子叶节高度 Cotyledon node height 0.83* 0.74* 0.85** 0.60 0.84**
地上干物质累积 Above-ground dry matter 0.70 0.80* 0.69 0.80* 0.72*
根干物质累积 Root dry matter -0.90** -0.79* -0.95** -0.71* -0.89**
总根长 Total root length 0.73* 0.65 0.77* 0.60 0.72*
根冠比 Root-shoot ratio -0.89** -0.94** -0.88** -0.93** -0.90**
比根长 Specific root length 0.89** 0.78* 0.92** 0.68 0.88**
Dry matter accumulation of plant height in the part of above-ground
0.57 0.70 0.71* 0.56 0.60

Table 7

Changes of different sowing date on yield and yield components in cotton"

播前3 d膜下5 cm土壤平均温度
Soil mean temperature averaged over three days before sowing date under 5 cm for mulching film (℃)
Sowing date
Plant No.
Boll number
per plant
Boll weight
Total boll number
Seed cotton yield
2016 17.6 4-08 15.69±0.20b 6.70±0.58a 5.41±0.11a 105.12±0.21a 5978.51±139.9a
18.4 4-16 15.79±0.50a 6.26±0.67b 5.32±0.14a 98.85±0.13b 5197.85±171.1b
22.2 4-22 15.75±0.90a 6.01±0..50c 4.94±0.22c 94.66±0.15c 4426.26±149.4c
2017 9.5 4-08 15.65±0.28c 7.00±0.44a 5.37±0.17a 109.55.±0.21a 6444.65±205.2a
12.0 4-12 15.72±0.15b 6.83±0.26a 5.21±0.11a 107.36±0.35a 6005.98±159.5b
18.7 4-21 15.87±0.46a 6.30±0.49b 5.08±0.13b 99.98±0.46b 5078.07±141.1c
24.7 4-29 15.84±0.34a 5.90±0.24c 4.96±0.13b 93.46±0.29c 4332.08±126.8d
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