Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (20): 4255-4264.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2021.20.001


The Genetic Contribution of the Important Breeding Parent Chuanmai 44 to Its Derivatives

LUO JiangTao(),ZHENG JianMin,DENG QingYan,LIU PeiXun,PU ZongJun()   

  1. Crop Research Institute of Sichuan Academic of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Wheat Biology and Genetic Improvement on Southwestern China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas, Chengdu 610066
  • Received:2021-02-03 Accepted:2021-04-06 Online:2021-10-16 Published:2021-10-25
  • Contact: ZongJun PU;


【Objective】Common wheat variety Chuanmai 44 has the characteristics of high yield, stable yield and wide adaptability. Ten new varieties have been selected and approved in breeding program using Chuanmai 44 as parent. It indicates Chuanmai 44 is an important breeding parent. To clarify the genetic base of Chuanmai 44 as a vital parent in breeding exercise and identify important genes or QTL within it will be helpful in breeding new elite varieties using Chuanmai 44. 【Method】Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to Chuanmai 44 and its ten derived varieties to identify whether there were wheat-alien translocations, and to analyze the chromosome diversity among them. The 660K SNP array data of Chuanmai 44 and its derived varieties were used to calculate the genetic contribution of Chuanmai 44 to its derived varieties and clarify the high transmission genomic segments. Functional molecular markers within cloned genes and linked molecular markers for yield-related traits were used to identify important genes or QTL in Chuanmai 44 for breeding. 【Result】 Chuanmai 44 did not harbor the 6VS/6AL and 1RS/1BL translocation chromosomes which both frequently existed in wheat varieties in Sichuan. Only two out of its ten derivatives, Changmai 32 and Changmai 34, contained 1RS/1BL translocation, which is inherited from another parent Changmai 19. The existence of 1RS/1BL translocation in the two varieties may explain their weak gluten phenotype. Except wheat-relative translocation, the karyotypes of Chuanmai 44 and its 10 derivative varieties also showed polymorphisms on some chromosomes. For instance, there were two types of chromosome 4A among derivatives, and 80% of them showed the same as Chuanmai 44. Chromosomes 5A, 6B and 7B had 4, 2 and 2 karyotypes, respectively. These three chromosomes in the derivative population of Chuanmai 44 showed the same karyotype with Chuanmai 44 in a frequency of 40%. 660K SNP chip analysis identified 1127 genomic segments with high transmission frequency (>50%) within its derived varieties. These genomic segments located on all 21 chromosomes and their mean length was 1.57 Mb. B genome owned the most number and the largest length of the high transmission frequency segments. Chromosomes 4A, 2B and 5B were the three chromosomes with the longest high transmission frequency segments. Chromosomes 4A, 2B and 3B were the three chromosomes with the most number of high transmission frequency segments. Combing the genotype data of 61 functional markers of cloned wheat gene and 13 SNP markers linked with yield-related QTL and the distribution of Chuanmai 44 high transmission genomic regions, we discovered that there are 9 genes markers and 3 QTL markers are anchored in the high transmission rate section of Chuanmai 44. The twelve markers responding to two favorable alleles and three QTL, including TaSdr, NAM-A1, QTKW.sicau-2AS.1, QTKW.Sicau-4AL, QSL.sicau-5AL.2, which exhibited positive effect on preharvest sprouting resistance, effective tiller number, thousand grain weight and spike length, respectively. 【Conclusion】The length of genomic segments retained within its derived varieties was short. It suggested that Chuanmai 44 as a breeding parent had high genetic combining ability, and its chromosomes were easy to recombine with different homologous chromosomes in resulting hybrids, which is beneficial to reduce linkage drag. Therefore, it plays an important role as a skeleton parent in breeding excercise. TaSdr, NAM-A1, QTKW.sicau-2AS.1, QTKW.Sicau-4AL and QSL.sicau-5AL.2 were the important loci in Chuanmai 44, which should be widely used in further breeding program under molecular marker assisted selecting.

Key words: Chuanmai 44, genetic contribution, beneficial gene, QTL, high transmission rate

Fig. 1

Karyotype of Chuanmai 44 and its 10 derivative varieties The red boxes indicate the 1RS/1BL translocation line; the white boxes indicate the type of chromosome polymorphism"

Fig. 2

Distribution of 1106 high transmission chromosome fragments of Chuanmai 44 The red and green arrows indicated the chromosome position of favorable gene and QTL in Chuanmai 44, respectively"

Table 1

Genomic segments of Chuanmai 44 retained by more than 50% of its derived varieties"

Total length (MB)
Total number
Total length (MB)
Total number
Total length (MB)
Total number
1A 55 41 1B 85 51 1D 48 37
2A 81 63 2B 161 78 2D 97 71
3A 60 33 3B 103 72 3D 48 36
4A 165 100 4B 38 30 4D 33 31
5A 105 53 5B 125 62 5D 70 48
6A 98 55 6B 101 62 6D 53 37
7A 58 37 7B 62 47 7D 88 61
A genome
622 382 B基因组
B genome
675 402 D基因组
D genome
437 321

Table 2

High transmission frequent genes of Chuanmai 44"

Function marker
Physical location
Trait type
Corresponding traits of Chuanmai 44
衍生品种与川麦44分型 相同的频率
The frequency of derivatives has the same type as Chuanmai 44 (%)
Glu-B3 Glu-B3e_SNP 1B 6.44 品质相关
Quality related
Glu-B3e Have Glu-B3e 100.00
Glu-B3g_SNP Glu-B3g Have Glu-B3g 70.00
TaCwi TaCwi 2A 508.03 产量相关
Production related
Low thousand grain weight
GS5 GS5-2334-SNP 2A 729.29 产量相关
Production related
Low thousand grain weight
TaSdr TaSdr-B1 2B 200.57 穗发芽相关
pre-harvest sprouting related
Low pre-harvest sprouting
TaMFT TaMFT_1617R 3A 7.29 穗发芽相关
pre-harvest sprouting related
Pre-harvest sprouting sensitivity
Fhb1 Fhb1-1138 3B 8.54 抗病相关
Disease resistance related
No fusarium head blight resistance
NAM-A1 NAM-6A-SNP1 6A 77.10 品质相关
Quality related
Favorable allele (A1d)
GCP_DUP GCP_DUP 6B 134.66 品质相关
Quality related
Normal protein content
Sus1-7B Sus1-7B-2932IND 7B 68.34 产量相关
Production related
Low thousand grain weight

Table 3

The yield-related QTLs with the same locus and frequency ≥50% in the derived varieties and Chuanmai 44"

QTL name
SNP marker
Physical location
Favorable alleles of Chuanmai 44
Proportion of favorable sites for 8 derivative varieties (%)
QSL.sicau-1AL AX_110408975 1A 590.99 穗长 Spike length T 75.00
QTKW.sicau-1BL.1 AX_109849833
1B 670.68
粒重 Kernel weight T
QTKW.sicau-1BL.2 AX_111471952 1B 681.68 粒重 Kernel weight G 87.50
QTKW.sicau-2AS.1 AX_108781797
2A 2.80
粒重 Kernel weight G
QSL.sicau-2AL AX_110079477 2A 432.59 穗长 Spike length T 100.00
QSL.sicau-4AS AX_109296730 4A 68.16 穗长 Spike length C 75.00
QTKW.sicau-4AL AX_109993853 4A 538.15 粒重 Kernel weight T 62.50
QSL.sicau-5AL.1 AX_109624254
5A 595.71
穗长 Spike length G
QSL.sicau-5AL.2 AX_110521338 5A 621.94 穗长 Spike length T 100.00
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