Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (8): 1617-1629.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2022.08.012

• HORTICULTURE • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Metabolites Changes of Cucumber Xylem and Phloem Sap Under Low Phosphorus Stress

LI QingLin(),ZHANG WenTao,XU Hui,SUN JingJing   

  1. College of Agricultural Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu
  • Received:2021-08-13 Accepted:2021-10-13 Online:2022-04-16 Published:2022-05-11
  • Contact: QingLin LI


【Background】 Xylem sap is responsible for the transport of water and nutrients for the aerial part, while phloem sap is mainly responsible for the transport of photosynthetic products. When plants are subjected to abiotic stress, the sap of xylem and phloem undergoes different changes. 【Objective】 The aim of this study was to investigate the content changes of various metabolites in cucumber xylem and phloem sap under low phosphorus stress, and to explore the metabolic changes of cucumber under low phosphorus stress, so as to provide new ideas and basis for the diagnosis of cucumber phosphorus deficiency. 【Method】 The xylem and phloem sap were collected from cucumber plants under normal phosphorus level (1.25 mmol∙L-1) and low phosphorus stress (0.3125 mmol∙L-1). These sap samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS after trimethylsilyl derivatization. 【Result】In xylem sap under low phosphorus stress, there was no significant change in carbohydrates, and the content of most amino acids increased significantly. Among organic acids, the malic acid showed a significant downward trend, while others, such as palmitic acid and oleic acid, were significantly higher than the normal levels. In phloem sap under low phosphorus stress, most carbohydrates and amino acids were lower than the normal level, and the contents of organic acids, such as oxalic acid and succinic acid, were also significantly reduced. Further, in order to screen potential biomarkers in cucumber xylem and phloem sap, the detection data were further analyzed by OPLS-DA and Student's t test. Eight potential biomarkers (VIP>1, P<0.05) under low phosphorus stress were detected in cucumber xylem sap, which were cadaverine, malic acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, palmitic acid, myo-inositol, cellobiose acid, N, N-dimethyldodecamide, and glycerol monostearate. Seven potential biomarkers (VIP>1, P<0.05) under low phosphorus stress were detected in cucumber phloem sap, which were serine, linoleic acid, 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl) nonanoic acid, dehydroabietic acid, N, N-dimethyldodecamide, 2, 2'-methylenebis (6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol), and L-2-piperic acid. 【Conclusion】 Under low phosphorus stress, the carbohydrates, amino acids and organic acids in the xylem and phloem sap of cucumber changed, but the change trends were not the same. Eight and seven biomarkers were screened from xylem and phloem sap, which could provide new ideas and basis for the diagnosis of cucumber phosphorus deficiency. Among the biomarkers, the detection methods of malic acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, palmitic acid, serine and linoleic acid have been relatively mature, and the cucumber phosphorus deficiency diagnosis method based on them was more practical.

Key words: cucumber, xylem, phloem, phosphorus stress, metabolomics, biomarkers

Table 1

Weekly variation of phenotypic parameters of cucumber plants under different phosphorus treatments"

Phosphorus level
株高增长量 Height growth (cm) 茎粗增长量 Diameter growth (mm)
第一周 Week 1 第二周 Week 2 第一周Week 1 第二周 Week 2
100% 28.07±2.56a 31.96±3.50a 0.77±0.09a 0.90±0.07a
25% 25.47±2.02a 22.31±3.87b 0.64±0.19a 0.71±0.12b

Table 2

Cucumber grouping table"

Group alias
Phosphorus ion concentration in nutrient solution (mmol∙L-1)
1 P25X 木质部汁液 Xylem sap 0.3125
2 P25P 韧皮部汁液 Phloem sap 0.3125
3 P100X 木质部汁液 Xylem sap 1.25
4 P100P 韧皮部汁液 Phloem sap 1.25

Fig. 1

The PCA score of xylem (A) and phloem (B) sap"

Fig. 2

Changes of sugars in xylem and phloem sap under low phosphorus stress Different lowercase letters mean significant difference (P<0.05). The same as below"

Fig. 3

Changes of amino acids in xylem and phloem sap under low phosphorus stress"

Fig. 4

Changes of organic acids in xylem and phloem sap under low phosphorus stress"

Fig. 5

OPLS-DA score map of xylem and phloem sap (xylem A, phloem B), S-plot map of xylem and phloem sap (xylem C, phloem D), 200 times permutation test results (xylem E, phloem F)"

Fig. 6

Boxplots of potential biomarkers of xylem sap"

Fig. 7

Boxplots of potential biomarkers of phloem sap"

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