Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2021, Vol. 20 Issue (8): 2302-2312    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63417-7
Special Issue: 农业经济与管理合辑Agricultural Economics and Management
Agricultural Economics and Management Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Adoption of small-scale irrigation technologies and its impact on land productivity: Evidence from Rwanda
Jules NGANGO, Seungjee HONG
Department of Agricultural Economics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, South Korea
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  In an attempt to identify solutions to the effects of erratic rainfall patterns and droughts that limit agricultural production growth, the Rwandan government has recently increased investments in irrigation development.  In this study, we analyze the adoption of small-scale irrigation technologies (SSITs) and its impact on land productivity using cross-sectional data from a sample of 360 farmers in Rwanda.  The study uses the propensity score matching technique to address potential self-selection bias.  Our results reveal that adoption decisions are significantly influenced by factors such as education, farm size, group membership, gender, extension services, access to credit, access to weather forecast information, risk perceptions, access to a reliable source of water for irrigation, awareness of rainwater harvesting techniques, and awareness of subsidy programs.  In addition, the results show that the adoption of SSITs has a significantly positive impact on land productivity.  The study concludes with policy implications that highlight the need to promote the adoption of SSITs among farmers as a strategy to improve agricultural productivity and food security in Rwanda.  
Keywords:  small-scale irrigation        maize production        Rwanda        technology adoption        impact assessment        propensity score matching  
Received: 18 February 2020   Accepted: 20 July 2021
Fund: This work was supported by the Research Scholarship of Chungnam National University, South Korea.
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence Jules NGANGO, Tel: +82-10-49664304, E-mail:   

Cite this article: 

Jules NGANGO, Seungjee HONG. 2021. Adoption of small-scale irrigation technologies and its impact on land productivity: Evidence from Rwanda. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(8): 2302-2312.

Abdulai A, Huffman W. 2014. The adoption and impact of soil and water conservation technology: An endogenous switching regression application. Land Economics, 90, 26–43.
Adeoti A, Barry B, Namara R, Kamara A. 2009. The impact of treadle pump irrigation technology adoption on poverty in Ghana. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 15, 357–369.
Ali A, Abdulai A. 2010. The adoption of genetically modified cotton and poverty reduction in Pakistan. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 61, 175–192.
Ali A, Bahadur Rahut D, Behera B. 2016. Factors influencing farmers’ adoption of energy-based water pumps and impacts on crop productivity and household income in Pakistan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 54, 48–57.
AQUASTAT. 2017. Regional Report - Rwanda. [2019-04-12].
Asfaw S, Shiferaw B, Simtowe F, Lipper L. 2012. Impact of modern agricultural technologies on smallholder welfare: Evidence from Tanzania and Ethiopia. Food Policy, 37, 283–295.
Becerril J, Abdulai A. 2010. The impact of improved maize varieties on poverty in Mexico: A propensity score-matching approach. World Development, 38, 1024–1035.
Bizoza A R. 2014. Population growth and land scarcity in Rwanda: The other side of the Coin. In: Conference on Land Policy in Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Bizoza A R, Havugimana J M. 2013. Land use consolidation in Rwanda: A case study of Nyanza District, Southern Province. International Journal of Sustainable Land Use and Urban Planning, 1, 64–75.
Burney J A, Naylor R L. 2012. Smallholder irrigation as a poverty alleviation tool in sub-Saharan Africa. World Development, 40, 110–123.
Caliendo M, Kopeinig S. 2008. Some practical guidance for the implementation of propensity score matching. Journal of Economic Surveys, 22, 31–72.
Caswell M F. 1991. Irrigation technology adoption decisions: Empirical evidence. In: The Economics and Management of Water and Drainage in Agriculture. Springer, USA. pp. 295–312.
Dillon A. 2011. Do differences in the scale of irrigation projects generate different impacts on poverty and production? Journal of Agricultural Economics, 62, 474–492.
Dinar A, Campbell M B, Zilberman D. 1992. Adoption of improved irrigation and drainage reduction technologies under limiting environmental conditions. Environmental & Resource Economics, 2, 373–398.
Gilligan D O, Hoddinott J. 2007. Is there persistence in the impact of emergency food aid? Evidence on consumption, food security, and assets in rural Ethiopia. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 89, 225–242.
Heckman J J, Ichimura H, Todd P E. 1997. Matching as an econometric evaluation estimator: Evidence from evaluating a job training programme. The Review of Economic Studies, 64, 605–654.
Imbens G W, Wooldridge J M. 2009. Recent developments in the econometrics of program evaluation. Journal of Economic Literature, 47, 5–86.
Kathiresan A. 2011. Strategies for sustainable crop intensification in Rwanda: Shifting focus from producing enough to producing surplus. Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources. [2019-6-2].
Koundouri P, Nauges C, Tzouvelekas V. 2006. Technology adoption under production uncertainty: Theory and application to irrigation technology. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 88, 657–670.
Manda J, Alene A D, Gardebroek C, Kassie M, Tembo G. 2016. Adoption and impacts of sustainable agricultural practices on maize yields and incomes: Evidence from Rural Zambia. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 67, 130–153.
Mango N, Makate C, Tamene L, Mponela P, Ndengu G. 2018. Adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on household income in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa. Land, 7, 49. 
Mariano M J, Villano R, Fleming E. 2012. Factors influencing farmers’ adoption of modern rice technologies and good management practices in the Philippines. Agricultural Systems, 110, 41–53.
MINAGRI (Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources). 2018. Strategic Plan for the Transformation of Agriculture in Rwanda – Phase IV: 2018–2024. Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MINAGRI), Kigali, Rwanda.
Nabahungu N L, Visser S M. 2013. Farmers’ knowledge and perception of agricultural wetland management in Rwanda. Land Degradation & Development, 24, 363–374.
Nahayo A, Omondi M O, Zhang X H, Li L Q, Pan G X, Joseph S. 2017. Factors influencing farmers’ participation in crop intensification program in Rwanda. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 16, 1406–1416.
Rosenbaum P R, Rubin D B. 1983. The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika, 70, 41–55.
Sianesi B. 2004. An evaluation of the Swedish system of active labor market programs in the 1990s. Review of Economics and Statistics, 86, 133–155.
Twagiramungu F. 2006. Environmental Profile of Rwanda. National Authorizing Office of FED and European Commission.
Villano R, Bravo-Ureta B, Solís D, Fleming E. 2015. Modern rice technologies and productivity in The Philippines: Disentangling technology from managerial gaps. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66, 129–154.
World Bank. 2016. Climate change knowledge portal for development practitioners and policy makers. [2018-10-25].
World Bank. 2021. World development indicators. [2021-5-18].
Wossen T, Abdoulaye T, Alene A, Feleke S, Ricker-Gilbert J, Manyong V, Awotide B A. 2017. Productivity and welfare effects of Nigeria’s e-voucher-based input subsidy program. World Development, 97, 251–265. 
Xie H, You L, Takeshima H. 2017. Invest in small-scale irrigated agriculture: A national assessment on potential to expand small-scale irrigation in Nigeria. Agricultural Water Management, 193, 251–264.
You L, Ringler C, Wood-Sichra U, Robertson R, Wood S, Zhu T, Sun Y. 2011. What is the irrigation potential for Africa? A combined biophysical and socioeconomic approach. Food Policy, 36, 770–782.
Zeweld W, Van Huylenbroeck G, Hidgot A, Chandrakanth M G, Speelman S. 2015. Adoption of small-scale irrigation and its livelihood impacts in Northern Ethiopia. Irrigation and Drainage, 64, 655–668.
[1] YANG Dan, ZHANG Hui-wei, LIU Zi-min, ZENG Qiao . Do cooperatives participation and technology adoption improve farmers’ welfare in China?  A joint analysis accounting for selection bias[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(6): 1716-1726.
[2] Tsegaye Mulugeta HABTEWOLD. Impact of climate-smart agricultural technology on multidimensional poverty in rural Ethiopia[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(4): 1021-1041.
[3] ZHAO Ying-jie, XING Sen, ZHANG Qing-song, ZHANG Fu-suo, MA Wen-qi. Causes of maize density loss in farmers’ fields in Northeast China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(8): 1680-1689.
No Suggested Reading articles found!