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    农业经济与管理合辑Agricultural Economics and Management

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    Moving beyond the opposition of diverse knowledge systems for food security and nutrition
    Nathana?l PINGAULT, Patrick CARON, Alicia KOLMANS, Stefanie LEMKE, Carol KALAFATIC, Sabine ZIKELI, Ann WATERS-BAYER, Carolin CALLENIUS, QIN Yong-jun
    2020, 19 (1): 291-293.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62807-8
    Abstract63)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Food Security and Nutrition (FSN) is influenced by diverse and complex factors, and therefore requires a holistic approach to agriculture and food systems plus integration of knowledge from diverse sources in science and society.  Using the results of a colloquium held at the University of Hohenheim (Germany) in September 2016 leading up to the recent High Level Panel of Experts (HLPE) Note on Critical and Emerging Issues for Food Security and Nutrition, this article underlines the role of research and innovation as a social and political process and draws attention to neglected types of knowledge.  It illustrates the potential of knowledge co-production and co-innovation to transform food systems in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. 
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    Influence of surface ozone on crop yield of maize in China
    YI Fu-jin, FENG Jia-ao, WANG Yan-jun, JIANG Fei
    2020, 19 (2): 578-589.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62822-4
    Abstract56)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    This study investigated the adverse effect of surface ozone on the maize yield using a unique panel from 880 counties in China.  To identify the impact of elevated surface ozone concentrations, we constructed an econometric model by controlling the impact of climate variables and related economic variables.  This study also considered the potential spatial correlation in the measurement of the impact of surface ozone on maize yield.  Results confirmed that the increase of ozone concentration decreased the maize yield.  Moreover, maize was found to be the most sensitive to ozone at the end of the second month of the growing season.  The average annual loss of maize caused by ozone pollution is about 4.234 million tons in 2013–2015, accounting for 1.9% of the average output.
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    Do large-scale farmers use more pesticides?  Empirical evidence from rice farmers in five Chinese provinces 
    QIN Shi-le, Lü Xin-ye
    2020, 19 (2): 590-599.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62864-9
    Abstract82)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    It is of great theoretical and practical significance to understand the rules of the differences in pesticide use behaviors between large-scale and small-scale farmers, so as to regulate the behavior of farmers differently and improve the quality and safety of rice.  The overall pesticide use behavior of large-scale farmers was characterized by large doses and high application frequency, while that of small-scale farmers was characterized by small doses and low application frequency.  The econometric test showed that (i) the proportion of staple food ration has a significant negative impact on the single dose exceeding the standard and pesticide application frequency of small-scale farmers, and the increase of the proportion of staple food ration will reduce the demand among small-scale farmers for pesticides; (ii) yield effect has a greater impact on the frequency of pesticide application by large-scale farmers, and the large yield effect will increase the frequency of pesticide application among large-scale farmers.  Therefore, in pesticide use behaviors, large-scale farmers should reduce pesticide quantity and increase efficiency, while small-scale farmers improve the level of plant protection.
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    China’s alfalfa market and imports: Development, trends, and potential impacts of the U.S.–China trade dispute and retaliations
    Qingbin WANG, ZOU Yang
    2020, 19 (4): 1149-1158.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62832-7
    Abstract64)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    This study examines the development and trends of China’s alfalfa market and imports, identifies key factors for the rapid increase in China’s alfalfa imports, and discusses potential impacts of the U.S.–China trade dispute and retaliations on the alfalfa markets and trade in both nations.  China’s rapid transition toward larger-scale commercial dairy production, with enhanced feed and cost management as well as quality and safety control, and its limited resources for high-quality alfalfa production are key factors for the dramatic increase in its alfalfa imports, from 19 601 metric tons in 2008 to 1.38 million metric tons (mmt) in 2018.  While the United States dominated China’s alfalfa imports with an average share of 97.01% from 2007 to 2017, the share dropped to 83.76% in 2018 and 63.28% in January 2019 due to the trade dispute and retaliations started in 2018.  China will likely remain a large importer of alfalfa because of both its growing demand and the comparative advantages of imported alfalfa in quality and price, but the imports from the United States will be highly affected by the ongoing trade dispute and negotiations.  China is also expected to make more efforts to reduce its dependence on U.S. alfalfa through increased investment in domestic alfalfa production and identification of alternative sources of alfalfa and other hay imports. 
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    Impact of cash crop cultivation on household income and migration decisions: Evidence from low-income regions in China
    LI Meng, Christopher GAN, Wanglin MA, Wei JIANG
    2020, 19 (10): 2571-2581.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63161-6
    Abstract75)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    This study examines the impact of cash crop cultivation on household income and migration decisions, using survey data collected from low-income regions in China.  Given farmers decide themselves whether to cultivate cash crops, an endogenous treatment regression model that accounts for potential selection bias issue is used to analyze the data.  The empirical results show that cash crop cultivation exerts a positive and statistically significant impact on household income, but it does not affect household migration decisions significantly.  The disaggregated analyses reveal that cash crop cultivation significantly increases farm income but decreases off-farm income.
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    Research and application of real-time monitoring and early warning thresholds for multi-temporal agricultural products information
    XU Shi-wei, WANG Yu, WANG Sheng-wei, LI Jian-zheng
    2020, 19 (10): 2582-2596.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63368-8
    Abstract60)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Monitoring and early warning is an important means to effectively prevent risks in agricultural production, consumption and price.  In particular, with the change of modes of national administration against the background of big data, improving the capacity to monitor agricultural products is of great significance for macroeconomic decision-making.  Agricultural product information early warning thresholds are the core of agricultural product monitoring and early warning.  How to appropriately determine the early warning thresholds of multi-temporal agricultural product information is a key question to realize real-time and dynamic monitoring and early warning.  Based on the theory of abnormal fluctuation of agricultural product information and the research of substantive impact on the society, this paper comprehensively discussed the methods to determine the thresholds of agricultural product information fluctuation in different time dimensions.  Based on the data of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (NBSC) and survey data, this paper used a variety of statistical methods to determine the early warning thresholds of the production, consumption and prices of agricultural products.  Combined with Delphi expert judgment correction method, it finally determined the early warning thresholds of agricultural product information in multiple time, and carried out early warning analysis on the fluctuation of agricultural product monitoring information in 2018.  The results show that: (1) the daily, weekly and monthly monitoring and early warning thresholds of agricultural products play an important early warning role in monitoring abnormal fluctuations with agricultural products; (2) the multi-temporal monitoring and early warning thresholds of agricultural product information identified by the research institute can provide effective early warning on current abnormal fluctuation of agricultural product information, provide a benchmarking standard for China’s agricultural production, consumption and price monitoring and early warning at the national macro level, and further improve the application of China’s agricultural product monitoring and early warning.
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    Driving factors of direct greenhouse gas emissions from China’s pig industry from 1976 to 2016
    DAI Xiao-wen, Zhanli SUN, Daniel MÜLLER
    2021, 20 (1): 319-329.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63425-6
    Abstract98)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Livestock cultivation is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accounting for 14.5% of the total anthropogenic emissions.  China is responsible for a considerable share of the global livestock emissions, particularly caused by pork production.  We used the Kaya identity and the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to decompose the national annual GHG emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management in pig farming in China from 1976 to 2016.  We decomposed the sources of the emissions into five driving factors: (1) technological progress (e.g., feed improvement); (2) structural adjustment in the livestock sector; (3) structural adjustment in agriculture; (4) affluence; and (5) population growth.  The results showed that the net GHG emissions from the pig sector in China increased 16 million tons (Mt) of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq) during the study period.  The decomposition analysis revealed that structural adjustment in agriculture, growing affluence, and population growth contributed to an increase of the GHG emissions of pork production by 23, 41, and 13 Mt CO2eq, respectively.  The technological progress and structural changes in animal husbandry mitigated emissions by –51 and –11 Mt CO2eq, respectively.  Further technological progress in pig production and optimizing the economic structures are critical for further reducing GHG emissions in China’s pig industry.  Our results highlight the dominant role of technological changes for emission reductions in the pig farming.
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    The dynamic impact of income and income distribution on food consumption among adults in rural China
    LI Lei, ZHAI Shi-xian, BAI Jun-fei
    2021, 20 (1): 330-342.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63239-7
    Abstract73)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Previous studies have demonstrated that income has a significant effect on food demand in rural China.  However, little research has focused on the dynamic impact of income and income distribution on food demand in rural China.  Using China Health and Nutrition Survey data, this study employs a consistent two-step quadratic almost ideal demand system model, with addressed problems of endogeneity of total expenditure and zero shares, to estimate the food demand elasticities among adults in rural areas with regard to the different income strata.  The results show that changes in income and income strata have significant effects on food demand in rural areas.  Except for grains, all other food groups, including vegetables, oils and fats, animal products, and other foods, have positive income elasticities, and the rise in the income strata will lead to declining income elasticities for grains, vegetables, oils and fats, and
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    Phosphate rock reduces the bioavailability of heavy metals by influencing the bacterial communities during aerobic composting
    CUI Hu, OU Yang, WANG Li-xia, YAN Bai-xing, LI Ying-xin, DING Da-wei
    2021, 20 (5): 1137-1146.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63300-7
    Abstract49)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Available information on the microbial mechanisms associated with heavy metal (HM) passivation during co-composting amended with phosphate rock (PR) remains limited.  Thus, this study investigated the dynamic changes in bacterial communities and HM-fractions (Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Pb) during swine manure composting with maize straw, and ascertained the bacterial influence on HM-passivation.  The results demonstrated that the addition of PR improved HM-passivation, especially for Zn and Cd, with their bioavailability factors (BFs) reduced by 247.41 and 176.25%, respectively.  As for bacterial communities, the proportion of Firmicutes decreased, while the proportions of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Deinococcus-Thermus and Gemmatimonadetes increased in all treatments.  PR significantly changed the primary bacterial phyla in the thermophilic phase.  Bacteroidetes were the main bacterial component controlling the passivation of Zn, Cu and Cr, while Deinococcus-Thermus mainly regulated the mobility of Zn and Pb, and Proteobacteria only dominated the transformation among Cd-fractions.  These results may provide a reference for the use of HM-passivation techniques during composting.
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    The river chief system and agricultural non-point source water pollution control in China
    ZHOU Li, LI Ling-zhi, HUANG Ji-kun
    2021, 20 (5): 1382-1395.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63370-6
    Abstract76)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    As part of their efforts to control water pollution, local governments in China introduced the river chief system, whereby a named individual undertakes responsibility for protecting a specified waterway.  As one of the most prominent sources of water pollution, agricultural non-point-source (NPS) pollution is becoming increasingly serious.  Determining whether the river chief system, an institutional reform in China’s decentralized environmental regulation regime, is effective in alleviating NPS pollution is important for the realization of green development.  The effect of the river chief system on reducing agricultural NPS pollution is explored in this study using panel data from 308 Chinese counties during the period from 2004 to 2015.  The results reveal that the negative impact of manure output from animal breeding operations on surface water quality is reduced with the implementation of the river chief system.  However, the river chief system is ineffective in dealing with the water pollution caused by fertilizer use.  Furthermore, in the current system, cooperation among river chiefs only occurs within a province.  Local governments should increase their efforts in reducing fertilizer source loads and preventing fertilizer loads from entering surface waters.  In addition, the central government should improve cooperation among the river chiefs in upstream and downstream provinces.
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    Can harvest outsourcing services reduce field harvest losses of rice in China?
    QU Xue, Daizo KOJIMA, Yukinaga NISHIHARA, WU La-ping, Mitsuyoshi ANDO
    2021, 20 (5): 1396-1406.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63263-4
    Abstract69)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The purpose of this study is to quantify the rice harvest losses in China and to evaluate the impacts of machinery and harvest outsourcing services on these losses, given the background of high-speed mechanization and outsourcing services.  Data were collected from a national survey conducted in 2016 by the research team in conjunction with the Research Center for the Rural Economy of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China.  A non-parametric method was used to test whether combine harvesting and outsourcing services could significantly reduce harvest losses.  Next, quantile regression was used to estimate the real effects of machinery and outsourcing services on harvest losses.  The analysis yielded four main study outcomes.  First, the harvest loss rate of rice in China was 3.65%.  Second, mechanical reaping and winnowing caused greater losses than manual methods, while the opposite was true of field transportation.  Third, combine harvesting increased the losses.  Fourth, the effects of an outsourcing service on losses differed among the different harvesting methods.  Outsourcing services increased losses in segmented harvesting but they reduced losses in combine harvesting.
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    Impacts of household income on beef at-home consumption: Evidence from urban China
    ZHU Wen-bo, CHEN Yong-fu, ZHAO Jing, WU Bei-bei
    2021, 20 (6): 1701-1715.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63582-1
    Abstract73)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Beef consumption in China has increased substantially from 5.0 million tons in 2000 to 7.7 million tons in 2019 thanks to rapid income growth, but still remains low compared to pork and poultry consumption.  Improving the understanding about the impacts of household income on beef consumption in China is necessary to forecast future beef demand and inform the domestic beef industry, especially in the context of unprecedented expansion of middle income class in China.  Based on survey data of 32 878 urban households collected by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, we employed the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS) double-hurdle model to estimate income elasticities of beef demand across different income groups and simulated possible trends of future beef consumption of Chinese urban residents.  The empirical results showed that the unconditional income elasticities of beef consumption at home vary between 0.169 for the low-income group and 0.671 for the high-income group.  The simulated results indicated that beef consumption is expected to increase by 12.0 to 38.8% in 10 years and by 18.6 to 70.5% in 15 years under distinct income growth scenarios.  Our findings provide practical insights for policy makers and other stakeholders about future beef demand, such as potential opportunities embedded in rising beef demand for domestic producers and world beef exporters as well as the urgency of improving the supply chain resilience of beef in China.
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    Do cooperatives participation and technology adoption improve farmers’ welfare in China?  A joint analysis accounting for selection bias
    YANG Dan, ZHANG Hui-wei, LIU Zi-min, ZENG Qiao
    2021, 20 (6): 1716-1726.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63325-1
    Abstract84)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    This study examines the impact of farmers’ cooperatives participation and technology adoption on their economic welfare in China.  A double selectivity model (DSM) is applied to correct for sample selection bias stemming from both observed and unobserved factors, and a propensity score matching (PSM) method is applied to calculate the agricultural income difference with counter factual analysis using survey data from 396 farmers in 15 provinces in China.  The findings indicate that farmers who join farmer cooperatives and adopt agricultural technology can increase agricultural income by 2.77 and 2.35%, respectively, compared with those non-participants and non-adopters.  Interestingly, the effect on agricultural income is found to be more significant for the low-income farmers than the high-income ones, with income increasing 5.45 and 4.51% when participating in farmer cooperatives and adopting agricultural technology, respectively.  Our findings highlight the positive role of farmer cooperatives and agricultural technology in promoting farmers’ economic welfare.  Based on the findings, government policy implications are also discussed.
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    Farmers’ risk preference and fertilizer use
    QIAO Fang-bin, HUANG Ji-kun
    2021, 20 (7): 1987-1995.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63450-5
    Abstract75)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    This study examines the role of farmers’ risk attitudes toward fertilizer use in cotton production in China.  Contradicting previous studies, this paper theoretically shows that the relationship between farmers’ risk aversion and fertilizer use is not always monotonic.  Field survey data were collected to test this relationship using the Cobb–Douglas production function.  Results suggest that when the elasticity of fertilizer use and the probability of achieving the desired effects from fertilizer use are high, risk-averse farmers apply more fertilizer than risk-taking farmers.  Conversely, when the elasticity of fertilizer use and the probability of achieving the desired effects are low, risk-taking farmers apply more fertilizer than risk-neutral or risk-averse farmers. 
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    Mechanization and efficiency in rice production in China
    SHI Min, Krishna P. PAUDEL, CHEN Feng-bo
    2021, 20 (7): 1996-2008.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63439-6
    Abstract85)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Agricultural mechanization and custom machine services have developed rapidly in China, which can influence rice production efficiency in the future.  We calculate technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, and scale efficiency using data collected in 2015 from a face-to-face interview survey of 450 households that cultivated 3 096 plots located in the five major rice-producing provinces of China.  We use a one-step stochastic frontier model to calculate technical efficiency and regress the efficiency scores on socio-demographic and physical land characteristics to find the influencing variables.  Variables influencing technical efficiency are compared at three different phases of rice cultivation.  We also calculate technical efficiency by using the Heckman Selection Model, which addresses technological heterogeneity and self-selection bias.  Results indicate that: (1) the average value of technical efficiency using a one-step stochastic frontier model was found to be 0.74.  When self-selection bias is accounted for using the Heckman Selection Model, the average value of the technical efficiency increases to 0.80; (2) mechanization at the chemical application phase has a positive effect on technical efficiency, but mechanization does not affect efficiency at the plowing and harvesting phases; (3) machines are overused relative to both land and labor, and high machine input use on the small size of landholding has resulted in allocative inefficiency; (4) rice farmers are overwhelmingly operating at a sub-optimal scale.  Future policies should focus on encouraging farmland transfer in rural areas to achieve scale efficiency and allocative efficiency while promoting mechanization at the chemical application phase of rice cultivation to improve technical efficiency. 
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    African swine fever and meat prices fluctuation: An empirical study in China based on TVP-VAR model
    LI Hui-shang, HU Chen-pei, LÜ Zheng, LI Mei-qi, GUO Xin-zhu
    2021, 20 (8): 2289-2301.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63307-X
    Abstract97)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    frican swine fever (ASF), a fatal disease outbroken in China in August 2018, has widely attracted social concern especially in the information era.  The occurrence of ASF led to an imbalance between supply and demand in pork and other meat markets.  As a result, meat prices fluctuated greatly during the past year in 2019.  To measure ASF quantitatively, the internet public concern index about ASF was created using web crawler methods.  The relationships between ASF and meat prices were analyzed based on time-varying parameter vector auto-regressive (TVP-VAR) model.  The results showed that there were some differences in the impact size, direction and duration of ASF on the prices of pork, chicken, beef and mutton, and the characteristics of time variability and heterogeneity were obvious.  At the same time, the impact of ASF on meat prices is not consistent with the trend and degree of ASF.  The impulse intensity is strongly correlated with the strength and duration of ASF, and it is generally weak in the early stage and much stronger in the middle and late periods.  The results indicate that macro regulations, monitoring and early-warning system, standardizing production and circulation, and the public opinion monitoring and guidance about ASF should be given more attention in future to stabilize the market expectations and to promote a smooth functioning of the livestock markets.
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    Adoption of small-scale irrigation technologies and its impact on land productivity: Evidence from Rwanda
    Jules NGANGO, Seungjee HONG
    2021, 20 (8): 2302-2312.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63417-7
    Abstract57)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    In an attempt to identify solutions to the effects of erratic rainfall patterns and droughts that limit agricultural production growth, the Rwandan government has recently increased investments in irrigation development.  In this study, we analyze the adoption of small-scale irrigation technologies (SSITs) and its impact on land productivity using cross-sectional data from a sample of 360 farmers in Rwanda.  The study uses the propensity score matching technique to address potential self-selection bias.  Our results reveal that adoption decisions are significantly influenced by factors such as education, farm size, group membership, gender, extension services, access to credit, access to weather forecast information, risk perceptions, access to a reliable source of water for irrigation, awareness of rainwater harvesting techniques, and awareness of subsidy programs.  In addition, the results show that the adoption of SSITs has a significantly positive impact on land productivity.  The study concludes with policy implications that highlight the need to promote the adoption of SSITs among farmers as a strategy to improve agricultural productivity and food security in Rwanda.  
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    Do credit constraints affect households’ economic vulnerability? Empirical evidence from rural China
    PENG Yan-ling, Yanjun REN, LI Hou-jian
    2021, 20 (9): 2552-2568.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63557-2
    Abstract48)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Poverty alleviation is still one of the major challenges in developing countries, especially in transitional economy like China.  From the perspective of anti-poverty, this paper examines the impact of formal credit constraints (FCCs) and informal credit constraints (IFCCs) on economic vulnerability (EV) using the data from the China Household Income Project (CHIP) survey for 2013 (CHIPs 2013) of rural households.  The potential endogeneity problem of credit constraints (CCs) is addressed by applying the control function approach within an ordered probit model.  The results show that both FCCs and IFCCs have a robust positive and significant impact on the EV of rural households and that the impact of FCCs is greater than that of IFCCs.  To identify the potential mechanisms through which CCs affect EV, the seemingly unrelated regressions are used and the potential intercorrelation among these mechanisms is examined.  We find that the impact of CCs on EV is partly mediated by health, trust, per capita financial assets and per capita income, whereby health and per capita income contribute to most of the total indirect effect.  Thus, policies focus on supply-side and demand-side to improve credit accessibility could reduce rural households’ EV, especially through its positive effect on health and per capita income.
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    Mental accounting and consumption of self-produced food
    HUANG Jia-qi, Gerrit ANTONIDES, Christian H. KUHLGATZ, NIE Feng-ying
    2021, 20 (9): 2569-2580.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63585-7
    Abstract75)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    This is an exploratory study on mental accounting and food budgeting of agricultural households, in which we assumed that agricultural households may have a mental account for consumption of their self-produced food.  Accordingly, they may reserve a certain quantity of self-produced food as a set budget for own consumption, implying that they may keep on consuming their own produce until they have consumed the quantity set for the mental budget.  By making the mental accounting assumption, we hypothesized that the consumption of self-produced food is independent of market price.  Also, we hypothesized that the consumption of self-produced food is increasing in the quantity of production if production is lower than the set budget, and independent of the quantity of production if production exceeds the set budget.  By applying a double-log demand model and using survey data from six poor rural counties in China, we tested these hypotheses for five food items, which are rice, flour, potatoes, pork, and eggs.  We found that the hypothesis of no significant effect of price holds for flour, potatoes, and pork if production is lower than the set budget, and for rice, pork, and eggs if production is higher than the set budget.  Production has a significant positive effect on consumption of self-produced food but with a much greater influence when production is lower than the set budget for all five food items.  These findings partly support our assumption of mental accounting of self-produced food.  Limitations, policy implications, and possible future studies are discussed.
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    Food safety inspection and the adoption of traceability in aquatic wholesale markets: A game-theoretic model and empirical evidence
    JIN Cang-yu, Retsef LEVI, LIANG Qiao, Nicholas RENEGAR, ZHOU Jie-hong
    2021, 20 (10): 2807-2819.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63624-9
    Abstract61)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Supply chain traceability is key to reduce food safety risks, since it allows problems to be traced to their sources.  Moreover, it allows regulatory agencies to understand where risk is introduced into the supply chain, and offers a major disincentive for upstream agricultural businesses engaging in economically motivated adulteration.  This paper focuses on the aquatic supply chain in China, and seeks to understand the adoption of traceability both through an analytical model, and empirical analysis based on data collected through an extensive (largest ever) field survey of Chinese aquatic wholesale markets.  The field survey includes 76 managers and 753 vendors, covering all aquatic wholesale markets in Zhejiang and Hunan provinces.  The analytical and empirical results suggest that the adoption of traceability among wholesale market vendors is significantly associated with inspection intensity, their individual history of food safety problems, and their risk awareness.  The effect of inspection intensity on traceability adoption is stronger in markets which are privately owned than in markets with state/collective ownership.  The analysis offers insights into the current state of traceability in China.  More importantly, it suggests several hypothesized factors that might affect the adoption of traceability and could be leveraged by regulatory organizations to improve it.
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    Assessing the impact of non-governmental organization’s extension programs on sustainable cocoa production and household income in Ghana
    2021, 20 (10): 2820-2836.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63607-9
    Abstract66)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Globally, cocoa is famous for the production of chocolates and beverages. However, it also serves as a source of raw material for the manufacturing of high-quality cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.  Due to its high demand, cocoa is regarded as a major commodity for poverty alleviation in deprived cocoa farming communities.  Government has therefore instigated relevant measures to address issues facing the sector by investing in extension programs.  These programs act as information dissemination tools for teaching modern farming technologies and enhancing learning among farmers.  This study highlighted the effects of the Cocoa Life Project (CLP) by Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) International on farm productivity and income of 200 cocoa farmers in three districts of the Eastern Region, Ghana.  Regression on covariates, Heckman’s treatment effects model, and propensity scores were used to test the robustness of the estimates.  A positive association between extension program participation, farm productivity, and household income was discovered.  Specifically, after correcting for selection bias, the estimated results of the Heckman’s model showed that the extension program significantly increased participating farmers’ cocoa yield by 14.3%.  The effects on total farm income showed a significant increase of 25.1 and 42.9%, respectively from regression on propensity scores and the Heckman’s model.  Across all three models, program participation led to an increase in total household income by 46.1, 31.7, and 69.3%, respectively.  Other variables such as farming characteristics, institutional and demographic factors affected farmers’ income, depending on the estimation method used.  This study reiterated the supporting role played by extension programs in enhancing cocoa production and increasing household income in Ghana.  Conclusively, government and development partners should invest in extension programs by providing enough logistics, training qualified agents, and creating a conducive atmosphere to support learning and technology adoption.
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    Scale and scope economies in small household rice farming in Vietnam
    Viet-Ngu HOANG, Trung Thanh NGUYEN, Clevo WILSON, Thong Quoc HO, Uttam KHANAL
    2021, 20 (12): 3339-3351.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63612-2
    Abstract40)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The Vietnamese agricultural sector has experienced a dramatic structural change based on increased specialization in rice cultivation.  However, small-scale rice-farmers have continued to grow multiple crops, especially in less developed provinces.  While the literature advocates crop diversification for reasons of both economic and ecological sustainability, there lacks empirical evidence as to whether crop diversification brings efficiency and productivity gains to small farms.  The present study is the first applications of the input-oriented stochastic distance function approach in estimating scale and scope economies using data of multi-crop farming households in Vietnam.  We find strong evidence of product-specific economies of scale.  Scope economies are also present for rice, vegetable, and other annual crop production.  This suggests that crop diversification enhances efficiency and productivity.  However, there still exists significant technical inefficiency in crop production, indicating opportunities to expand farm output at the existing level of inputs and technologies.  More specifically, our empirical results indicate that it is desirable to expand vegetable and other annual crop production in mountainous areas while rice cultivation can be further expanded in delta and coastal regions. 
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    The impact of farmers’ assessments of risk management strategies on their adoption willingness
    SHANG Yan, XIONG Tao
    2021, 20 (12): 3323-3338.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63749-8
    Abstract100)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Farmers’ assessments of risk management strategies and how the assessments influence their willingness to adopt these strategies are poorly understood.  This study conducts a structured survey of 469 farmers to investigate how farmers assess both crop insurance and crop price insurance, the impact of the assessments on their adoption willingness, and in particular, the differences in assessments and adoption willingness between crop insurance and crop price insurance.  Empirical results show that farmers’ assessments on crop insurance can be significantly improved through communication and experience.  The most effective way to improve farmers’ assessments on crop price insurance is providing adequate information about the insurance products.  Furthermore, farmers’ adoption willingness would be enhanced by improved assessment of both crop yield and crop price insurance.  This study provides the first empirical evidence that farmers have limited information to assess insurance, which significantly influences their willingness to adopt.  This finding reflects that the dissemination of insurance policies, the effectiveness of insurance, and the availability of insurance services significantly enable farmers’ ability to assess risk management strategies, which potentially increases farmers’ willingness to adopt insurance.  
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    The relationship between farm size and fertilizer use efficiency: Evidence from China
    ZHU Wei, QI Li-xia, WANG Rui-mei
    2022, 21 (1): 273-281.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63724-3
    Abstract106)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Low fertilizer use efficiency is commonly found in China’s agriculture sector.  It is critical to understand the drivers of fertilizer use in order to increase fertilizer use efficiency (FUE).  The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between farm size and FUE based on farm-level data in China.  The results suggest a positive farm size–FUE relationship.  The estimated elasticities of farm size for rice, maize, wheat–maize, and rice–maize are similar, and the average elasticity of farm size is around 0.2.  Statistically, a 1% increase in farm size is associated with a 0.2% increase in FUE.  The positive effect of farm size on FUE is not due to the increase in yield, but the reduction in fertilizer use while keeping yield largely unchanged.  The findings suggest that promoting the expansion of farm size may increase FUE, and thus reduce environmental pollution caused by fertilizer overuse.
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    Does Internet use promote the adoption of agricultural technology?  Evidence from 1 449 farm households in 14 Chinese provinces
    ZHENG Yang-yang, ZHU Tie-hui, JIA Wei
    2022, 21 (1): 282-292.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63750-4
    Abstract98)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    China is characterized as ‘a large country with many smallholder farmers’ whose participation in modern agriculture is key to the country’s modern agriculture development.  Promoting smallholder farmers’ adoption of modern agricultural production technology is one effective way to improve the capabilities of smallholder farmers.  This paper aims to explore the impact of Internet use on the adoption of agricultural production technology by smallholder farmers based on a survey of 1 449 smallholders across 14 provinces in China.  The results suggest that Internet use can significantly promote technology adoption, with the probability of adopting new crop varieties, water-saving irrigation technology and straw-returning technology increasing by 0.200, 0.157 and 0.155, respectively.  Furthermore, the effect of Internet use is found to be heterogeneous with a greater effect on smallholder farmers having low education levels, limited training, and high incomes.  To increase agricultural production technology adoption by smallholders, rural Internet infrastructure and Internet use promotion should be the focus for the Chinese government.
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    Black tea markets worldwide: Are they integrated?
    XU Yong-mei, QIAO Fang-bin, HUANG Ji-kun
    2022, 21 (2): 552-565.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63850-9
    Abstract114)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Global tea consumption has risen significantly alongside rapid expansion of international trade in recent years.  However, few studies have systematically examined the relationship among the major tea markets worldwide.  Using weekly data from 2012–2019, this study empirically analyzed the price series of the world’s major black tea auction markets.  The estimation results showed that these markets are connected, even though heterogeneities vary.  This finding holds not only for regional markets but also for international markets.  The findings offer important implications for tea-producing countries with millions of smallholder farmers.
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    Changes in paddy cropping system enhanced economic profit and ecological sustainability in central China
    ZHOU Yong, YAN Xiao-yuan, GONG Song-ling, LI Cheng-wei, ZHU Rong, ZHU Bo, LIU Zhang-yong, WANG Xiao-long, CAO Peng
    2022, 21 (2): 566-577.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63841-8
    Abstract91)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    In China, the traditional early and late season double rice (DR) system is declining accompanied by the fast increase of two newly developed cropping systems: ratoon rice (RR) and rice–crawfish (RC).  Three methodologies: economic analysis, emergy evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA) were employed to evaluate the economics and sustainability of this paddy cropping system change.  Economic analysis indicated that the income and profit of the RC system were far larger than those of RR and DR.  The income to costs ratio of RR and RC increased by 25.5 and 122.7% compared with that of DR, respectively.  RC had the highest emergy input thanks to increasing irrigation water, electricity, juvenile crawfish and forage input while RR showed a lower total emergy and nonrenewable emergy input, such as irrigation water, electricity, fertilizers and pesticides than DR.  The environmental loading ratios decreased by 16.7–50.4% when cropping system changed from DR to RR or from DR to RC while the emergy sustainability indexes increased by 22.6–112.9%.  The life cycle assessment indicated lower potential environmental impacts of RR and RC, whose total environmental impact indexes were 35.0–61.0% lower than that of DR.  Grain yield of RR was comparable with that of DR in spite of less financial and emergy input of RR, but RC had a much lower grain yield (a 53.6% reduction compared to DR).  These results suggested that RR is a suitable cropping system to achieve the food security, economic and environmental goals.
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    Agricultural production structure, market conditions and farmers' nutritional intake in rural China
    WAN Yue, HU Hao, Wuyang HU
    2022, 21 (6): 1812-1824.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63873-X
    Abstract86)      PDF in ScienceDirect      

    Nutrition poverty alleviation is an effective measure to improve the nutritional status of economically disadvantaged individuals, fundamentally improving their health and reducing poverty.  Based on the Entitlement Theory and using the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data, this paper examines the relationship between farmers’ nutritional intake, production structure and regional market conditions.  Results show that farmers with diversified production have better nutritional intake than those who specialize.  Furthermore, the correlation between regional market conditions and nutritional intake varies between economically disadvantaged and non-economically disadvantaged households.  Market conditions significantly influence the carbohydrate and fat intake of economically disadvantaged households and are positively associated with the dietary structure and nutritional intake of non-economically disadvantaged ones.  Moreover, income is positively correlated with the nutritional intake of non-economically disadvantaged households but not with economically disadvantaged ones.  

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    Sustainability of the rice–crayfish farming model in waterlogged land: A case study in Qianjiang County, Hubei Province, China
    YUAN Peng-li, WANG Jin-ping, GUO Can, GUO Zi-yuan, GUO Yao, CAO Cou-gui
    2022, 21 (4): 1203-1214.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63787-5
    Abstract69)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The rice–crayfish farming model has been rapidly developed and become an economically viable method to supply food in China in recent years.  However, its environmental and economic sustainability has not been thoroughly investigated.  This study uses a survey in 2016 and a field experiment in 2017 in Qianjiang, Hubei Province, China to assess the relative economics of concurrent rice–wheat (RW), rice–crayfish (RC), and crayfish monoculture (CM) models in waterlogged land areas.  The field survey indicated that the RC model had a higher benefit–cost ratio (3.5:1) than the RW (2.0:1) and CM (3.1:1) models and the RC model protected farmers’ enthusiasm for grain production facing unfavourable weather conditions.  The field experiment aimed to explore nitrogen management strategies in RC fields.  In the experiment, four levels of nitrogen concentration gradient - 0 kg N ha–1 (0 N), 75 kg N ha–1 (75 N), 150 kg N ha–1 (150 N) and 225 kg N ha–1 (225 N), were set in a 2-year-old rice–crayfish (RC2) field, an 8-year-old rice–crayfish (RC8) field, and a RW field as a control.  The field experiment results suggested that the peak  rice yield in RW, RC2, and RC8 occurred when 225 N, 150 N and 75 N were used, respectively.  In RC2 and RC8, however, residual feed-nitrogen that was not used by crayfish was utilized by rice plants.  Thus, an optimal amount of nitrogen in RC fields was proposed to improve the nitrogen use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution by nitrogen fertilizer.  Farmers use less nitrogen but have higher net income in RC than in RW and CM.  It is necessary to sustainably develop integrated farming technologies (i.e., proper field configurations for rice fields) to effectively sustain rice production.  The results also showed that the RC farming model was a viable diversification option for rice farmers in waterlogged land.  
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    Wastewater irrigation and crop yield: A meta-analysis
    WANG Han-jie, Jingjing WANG, Xiaohua YU
    2022, 21 (4): 1215-1224.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63853-4
    Abstract80)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Although wastewater irrigation in agriculture could be a potential adaptation to water scarcity, its effect on crop yield varies in the literature, making it difficult to evaluate its role in global food security comprehensively.  Using agronomic experiment data from 62 studies between 1987 and 2021, we employ a meta-analysis to analyze the factors contributing to the heterogeneous effects of wastewater irrigation on crop yield.  Our findings can be summarized as (1) the mean yield growth effect of wastewater irrigation is 19.7%; (2) domestic and breeding wastewater irrigation could significantly increase crop yield, while industrial wastewater has a negative effect although not significant; (3) high nutrients concentration of domestic wastewater is significantly positively correlated with crop yield; (4) agronomic experiment designs in terms of field experiment, experiment times, and fertilizer use could contribute to the divergent crop yield effects across the studies; (5) there is a publication bias of the research results between the English and Chinese literature; (6) the literature mainly sheds light on the short-run effect, and the long-run impact shall be an important research question in the future.
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    ICT-based agricultural advisory services and nitrogen management practices: A case study of wheat production in China
    DING Ji-ping, LI Jing-han, LIU Jia-huan, ZHANG Wei-feng, JIA Xiang-ping
    2022, 21 (6): 1799-1811.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63859-5
    Abstract118)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer in China and its adverse effects on agricultural production have been a national and global concern. In addition to massive public initiatives to promote sustainable farm practices, grass-rooted innovations are emerging in the niche, many of which take the forms of information and communication technologies (ICT) and digital services. This study examines the effects of ICT-based extension services provided by an entrepreneurial startup on adopting sustainable farming practices. We found no significant reduction in N-fertilizer use for wheat production. But the ICT-based services promoted farmers to adapt N-fertilizer use towards site-specific management. The business model of the entrepreneurial venture faces great challenges in becoming participatory and financially sustainable.

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    Explaining farmers’ reluctance to adopt green manure cover crops planting for sustainable agriculture in Northwest China
    Sheng-Han-Erin CHANG, YI Xiao-yan, Johannes SAUER, YIN Chang-bin, LI Fu-duo
    2022, 21 (11): 3382-3394.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.09.005
    Abstract83)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Green manure cover crops (GMCCs) planting has a potential for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in agroecosystems and provides important ecosystem services, thereby achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) stipulated by the United Nations.  However, the advantages of cultivating GMCCs on arable land are not widely recognized.  For example, in the whole of China, the GMCCs planting area is less than 3.5% of total arable land.  The aim of this study is to explore reasons for the low adoption rate of GMCCs planting.  Using best–worst scaling (BWS) approach, farmers ranked their preferred conservation practices including three types of GMCC cropping systems.  Taking Gansu Province in Northwest China as a case study, a survey with 276 farmers was conducted.  The findings indicated that three factors are related to the low adoption rate of GMCCs: 1) farmers preferred improving farmland irrigation facilities and substituting chemical fertilizers with organic rather than planting GMCCs; 2) lack of awareness and understanding of government policy on GMCCs and limited access to training courses; 3) financial support and subsidies from the government are insufficient.  This study provides insights and strategic implications for policymakers on how to further promote GMCCs in the future.

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    Commercial cash crop production and households’ economic welfare: Evidence from the pulse farmers in rural China
    MA Ji-liang, LI Fan, ZHANG Hui-jie, Khan NAWAB
    2022, 21 (11): 3395-3407.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.09.006
    Abstract88)      PDF in ScienceDirect      

    Whether promoting cash crop production can increase household welfare has long been the focus of the food policy debate.  This study first investigated the determinants of household behavior in commercial pulse farming.  It then examined how households’ commercial pulse production improves their economic welfare.  We used a dataset of 848 households collected from 2018 to 2019 to estimate the determinants of household behavior in commercial pulse farming by the Heckman two-step model.  The endogenous treatment regression (ETR) method was employed to examine the impact of commercial pulse farming on household economic welfare.  The results showed that factors such as market purchase prices, agricultural technology services, farmers’ access to loans, and government subsidies promoted smallholders’ commercial pulse farming; production costs and perceptions of climate change risks constrained smallholders’ commercial pulse production.  Overall, commercial pulse production has increased household farm income but there was a limited impact on household off-farm income.  Our findings suggest that policies aiming to increase households’ cash crop production and market access could significantly improve the economic welfare of pulse farmers.Whether promoting cash crop production can increase household welfare has long been the focus of the food policy debate.  This study first investigated the determinants of household behavior in commercial pulse farming.  It then examined how households’ commercial pulse production improves their economic welfare.  We used a dataset of 848 households collected from 2018 to 2019 to estimate the determinants of household behavior in commercial pulse farming by the Heckman two-step model.  The endogenous treatment regression (ETR) method was employed to examine the impact of commercial pulse farming on household economic welfare.  The results showed that factors such as market purchase prices, agricultural technology services, farmers’ access to loans, and government subsidies promoted smallholders’ commercial pulse farming; production costs and perceptions of climate change risks constrained smallholders’ commercial pulse production.  Overall, commercial pulse production has increased household farm income but there was a limited impact on household off-farm income.  Our findings suggest that policies aiming to increase households’ cash crop production and market access could significantly improve the economic welfare of pulse farmers.

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    The mechanism and heterogeneity of environmental regulations’ impact on the technological progress of dairy farming
    LIU Hao, PENG Hua, LI Li-wang, DONG Xiao-xia
    2022, 21 (10): 3067-3081.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.053
    Abstract43)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The study analyses the theoretical mechanism through which environmental regulation affects the dairy industry’s technological progress, with a particular focus on how the effect is conditional on farm size.  Using the input–output data of dairy farms of different sizes from 2009 to 2019 in 10 Chinese provinces/autonomous regions in China and the quantitative measurement index of environmental regulation, the study estimates environmental regulation’s heterogeneous influences on the dairy industry’s technological progress by dynamic panel data models.  The empirical results suggest that, first, environmental regulation has a U-type influence on the technological progress of dairy farming.  The U-type influence means moving from pollution control’s high cost and low technology progress to the high profit and high innovation input generated by optimizing the breeding structure.  Second, the promotion of dairy farming technology depends on farm size.  The effect of environmental regulation on technological progress in moderately large-farms showed a U-type relationship.  In contrast, the effect in free-range and large-size dairy farms showed a linear and positive relationship.  The government should further strengthen environmental regulation based on advancing moderately large-farms in compliance with market mechanisms in the long run.  Particular attention should be paid to the forms of environmental regulation so that dairy cattle breeding technology can break through the inflection point of the “U” curve as soon as possible and ensure the significance of the rising stage.  Along the way, technical support should be provided for realizing environmental protection and economic growth.
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    Spatial and temporal changes of paddy rice ecosystem services in China during the period 1980–2014
    CHEN Zhong-du, LI Feng-bo, XU Chun-chun, JI Long, FENG Jin-fei, FANG Fu-ping
    2022, 21 (10): 3082-3093.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.049
    Abstract56)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The ecological systems services or multi-functionality of paddy rice cultivation are critical to the functioning of the Earth’s life-support system.  We estimated the ecosystem services value (ESV) of paddy rice during 1980–2014 across China.  The results indicated that the ESV of the paddy field in China showed an upward trend during this period.  The share of ESV on CO2 sequestration was the highest, followed by ESV on temperature cooling and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission.  The yield-scaled ESVs of Zones II (southern rice–upland crops rotation regions) and III (southern double rice production regions) were similar and significantly higher than the ESVs of Zones I (northeastern single rice production regions) and IV (Southwest rice–upland crops rotation regions).  Between 1980 and 2014, the ESV of each region increased to varying degrees, except for the ESVs of Guangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangdong.  Such effects suggest the existence of a significant spatial–temporal variation in the total amount, structure, and density of ESV of paddy fields in China, which can further guide the development of future options for the adaptation of healthy rice production in China.
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