For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    Crop Genetics · Breeding · Germplasm Resources
    Transgenic Expression of a Functional Fragment of Harpin Protein Hpa1 in Wheat Represses English Grain Aphid Infestation
    XU Man-yu, ZHOU Ting, ZHAO Yan-ying, LI Jia-bao, XU Heng, DONG Han-song , ZHANG Chun-ling
    2014, 13(12): 2565-2576.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60735-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The harpin protein Hpa1 produced by the rice bacterial blight pathogen promotes plant growth and induces plant resistance to pathogens and insect pests. The region of 10-42 residues (Hpa110-42) in the Hpa1 sequence is critical as the isolated Hpa110-42 fragment is 1.3-7.5-fold more effective than the full length in inducing plant growth and resistance. Here we report that transgenic expression of Hpa110-42 in wheat induces resistance to English grain aphid, a dominant species of wheat aphids. Hpa110-42-induced resistance is effective to inhibit the aphid behavior in plant preference at the initial colonization stage and repress aphid performances in the reproduction, nymph growth, and instar development on transgenic plants. The resistance characters are correlated with enhanced expression of defense-regulatory genes (EIN2, PP2-A, and GSL10) and consistent with induced expression of defense response genes (Hel, PDF1.2, PR-1b, and PR-2b). As a result, aphid infestations are alleviated in transgenic plants. The level of Hpa110-42-induced resistance in regard to repression of aphid infestations is equivalent to the effect of chemical control provided by an insecticide. These results suggested that the defensive role of Hpa110-42 can be integrated into breeding germplasm of the agriculturally significant crop with a great potential of the agricultural application.
    Molecular Mapping of a Stripe Rust Resistance Gene YrH9020a Transferred from Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng on Wheat Chromosome 6D
    LIU Ze-guang, YAO Wei-yuan, SHEN Xue-xue, CHAO Kai-xiang, FAN Yu, LI Min-zhou, WANG Baotong, LI Qiang , JING Jin-xue
    2014, 13(12): 2577-2583.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60755-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Stripe rust (yellow rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat throughout the world. H9020-1-6-8-3 is a translocation line originally developed from interspecific hybridization between wheat line 7182 and Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng and is resistant to most Pst races in China. To identify the resistance gene(s) in the translocation line, H9020-1-6-8-3 was crossed with susceptible cultivar Mingxian 169, and seedlings of the parents, F1, F2, F3, and BC1 generations were tested with prevalent Chinese Pst race CYR32 under controlled greenhouse conditions. The results indicated that there is a single dominant gene, temporarily designated as YrH9020a, conferring resistance to CYR32. The resistance gene was mapped by the F2 population from Mingxian 169/H9020-1-6-8-3. It was linked to six microsatellite markers, including Xbarc196, Xbarc202, Xbarc96, Xgpw4372, Xbarc21, and Xgdm141, flanked by Xbarc96 and Xbarc202 with at 4.5 and 8.3 cM, respectively. Based on the chromosomal locations of these markers and the test of Chinese Spring (CS) nullitetrasomic and ditelosomic lines, the gene was assigned to chromosome 6D. According to the origin and the chromosomal location, YrH9020a might be a new resistance gene to stripe rust. The flanking markers linked to YrH9020a could be useful for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs.
    GmPHR1, a Novel Homolog of the AtPHR1 Transcription Factor, Plays a Role in Plant Tolerance to Phosphate Starvation
    LI Xi-huan, WANG Yun-jie, WU Bing, KONG You-bin, LI Wen-long, CHANG Wen-suo , ZHANG Cai-ying
    2014, 13(12): 2584-2593.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60775-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    GmPHR1 from soybean (Glycine max) was isolated and characterized. This novel homolog of the AtPHR1 transcription factor confers tolerance to inorganic phosphate (Pi)-starvation. The gene is 2751 bp long, with an 819-bp open reading frame and five introns. Analysis of transcription activity in yeast revealed that the full-length GmPHR1 and its C-terminal activate the reporter genes for His, Ade and Ura, suggesting that the C-terminal peptide functions as a transcriptional activator. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that patterns of GmPHR1 expression differed. For example, under low-Pi stress, this gene was quickly induced in the tolerant JD11 after 0.5 h, with expression then decreasing slowly before peaking at 12-24 h. By contrast, induction in the sensitive Niumaohuang (NMH) was slow, peaking at 6 h before decreasing quickly at 9 h. GmPHR1 showed sub-cellular localization in the nuclei of onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis roots. Growth parameters in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants as well as in overexpression (OE) transgenic lines were examined. Under low-Pi conditions, values for shoot, root and whole-plant dry weights, root to shoot ratios, and lengths of primary roots were significantly greater in OE lines than in the WT. These data demonstrate that GmPHR1 has an important role in conferring tolerance to phosphate starvation.
    Comparative Analysis of Gene Expression Profiling Between Resistant and Susceptible Varieties Infected With Soybean Cyst Nematode Race 4 in Glycine max
    LI Bin, SUN Jun-ming, WANG Lan, ZHAO Rong-juan , WANG Lian-zheng
    2014, 13(12): 2594-2607.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60756-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most devastating pathogen for soybean. Therefore, identification of resistant germplasm resources and resistant genes is needed to improve SCN resistance for soybean. Soybean varieties Huipizhiheidou and Wuzhaiheidou were distributed in China and exhibited broad spectrums of resistance to various SCN races. In this study, these two resistant varieties, combined with standard susceptible varieties (Lee and Essex), were utilized to identify the differentially expressed transcripts after infection with SCN race 4 between resistant and susceptible reactions by using the Affymetrix Soybean Genome GeneChip. Comparative analyses indicated that 21 common genes changed significantly in the resistant group, of which 16 increased and 5 decreased. However, 12 common genes changed significantly in the susceptible group, of which 9 increased and 3 decreased. Additionally, 27 genes were found in common between resistant and susceptible reactions. The 21 significantly changed genes in resistant reaction were associated with disease and defense, cell structure, transcription, metabolism, and signal transduction. The fold induction of 4 from the 21 genes was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR) analysis. Moreover, the gene ontology (GO) enrichment analyses demonstrated the serine family amino acid metabolic process and arginine metabolic process may play important roles in SCN resistance. This study provided a new insight on the genetic basis of soybean resistance to SCN race 4, and the identified resistant or resistant-related genes are potentially useful for SCN-resistance breeding in soybean.
    Fine Mapping and Candidate Gene Analysis of Resistance Gene RSC3Q to Soybean mosaic virus in Qihuang 1
    Zheng gui-jie, Yang Yong-qing, Ma Ying, Yang Xiao-feng, Chen Shan-yu, Ren Rui, Wang Da-gang, Yang Zhong-lu , ZhI hai-jian
    2014, 13(12): 2608-2615.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60738-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) disease is one of the most destructive viral diseases in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). SMV strain SC3 is the major prevalent strain in huang-huai and Yangtze valleys, China. The soybean cultivar Qihuang 1 is of a rich resistance spectrum and has a wide range of application in breeding programs in China. In this study, F1, F2 and F2:3 from Qihuang 1×nannong 1138-2 were used to study inheritance and linkage mapping of the SC3 resistance gene in Qihuang 1. The secondary F2 population and near isogenic lines (nILs) derived from residual heterozygous lines (RhLs) of Qihuang 1×nannong 1138-2 were separatively used in the fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of the resistance gene. Results indicated that a single dominant gene (designated RSC3Q) controls resistance, which was located on chromosome 13. Two genomic-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers BARCSOYSSR_13_1114 and BARCSOYSSR_13_1136 were found flanking the two sides of the RSC3Q. The interval between the two markers was 651 kb. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the candidate genes showed that five genes (Glyma13g25730, 25750, 25950, 25970 and 26000) were likely involved in soybean SMV resistance. These results would have utility in cloning of RSC3Q resistance candidate gene and marker-assisted selection (MaS) in resistance breeding to SMV.
    Effect of Nitric Oxide on the Interaction Between Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase and Citrate Synthase
    LIU Yu-chen, WANG Juan, SU Pei-ying, MA Chun-mei , ZHU Shu-hua
    2014, 13(12): 2616-2624.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60736-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and citrate synthase (CS) are sequential enzymes in Krebs cycle. mMDH, CS and the complex between mMDH and CS (mMDH+CS) were treated with nitric oxide solution. The roles of notric oxide (NO) on the secondary structures and the interactions between mMDH and CS were studied using circular diehroism (CD) and Fourier transform surface plasmon resonance (FT-SPR), respectivley. The effects of NO on the activities of mMDH, CS and mMDH+CS were also studied. And the regulations by NO on mMDH and CS were simulated by PyMOL software. The results of SPR confirmed that strong interaction between mMDH and CS existed and NO could significantly regulate the interaction between the two enzymes. NO reduced the mass percents of α-helix and increased that of random in mMDH, CS and mMDH+CS. NO increased the activities of CS and mMDH+CS, and inhibited the activity of mMDH. Graphic simulation indicated that covalent bond was formed between NO and Asn242 in active site of CS. However, there was no direct bond between NO and mMDH. The increase in activity of mMDH+CS complex depended mostly on the interaction between NO and CS. All the results suggested that the regulations by NO on the activity and interaction between mMDH and CS were accord with the changes in mMDH, CS and mMDH+CS caused by NO.
    Short Response of Spring Wheat to Tillage, Residue Management and Split Nitrogen Application in a Rice-Wheat System
    Khalid Usman, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Fazal Yazdan, Niamatullah Khan, Abdur Rashid , Saleem Ud Din
    2014, 13(12): 2625-2633.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60737-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of tillage, crop residue management and nitrogen (N) splitting on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield over 2 yr (2010-2012) in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat system in northwestern Pakistan. The experiment was conducted as split plot arranged in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Treatments comprised six tillage and residue managements: zero tillage straw retained (ZTsr), zero tillage straw burnt (ZTsb), reduced tillage straw incorporated (RTsi), reduced tillage straw burnt (RTsb), conventional tillage straw incorporated (CTsi), and conventional tillage straw burnt (CTsb) as main plots and N (200 kg ha-1) was applied as split form viz., control (no nitrogen & no splitting, N0S0); 2 splits of total N, half at sowing and half at the 1st irrigation (i.e., 20 d after sowing (DAS)) (NS1); 3 splits of total N, 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at the 1st irrigation, and 1/3 at the 2nd irrigation (NS2); 4 splits of total N, 1/4 at sowing, 1/4 at the 1st irrigation, 1/4 at the 2nd irrigation (45 DAS), and 1/4 at the 3rd irrigation (70 DAS) (NS3); and 4 splits of total N, 1/4 at the 1st irrigation, 1/4 at the 2nd irrigation, 1/4 at the 3rd irrigation, and 1/4 at the 4th irrigation (95DAS) (NS4) as sub plots. The results showed that the most pikes m-2, grains/spike, 1 000-grain weight, grain yield, and N use efficiency (NUE) were obtained at zero tillage, straw retained and 4 splits application of total N (i.e., at sowing 20, 45 and 70 d after sowing). The results indicated that ZTsr with application of 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 equal splits viz. at sowing 20, 45 and 70 d after sowing is an appropriate strategy that enhanced wheat yield (7 436-7 634 kg ha-1) and N efficiency (28.6-29.5 kg kg-1) in rice-wheat system.
    Identification of the Regulator of G-Protein Signaling Protein Responsive to Plant Hormones and Abiotic Stresses in Brassica napus
    CHEN Yun, ZHU Xia, ZHU Xiao-bin, YU Yi-fan, GE Hui-min, GAO Yong , LIANG Jian-sheng
    2014, 13(12): 2634-2644.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60797-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Regulator of G protein signaling proteins (RGS) accelerate the rate of GTP hydrolysis by Gα proteins, thus acting as negative regulators of G-protein signaling. Studies on Arabidopsis and soybean have proven that RGS proteins are physiologically important in plants and contribute to the signaling pathways regulated by different stimuli. Brassica napus is an important agriculturally relevant plant, the wildly planted oilseed rape in the world, which possesses an identified Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits. In the present study, we identified and characterized a Brassica napus RGS gene, BnRGS1, which contained an open reading frame of 1 380 bp encoding a putative 52.6 kDa polypeptide of 459 amino acids, within seven putative transmembrane domains in the N-terminal and RGS box in the C-terminal. BnRGS1 is located on the membrane in onion epidermal cells and tobacco leaves, and interacts with BnGA1 in the mating-based split-ubiquitin system. The expression levels of BnRGS1 were quite different in different tissues and developmental stages, and induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The effects of gibberellin (GA3) and brassinolide (BR) on the expression of BnRGS1 were irregular under the concentrations tested. Moreover, the transcript level of BnRGS1 was also induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), whereas remained little changed by 200 mmol L-1 NaCl. These results suggested that the BnRGS1 may be involved in B. napus response to plant hormone signaling and abiotic stresses.
    Heterogeneity Analysis of Cucumber Canopy in the Solar Greenhouse
    QIAN Ting-ting, LU Sheng-lian, ZHAO Chun-jiang, GUO Xin-yu, WEN Wei-liang , DU jian-jun
    2014, 13(12): 2645-2655.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60776-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Detailed analysis of canopy structural heterogeneity is an essential step in conducting parameters for a canopy structural model. This paper aims to analyze the structural heterogeneity of a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) canopy by means of analyzing leaf distribution in a greenhouse environment with natural sunlight and also to assess the effect of structural canopy heterogeneity on light interception and photosynthesis. Two experiments and four measurements were carried out in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. A static virtual three-dimensional (3D) canopy structure was reconstructed using a 3D digitizing method. The diurnal variation of photosynthesis rate was measured using CIRAS-2 photosynthesis system. The results showed that, leaf azimuth as tested with the Rayleigh-test was homogeneous at vine tip over stage but turned heterogeneous at fruit harvest stage. After eliminating the influence of the environment on the azimuth using the von Mises-Fisher method, the angle between two successive leaves was 144°; at the same time, a rule for the azimuth distribution in the canopy was established, stating that the azimuth distribution in cucumber followed a law which was positive spin and anti-spin. Leaf elevation angle of south-oriented leaves was on average 13.8° higher than that of north-oriented leaves. The horizontal distribution of light interception and photosynthesis differed significantly between differently oriented leaves. East- and west-oriented leaves exhibited the highest photosynthetic rate. In conclusion, detailed analysis of canopy structural heterogeneity in this study indicated that leaf azimuth and elevation angle were heterogeneous in cucumber canopy and they should be explicitly described as they have a great impact both on light distribution and photosynthesis.
    Plant Protection
    An Inner Membrane Protein (Imp) of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola Functions in Carbon Acquisition, EPS Production, Bacterial Motility and Virulence in Rice
    CAI Lu-lu, ZOU Li-fang, GE Ling, XUE Xiao-bo, ZOU Hua-song , CHEN Gong-you
    2014, 13(12): 2656-2668.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60915-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) causes bacterial leaf streak, a devastating disease in rice-growing regions worldwide. A Tn5-insertion mutant in Xoc_3248, encoding an inner membrane protein (Imp), showed reduced virulence in rice. To explore the potential function of this gene in virulence, a deletion mutant RΔimp was constructed in the wild-type RS105. The RΔimp mutant was significantly impaired for bacterial virulence and growth in planta. The mutation in imp made the pathogen insufficiently utilize glucose, fructose, mannose or pyruvate as a sole carbon source, leading to less extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and reduced motility. The deficiencies noted for the mutant were restored to wild-type levels when imp was introduced in trans. Transcription of imp was significantly declined when hrpG and hrpX was mutated and the expression of hrpG and hrpX was also significantly declined when imp was deleted. Cell sublocalization in planta showed Imp membrane-binding feature. These results suggest that Imp is a virulence factor with roles in the catabolism of sugars, EPS production, and bacterial motility.
    Phylogenetic Analysis of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates of Wild Type Citrus in China
    YI Long, ZHOU Chang-yong
    2014, 13(12): 2669-2677.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60730-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from Chinese wild type citrus were analyzed by comparing the sequences of nine genomic regions (p23, p20, p13, p18, p25, p27, POL, HEL and k17) with the CTV isolates of cultivated citrus from different countries. The results showed that the divergence pattern of genomic RNA of the CTV isolates from wild type citrus was similar to that of other isolates from cultivated citrus, the 3´ proximal region was relatively conserved, and the 5´ proximal region had greater variability. The nine genomic regions of CTV isolates analyzed were found to have been under purifying selection in the evolution process. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eleven Chinese wild CTV isolates were located at different clades and did not reflect their geographical origins, suggesting genetic diversity among the Chinese wild CTV populations. These results will aid in the understanding of molecular evolution of the Chinese CTV populations.
    Transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H+epsps Rice with Insect and Herbicide Resistance Acted No Adverse Impacts on the Population Growth of a Non-Target Herbivore, the White-Backed Planthopper, Under Laboratory and Field Conditions
    LU Zeng-bin, HAN Nai-shun, TIAN Jun-ce, PENG Yu-fa, HU Cui, GUO Yu-yuan, SHEN Zhicheng, YE Gong-yin
    2014, 13(12): 2678-2689.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60687-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Numerous Bt rice lines expressing Cry protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) have been developed since 1989. However, the potential risks posed by Bt rice on non-target organisms still remain debate. The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the most economically important insect pests of rice in Asian countries and also one of the main non-target herbivores of transgenic rice. In the current study, impacts of transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H+epsps rice (G6H1) with both insect and herbicide resistance on WBPH were evaluated to ascertain whether this transgenic rice line had potential risks for this sap-sucking pest under laboratory and field conditions. The laboratory results showed that no significant difference in egg developmental duration, nymphal survival rate and female fecundity was found for WBPH between G6H1 and its non-transgenic isoline (XS110). However, the development duration of nymphs was significantly shorter and female longevity significantly longer when WBPH fed on G6H1 by comparison with those on its control. To verify the results found in laboratory, a 3-yr field trial was conducted to monitor WBPH population using both the vacuum-suction machine and beat plate methods. Although the seasonal density of WBPH nymphs and total density of nymphs and adults were not significantly affected by transgenic rice regardless of the sampling methods, the seasonal density of WBPH adults in transgenic rice plots was slightly lower than that in the control when using the vacuum-suction machine. Based on these results both from laboratory and field, it is clear that our tested transgenic rice line will not lead higher population of WBPH. However, long-term field experiments to monitor the population dynamics of WPBH at large scale need to be conducted to confirm the present conclusions in future.
    Comparing Immature Development and Life History Traits in Two Coexisting Host-Feeding Parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea and Neochrysocharis formosa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)
    ZHANG Yi-bo, LU Shu-long, LIU Wan-xue, WANG Wen-xia, WANG Wei , WAN Fang-hao
    2014, 13(12): 2690-2700.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60868-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Coexisting natural enemies that share a common host resource in the same guild usually exhibit variation in their life history traits, due to their need to share a similar ecological niche. In this study, we compared the immature development times and adult life history traits of two coexisting, host-feeding parasitoids, Diglyphus isaea Walker and Neochrysocharis formosa Westwood (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), of which both attack larvae of the same agromyzid leafminers. These two species are both synovigenic, idiobiont parasitoids, whose adults consume host fluids (“host feeding”) and lay anhydropic eggs. Of the two, D. isaea has a larger body but little or no initial egg load, and engages in similar lifetime host-feeding events. However, it achieves higher fecundity, longer adult longevity, and higher host suppression ability than N. formosa, which has a smaller body and higher initial egg load. Although D. isaea engages in similar lifetime host-feeding events with N. formosa, all of its gains in life history traits per host-feeding event of D. isaea were larger than those of N. formosa. The age-specific fecundity and host mortality curves of N. formosa were more skewed in early life than those of D. isaea. In addition, the ovigeny index of N. formosa was negatively correlated to body size. Our results confirmed that two coexisting parasitoids, which share the same host resource, show different immature development patterns and life history traits, suggesting that different resource allocation mode could be a general rule of coexisting species sharing the same habitat or host.
    Influence of Host Shift on Genetic Differentiation of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis
    WAN Xuan-wu, LIU Ying-hong, LUO Lin-ming, FENG Chuan-hong, WANG Sheng , MA Li
    2014, 13(12): 2701-2708.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60749-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Invasion of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, into new niches containing different food sources (a process referred to as host shift), may cause population genetic differentiation and sympatric speciation. To attempt to infer that experimentally, test populations were established by transferring a subset of the original populations, which had been grown on banana for many generations, onto navel orange, and then subculturing the navel orange population and banana population for at least 20 generations. Four pairs of SSR primers with high polymorphism on laboratory strains were used to detect population genetic differentiation. All six tested populations (the 5th, 10th and 15th generations of B. dorsalis fed on banana and navel orange, respectively) were found to have low genetic diversity. Furthermore, the genetic diversity of the navel orange populations was found to decline after being crossed for several generations. Populations initially were deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, however, equilibrium was achieved with increasing numbers of generations in both of the host populations. Limited gene flows were found among the six populations. The Nei’s standard genetic distances between the two host populations of the same generation were initially low, but increased with generation number. Genetic distances between banana and navel orange populations of the same generation were lower than genetic distances between different generations grown on the same host plant. Analysis of molecular distance (AMOVA) results based on generation groups and host groups demonstrated that genetic variation among generations was greater than that between the two host populations. The results indicated that population genetic differentiation occurred after the host shift, albeit at low level. Biogeography and taxonomy of the B. dorsalis complex revealed that speciation of B. dorsalis might be tightly associated with host shift or host specialization of B. dorsalis following dispersal.
    Plant Protection
    Molecular Characterization, Expression Patterns and Binding Properties of Two Pheromone-Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)
    SONG Yue-qin, DONG Jun-feng, QIAO Hui-li , WU Jun-xiang
    2014, 13(12): 2709-2720.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60686-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Insect pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) play important roles in transporting hydrophobic pheromone components across the sensillum lymph to the surface of olfactory receptors (ORs). However, the PBPs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, an important destructive pest of stone fruits worldwide, are not well characterized. In this study, two new putative PBP genes, GmolPBP2 and GmolPBP3, were identified from G. molesta antennae. The deduced amino-acid sequences of these two putative PBP genes are characteristic of the odorant binding protein family, containing six conserved cysteine residues. The genomic DNA sequence of each gene contained two introns. However, the lengths and positions of the introns differed. RT-PCR analyses revealed that the two GmolPBP genes are only expressed in the antennae of female and male moths. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the transcription levels of GmolPBP2 are far greater than those of GmolPBP3 in both female and male antennae. GmolPBP3 showed higher transcription levels in female antennae than in male antennae, while GmolPBP2 showed similar transcription levels in both female and male antennae. The transcript levels of both genes were significantly different in premating and post-coitum individuals, implying that mating affects the process of sex pheromone reception. To better understand the functions, two GmolPBPs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the ligand binding assays were conducted. Results showed that GmolPBP2 has strong binding affinities to two sex pheromone components, E8-12:Ac and Z8-12:Ac, as well as weaker binding affinities to Z8-12:OH and 12:OH. GmolPBP2 also bound some ordinary odor molecules. However, the affinity of GmolPBP3 to both sex pheromones and ordinary odor molecules was very weak. These results show that GmolPBP2 plays the main role in pheromone discrimination and recognition in the oriental fruit moth.
    Animal Science · Veterinary Science
    Genome-Wide Association Study for Certain Carcass Traits and Organ Weights in a Large White×Minzhu Intercross Porcine Population
    LIU Xin, WANG Li-gang, LIANG Jing, YAN Hua, ZHAO Ke-bin, LI Na, ZHANG Long-chao, WANGLi-xian
    2014, 13(12): 2721-2730.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60787-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Porcine carcass traits and organ weights have important economic roles in the swine industry. A total of 576 animals from a Large White×Minzhu intercross population were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K Beadchip and were phenotyped for 10 traits, specifically, backfat thickness (6-7 libs), carcass length, carcass weight, foot weight, head weight, heart weight, leaf fat weight, liver weight, lung weight and slaughter body weight. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) was assessed by Genome Wide Rapid Association using the mixed model and regression-genomic control approach. A total of 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (with the most significant SNP being MARC0033464, P value=6.80×10-13) were located in a 9.76-Mb (31.24-41.00 Mb) region on SSC7 and were found to be significantly associated with one or more carcass traits and organ weights. High percentage of phenotypic variance explanation was observed for each trait ranging from 31.21 to 67.42%. Linkage analysis revealed one haplotype block of 495 kb, in which the most significant SNP being MARC0033464 was contained, on SSC7 at complete linkage disequilibrium. Annotation of the pig reference genome suggested 6 genes (GRM4, HMGA1, NUDT3, RPS10, SPDEF and PACSIN1) in this candidate linkage disequilibrium (LD) interval. Functional analysis indicated that the HMGA1 gene presents the prime biological candidate for carcass traits and organ weights in pig, with potential application in breeding programs.
    Effects of Dietary Fiber and Grit on Performance, Gastrointestinal Tract Development, Lipometabolism, and Grit Retention of Goslings
    JIN Ling, GAO Yu-yun, YE Hui, WANG Wen-ce, LIN Zhen-ping, YANG Hui-yong, HUANG Song-bo , YANG Lin
    2014, 13(12): 2731-2740.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60729-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    This study investigated effects of dietary fibre and grit on growth performance, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, serum indexes and grit retention of Sichuan white goslings in China. The experiment was a 3×2 factorial design consisting of dietary crude fibre (CF) at 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0% levels by adding grass meal and with or without grit supplementation. A total of 720 1-d-old male goslings were randomly allocated into 36 pens of 20 goslings/pen (n=6 pens/treatment). At 21 d of age, GIT, blood samples and grit in gizzards were collected. Body weight (BW), empty BW (without GIT), average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were affected by CF levels and the medium (4.0%) had the highest value. Adding grit improved BW, empty BW, ADG and ADFI. CF affected relative weight or length of proventriculus, gizzard and duodenum. Increasing CF levels decreased jejunum villus height and affected caecal crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio. Higher CF levels decreased serum triglyceride. Adding grit increased relative weight of abdominal fat. Grit addition increased grit weight in gizzard and the ratio of grit in 0.45-1 and 1-2 mm while decreasing the ratio of grit <0.45 and 2-3 mm. In conclusion, moderate CF level and grit addition increased performance of goslings without interaction. Dietary CF levels affected the development of upper GIT and serum triglyceride. Grit needed by goslings should be less than 2 mm. Goslings’ gizzard would accumulate grit from feed when other grit could not be acquired.
    The Establishment of Double-Transgenic Mice that Co-Express the appA and MxA Genes Mediated by Type A Spermatogonia In vivo
    BAI Li-jing, JU Hui-ming, MU Yu-lian, YANG Shu-lin, REN Hong-yan, AO Hong, WANG , Chu-duan , LI Kui
    2014, 13(12): 2741-2749.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60912-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Type A spermatogonial stem cells are the only immortal diploid cells in the postnatal animal that undergo self-renewal through the lifetime of an animal and transmit genes to subsequent generations. In this paper, the generation and characterization of double-transgenic mice co-expressing the Escherichia coli appA gene and human MxA gene generated via the in vivo transfection of type A spermatogonial cells were reported for the first time. The dicistronic expression vector pcDNA-appA-MxA(AMP) and ExGen500 transfection reagent were injected into the testicular tissue of 7-d-old male ICR mice. The mice that underwent testismediated gene transfer were mated with wild-type female mice, and the integration and expression of the foreign genes in the offspring were evaluated. Transgenic mice that co-expressed appA and MxA showed a gene integration rate of 8.89% (16/180). The transgenic mice were environmentally friendly, as the amount of phosphorous remaining in the manure was reduced by as much as 11.1% by the appA gene (P<0.05); these animals also exhibited a strong anti-viral phenotype.
    Pharmacokinetics and Residues of Cefquinome in Milk of Lactating Chinese Dairy Cows After Intramammary Administration
    LI Ya-fei, WANG Lin, GU Xiao-yan, ZENG Zhen-ling, HE Li-min, YANG Fan, YUAN Bo, SHU Jianhua , DING Huan-zhong
    2014, 13(12): 2750-2757.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60757-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The purpose of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in plasma and milk samples of lactating Chinese Holstein following a single intramammary administration into one quarter at the dose of 75 mg. Residue depletion of cefquinome in milk administrated at one quarter following three consecutive infusions at the same dose were also carried out. Cefquinome concentrations in plasma and milk were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. A non-compartmental analysis was used to obtain the pharmacokinetic parameters of cefquinome. Following the single treatment, cefquinome wasn’t detected in any of the plasma samples. The concentration of cefquinome in milk reached peaked values (Cmax) of (599.00±322.00) μg mL-1 at 2 h after administration (Tmax), elimination half-life (t1/2λz) was (4.63±0.26) h, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) was (4 890.19±1 906.98) μg mL-1 h, and mean residence time (MRT) was (6.03±2.27) h. In residue depletion study, cefquinome concentrations in 5 out of 6 milk samples at 72 h were lower than the maximum residue limit fixed by the European regulatory agency (20 μg kg-1 for cefquinome) and cefquinome still could be detected in milk of treated quarters at 120 h post-treatment. The maximum concentration (Cmax) of cefquinome in milk from treated quarters was (486.50±262.92) μg mL-1 and arrived at 6 h after administration (Tmax), elimination half-life (t1/2λz) was (6.30±0.76) h, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) was (44747.79±11434.43) μg mL-1 h, and mean residence time (MRT) was (10.09±1.40) h. This study showed that cefquinome has the feature of poor penetration into blood and was eliminated quickly from milk in lactating cows after intramammary administration.
    Soil & Fertilization · Irrigation · Agro-Ecology & Environment
    Response of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Aggregate Fractions to Long- Term Fertilization in Irrigated Desert Soil of China
    CHAI Yan-jun, ZENG Xi-bai, E Sheng-zhe, HUANG Tao, CHE Zong-xian, SU Shi-ming , BAI Ling-yu
    2014, 13(12): 2758-2767.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60681-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Irrigated desert soil samples in the Hexi Corridor of China were collected over a period of 23 years from a site where different fertilization methods had been used. Changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its water stable aggregate (WSA) size fractions were studied. The effects of various fertilization methods on the distribution of added organic carbon (OC) in different WSA size fractions were also analyzed. The results showed that the applied fertilizations for 23 years improved SOC concentrations and OC concentrations in all WSA size fractions compared to the non-fertilized treatment (CK). In addition, fertilization obviously increased the OC stocks of <2 mm WSA size fractions compared to the CK. The average OC stock of <0.053 mm WSA fraction was 1.7, 1.6 and 3.2 times higher than those of >2 mm, 0.25-2 mm and 0.053-0.25 mm WSA fractions, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between soil C gains and OC inputs (r=0.92, P<0.05), indicating that SOC may have not reached the saturation point yet at the site. The C sequestration rate was estimated by 14.02% at the site. The OC stocks in all of the <2 mm WSA fractions increased with the increase of OC input amounts; and the conversion rate of the input fresh OC to the OC stock of <0.053 mm WSA fraction was 1.2 and 2.6 times higher than those of the 0.25-2 mm and 0.053-0.25 mm WSA fractions, respectively. Therefore, the <0.053 mm WSA fraction was the most important component for soil C sequestration in the irrigated desert soil.
    The Effects of Three Mineral Nitrogen Sources and Zinc on Maize and Wheat Straw Decomposition and Soil Organic Carbon
    Ogunniyi Jumoke Esther, GUO Chun-hui, TIAN Xiao-hong, LI Hong-yun, ZHOU Yang-xue
    2014, 13(12): 2768-2777.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60679-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The incorporation of straw in cultivated fields can potentially improve soil quality and crop yield. However, the presence of recalcitrant carbon compounds in straw slow its decomposition rate. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different nitrogen sources, with and without the application of zinc, on straw decomposition and soil quality. Soils were treated with three different nitrogen sources, with and without zinc: urea (CO(NH2)2), ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). The combined treatments were as follows: maize (M) and wheat (W) straw incorporated into urea-, ammonium sulfate-, or ammonium chloride-treated soil (U, S, and C, respectively) with and without zinc (Z) (MU, MUZ, WU, WUZ; MS, MSZ, WS, WSZ; MC, MCZ, WC, WCZ, respectively); straw with zinc only (MZ, WZ); straw with untreated soil (MS, WS); and soil-only or control conditions (NT). The experiment consisted of 17 treatments with four replications. Each pot contained 150 g soil and 1.125 g straw, had a moisture content of 80% of the field capacity, and was incubated for 53 days at 25°C. The rates of CO2-C emission, cumulative CO2-C evolution, total CO2 production in the soils of different treatments were measured to infer decomposition rates. The total organic carbon (TOC), labile organic carbon (LOC), and soil microbial biomass in the soils of different treatments were measured to infer soil quality. All results were significantly different (P<0.05) with the exception of the labile organic carbon (LOC). The maize and wheat straw showed different patterns in CO2 evolution rates. For both straw types, Zn had a synergic effect with U, but an antagonistic effect with the other N sources as determined by the total CO2 produced. The MUZ treatment showed the highest decomposition rate and cumulative CO2 concentration (1 120.29 mg/pot), whereas the WACZ treatment had the lowest cumulative CO2 concentration (1 040.57 mg/pot). The addition of NH4Cl resulted in the highest total organic carbon (TOC) concentration (11.59 mg kg-1). The incorporation of wheat straw resulted in higher microbial biomass accumulation in soils relative to that of the maize straw application. The results demonstrate that mineral N sources can affect the ability of microorganisms to decompose straw, as well as the soil carbon concentrations.
    Timing of N Application Affects Net Primary Production of Soybean with Different Planting Densities
    ZHANG Ming-cong, SUN Wen-xiang, LIU Yuan-ying, LUO Sheng-guo, ZHAO Jing, WU Qiong, WU Zhen-yu , JIANG Yi
    2014, 13(12): 2778-2787.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60535-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Understanding the relationship between the timing of N fertilizer applications and crop primary production is crucial for achieving high yield and N use efficiency in agriculture. This study investigated the effects of starting-N plus topdressing N applications (as compared to the common practice of all basal application) on soybean photosynthetic capacity under different planting densities. A field experiment was conducted in two growing seasons (2011 and 2012), and the soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivar was Dongnong 52, three planting densities (20, 25 and 30 plants m-2), and four N fertilizer application patterns (all N fertilizer of 6 g N m-2 as basal fertilizer, all N fertilizer as topdressing at beginning pod stage (R3), 1.8 g N m-2 as basal fertilizer and 4.2 g N m-2 as topdressing at stage R3 and full pod stage (R4), respectively). The results indicated that under the same planting density, compared to applying all N as basal fertilizer, the application of starter-N plus topdressing N substantially reduced the rate of pod abscission, and enhanced leaf area index (LAI) significantly at beginning seed stage (R5) (P<0.05), net assimilation rate (NAR) during stages R4-full seed stage (R6) (P<0.05), contribution rate of post-seed filling assimilate to seed (CPA) (P<0.05), and yield (P<0.05). Applying topdressing N at stage R4 resulted in higher net primary production and yield than applying topdressing N at stage R3. When applying starter-N plus topdressing N at planting density of 25 plants m-2, LAI after stage R5 and NAR after stage R4 were increased by 5.92-16.3% (P<0.05) and 13.7-26.6% (P<0.05) with the planting density of 20 plants m-2, respectively, and yield was 8.46-14.0% (P<0.05) higher than that under 20 plants m-2. When planting density increased to 30 plants m-2, only LAI during stages R4-R5 and NAR during stages R4-R5 increased by applying starter-N plus topdressing N, while the other indexes declined. Overall, results of this study demonstrated that applying starter-N plus topdressing N could significantly enhance soybean photosynthetic capacity after stage R5 at planting density of 25 plants m-2.
    Food Science
    A Critical Review on Superchilling Preservation Technology in Aquatic Product
    WU Chun-hua, YUan Chun-hong, YE Xing-qian, HU Ya-qin, CHEn Shi-guo, LiU Donghong
    2014, 13(12): 2788-2806.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60841-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    aquatic product, known as one of the good resources for white meat, has been widely accepted by the consumers due to its high protein, low fat, especially low cholesterol. With the fast development of living standards around the world, the consumer demands for high quality, nutrition, safety and freshness of fishery food are increasing. Thus, high efficient preservation technologies for aquatic products become particularly important. Superchilling is one of the controlled-temperature preservation technologies for seafood. Aquatic products can be kept in better quality under superchilling conditions. This review introduced the principle and development of superchilling process, mainly focusing on research progresses and technical difficulties of superchilling. The growth mechanism of ice crystals and the feasibility of application of computational fluid dynamics in analyzing the temperatures variation and ice crystals during superchilling progress were also discussed, which will provide theoretical foundation for its improvement and application.
    Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction Process of Polysaccharides from American Ginseng and Evaluation of Its Immunostimulating Activity
    YANG Xiu-shi, WANG Li-jun, DONG Chuan, Edmund Man King Lui , REN Gui-xing
    2014, 13(12): 2807-2815.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60785-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of American ginseng polysaccharides (AGP) was investigated using response surface methodology. Three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the ultrasonic power, extraction time and ratio of water to raw material to obtain a high AGP yield. The analysis of variance and response surface plots indicated that ultrasonic power was the most important factor affecting the extraction yield. The optimal conditions were ultrasonic power 400 W, extraction time 71 min, and ratio of water to raw material 33 mL g-1. Under these conditions, the yield of AGP was 8.09%, which was agreed closely to the predicted value. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis showed that AGP was composed of arabinose, rhamnose, galactose, glucose, and galacturonic acid. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed the general characteristic absorption peaks of AGP. In addition, AGP exhibited good immunostimulating activities by up-regulating the production of nitric oxide and cytokines. Compared with hot water extraction, UAE required shorter extraction time and gave a higher extraction yield, without changing the structure and immunostimulating activity of AGP. The results indicated that UAE could be an effective and advisable technique for the large scale production of plant polysaccharides.