Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2019, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (12): 2128-2139.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.12.010

• HORTICULTURE • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Evaluation Indexes for Blueberry Quality

ZHANG Jia,NIE JiYun(),ZHANG Hui,LI Jing,LI Ye   

  1. Institute of Pomology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Fruit (Xingcheng), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/Supervision and Test Center of Fruit and Nursery Stock Quality (Xingcheng), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Xingcheng 125100, Liaoning
  • Received:2019-01-29 Accepted:2019-03-30 Online:2019-06-16 Published:2019-06-22
  • Contact: JiYun NIE


【Objective】 The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among the indexes of blueberry quality and to establish their scientific grading standards, so as to provide a theoretical reference for reasonable evaluation of blueberry quality.【Method】Seven indexes (fruit weight, fruit firmness, titratable acidity, total soluble solid, total soluble solid/titratable acidity, fruit shape and vitamin C) of samples were determined, and the relationship among indexes were probed with correlation and regression analysis. Indexes were graded by probability grading, and typical indexes were identified by principal component analysis and systematic cluster analysis. The weight of indicator scores was identified by analytic hierarchy process. 【Result】 The dispersion degree varied greatly among blueberry quality indexes with the variable coefficient of 67.12% (total soluble solid/titratable), 45.46% (titratable acidity), 35.28% (fruit weight), 23.48% (vitamin C), 18.23% (total soluble solid), 18.05% (fruit firmness), and 6.05% (fruit shape). Both titratable acidity and vitamin C distributed normally, with probability values above 0.05. The distribution of fruit weight could be considered as normal with the probability value of 0.0494 (close to 0.05). If some extreme values were removed, other three indexes (fruit shape, fruit firmness, and total soluble solid) also distributed normally. Titratable acidity had a significant negative correlation with total soluble solid/titratable acidity, with correlation coefficient of -0.81742. Total soluble solid/titratable acidity had a significant power function concerning titratable acidity, and the coefficient of determination was 0.9005. From the evaluated seven indexes, four indexes (titratable acidity, total soluble solid, vitamin C and fruit firmness) were screened as evaluation indexes of blueberry quality, which represented sour index, sweet index, nutritional index and texture index respectively. These four indexes could be divided into 5 grades (lower, low, medium, high, and higher) with normal distribution, and the scoring standards of them were also established. By using these four selected indexes, blueberries from different regions were divided into three groups, including superior, medium and inferior. 【Conclusion】Blueberry quality could be evaluated by 4 indexes, including total soluble solid, titratable acidity, vitamin C and fruit firmness. The established scoring standards of four indexes could be effective in evaluation and classification of blueberry quality.

Key words: blueberry, quality evaluation, probability grading, indicator scoring standard

Table 1

The list of samples"

1 密斯蒂 Misty 青岛 Qingdao 南高丛 Southern highbush 47 托柔 Turo 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush
2 蓝丰 Bluecrop 青岛 Qingdao 北高丛 Northern highbush 48 奥尼尔 O'Neal 营口 Yingkou 南高丛 Southern highbush
3 北陆 Northland 青岛 Qingdao 半高丛 Half-high 49 蓝金 Bluegold 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush
4 都克 Duke 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 50 日升 Sunrise 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush
5 蓝天 Bluehaven 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 51 布里吉塔 Brigitta 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush
6 哈迪蓝 Hardyblue 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 52 达柔 Darrow 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush
7 普鲁 Puru 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 53 康维尔 Coville 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush
8 瑞卡 Reka 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 54 早蓝 Earliblue 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush
9 艾玛蓝 Amblue 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 55 北卫 Patriot 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush
10 博吉塔蓝Briteblue 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 56 奴依Nui 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush
11 奥林匹亚 Olimpia 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 57 喜莱 Serria 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush
12 早蓝 Earliblue 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 58 晚蓝 Lateblue 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush
13 蓝丰 Bluecrop 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 59 达柔 Darrow 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush
14 蓝乐 Bluejay 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 60 埃利奥特 Elliott 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush
15 久比力 Jubilee 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 61 蓝丰Bluecrop 丹东 Dandong 北高丛 Northern highbush
16 蓝筹 Bluechip 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 62 都克 Duke 丹东 Dandong 北高丛 Northern highbush
17 博尼法西Bonifacy 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 63 奥林匹亚 Olimpia 丹东 Dandong 北高丛 Northern highbush
18 日升 Sunrise 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 64 钱德勒 Chandler 丹东 Dandong 北高丛 Northern highbush
19 北陆 Northland 威海 Weihai 半高丛Half-high 65 瑞卡 Reka 丹东 Dandong 北高丛 Northern highbush
20 蓝金 Bluegold 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 66 泽西 Jersey 丹东 Dandong 北高丛 Northern highbush
21 奥尼尔 O'Neal 威海 Weihai 南高丛 Southern highbush 67 普鲁 Puru 丹东 Dandong 北高丛 Northern highbush
22 密斯蒂 Misty 威海 Weihai 南高丛 Southern highbush 68 布里吉塔 Brigitta 丹东 Dandong 北高丛 Northern highbush
23 北卫 Patriot 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 69 伯克利 Berkeley 丹东 Dandong 北高丛 Northern highbush
24 双丰 Sweetheart 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 70 达柔 Darrow 丹东 Dandong 北高丛 Northern highbush
25 康维尔 Coville 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 71 赫伯特 Herberd 丹东 Dandong 北高丛 Northern highbush
26 斯巴坦 Spartan 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 72 北村Northcountry 丹东 Dandong 半高丛Half-high
27 蓝塔 Bluetta 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 73 蓝金 Bluegold 大连 Dalian 北高丛 Northern highbush
28 晚蓝 Lateblue 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 74 伯克利 Berkeley 大连 Dalian 北高丛 Northern highbush
29 埃利奥特 Elliott 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 75 北陆 Northland 大连 Dalian 半高丛Half-high
30 泽西 Jersey 威海 Weihai 北高丛 Northern highbush 76 普特 Putte 长春 Changchun 矮丛 Lowbush
31 都克 Duke 连云港 Lianyungang 北高丛 Northern highbush 77 蓝金 Bluegold 长春 Changchun 北高丛 Northern highbush
32 达柔 Darrow 连云港 Lianyungang 北高丛 Northern highbush 78 奥若拉 Aurora 长春 Changchun 北高丛 Northern highbush
33 双丰 Sweetheart 连云港 Lianyungang 北高丛 Northern highbush 79 都克 Duke 长春 Changchun 北高丛 Northern highbush
34 北陆 Northland 连云港 Lianyungang 半高丛Half-high 80 AF4 长春 Changchun 北高丛 Northern highbush
35 奥尼尔 O'Neal 连云港 Lianyungang 南高丛 Southern highbush 81 HL11 长春 Changchun 北高丛 Northern highbush
36 布里吉塔 Brigitta 连云港 Lianyungang 北高丛 Northern highbush 82 伯克利 Berkeley 长春 Changchun 北高丛 Northern highbush
37 蓝丰 Bluecrop 连云港 Lianyungang 北高丛 Northern highbush 83 种植者 Grower 长春 Changchun 北高丛 Northern highbush
38 瑞卡 Reka 连云港 Lianyungang 北高丛 Northern highbush 84 雷戈西 Legacy 长春 Changchun 北高丛 Northern highbush
39 泽西 Jersey 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush 85 AF1 长春 Changchun 北高丛 Northern highbush
40 伯克利 Berkeley 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush 86 蓝丰 Bluecrop 通化 Tonghua 北高丛 Northern highbush
41 齐佩瓦 Chippewa 营口 Yingkou 半高丛Half-high 87 蓝金 Bluegold 通化 Tonghua 北高丛 Northern highbush
42 北陆 Northland 营口 Yingkou 半高丛Half-high 88 北蓝 Northblue 通化 Tonghua 半高丛Half-high
43 斯巴坦 Spartan 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush 89 北陆 Northland 通化 Tonghua 北高丛 Northern highbush
44 黑珍珠 Blackpearl 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush 90 都克 Duke 通化 Tonghua 北高丛 Northern highbush
45 蓝丰 Bluecrop 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush 91 伯克利 Berkeley 通化 Tonghua 北高丛 Northern highbush
46 瑞卡 Reka 营口 Yingkou 北高丛 Northern highbush 92 埃利奥特 Elliott 通化 Tonghua 北高丛 Northern highbush

Table 2

Variation of seven quality indexes"

Standard deviation
CV (%)
单果重Fruit weight (g) 0.68—5.21 1.99 0.70 35.28
果实硬度Fruit firmness (g·mm-1) 73.7—200.1 148.4 26.78 18.05
果形指数Fruit shape 0.65—0.88 0.73 0.04 6.05
维生素C含量Vitamin C (mg/100 g) 6.6—18.9 10.9 2.56 23.48
可溶性固形物含量Total soluble solid (%) 8.3—20 12.4 2.26 18.23
可滴定酸含量Titratable acidity (%) 0.15—1.54 0.7 0.34 45.46
固酸比Total soluble solid/Titratable acidity 6.7—89.5 22.1 14.81 67.12

Fig. 1

Distribution of seven quality indexesA: Fruit weight; B: Fruit firmness; C: Fruit shape; D: Vitamin C; E: Total soluble solid; F: Titratable acidity; G: Total soluble solid/titratable acidity"

Table 3

Correlation coefficients of seven quality indexes"

Fruit weight
Fruit firmness
Fruit shape index
Vitamin C
Total soluble solid
Titratable acidity
果实硬度Fruit firmness 0.0890
果形指数Fruit shape index -0.6044** 0.0443
维生素C含量Vitamin C -0.4590** 0.2394 0.2824
可溶性固形物含量Total soluble solid -0.4100** 0.1609 0.0441 0.4588**
可滴定酸含量Titratable acidity 0.3439 0.0971 -0.4427** -0.3919 -0.1052
固酸比Total soluble solid/titratable acidity -0.3443 -0.0099 0.4210** 0.4784** 0.2846 -0.8174**

Fig. 2

Power functions between total soluble solid/titratable acidity with titratable acidity"

Fig. 3

Cluster results of 92 samples"

Table 4

Principal component analysis of seven quality indexes"

因子权重 Component weight
因子1 Component 1 因子2 Component 2 因子3 Component 3 因子4 Component 4
单果重Fruit weight -0.072 0.583 0.694 -0.264
果实硬度Fruit firmness -0.104 -0.180 -0.024 -0.949
果形指数Fruit shape index 0.325 -0.054 -0.187 -0.081
维生素C含量Vitamin C 0.369 -0.669 -0.872 -0.247
可溶性固形物Total soluble solid 0.080 -0.860 0.173 -0.137
可滴定酸含量Titratable acidity -0.934 0.063 0.186 -0.067
固酸比Total soluble solid/ titratable acidity 0.824 -0.254 -0.075 0.059
贡献率 Variance contribution 28.4% 25.3% 16.5% 15.2%
累积贡献率Percent of variance 28.4% 53.7% 70.2% 85.4%

Table 5

Grading of four quality indexes"

Sample size



果实硬度Fruit firmness 88 标准Standard (g·mm-1) <114.8 114.8—134.7 134.8—162.4 162.5—182.3 >182.3
分布Distribution (%) 8 24 36 18 14
维生素C含量Vitamin C 92 标准Standard (mg/100 g) <7.6 7.6—9.5 9.6—12.2 12.3—14.2 >14.2
分布Distribution (%) 8 28 34 18 12
可溶性固形物含量Total soluble solid 90 标准Standard (%) <9.7 9.7—11.2 11.3—13.3 13.4—14.8 >14.8
分布Distribution (%) 12 19 39 22 8
可滴定酸含量Titratable acidity 92 标准Standard (%) <0.31 0.31—0.57 0.58—0.92 0.93—1.18 >1.18
分布Distribution (%) 11 23 32 26 9

Table 6

Discriminant matrix of quality index"

Fruit firmness
Vitamin C
Total soluble solid
Titratable acidity
Index weight (%)
果实硬度Fruit firmness 1 1/3 1/4 1/4 8.41
维生素C含量Vitamin C 3 1 1 1 29.13
可溶性固形物含量Total soluble solid 4 1 1 1 31.23
可滴定酸含量Titratable acidity 4 1 1 1 31.23

Table 7

Scores of five quality indexes"

Index value
Index value
Index value
Index value
Index value
硬度Fruit firmness (g·mm-1) <114.8 1.68 114.8—134.7 3.36 134.8—162.4 5.05 162.5—182.3 6.73 >182.3 8.41
维生素C Vitamin C (mg·100g-1 ) <7.6 5.83 7.6—9.5 11.65 9.6—12.2 17.48 12.3—14.2 23.30 >14.2 29.13
可溶性固形物Total soluble solid (%) <9.7 6.25 9.7—11.2 12.49 11.3—13.3 18.74 13.4—14.8 24.98 >14.8 31.23
可滴定酸Titratable acidity (%) <0.31 31.23 0.31—0.57 24.98 0.58—0.92 18.74 0.93—1.18 12.49 >1.18 6.25

Table 8

Distribution of blueberry samples"

Fruit firmness (g·mm-1)
Vitamin C (mg/100 g)
Total soluble solid (%)
Titratable acidity (%)
优Superior 28 121.9—196.3 153.7 20.9 9.5—18.9 12.8 2.3 12.3—20.0 14.8 1.8 0.24—1.14 0.69 0.3
中Medium 30 73.7—200.1 145.6 32.1 7.7—15.6 11.4 2.1 8.4—13.9 11.8 1.4 0.15—0.88 0.46 0.2
差Inferior 34 93.4—194.0 146.4 26.1 6.6—12.3 8.9 1.6 8.3—13.8 11.0 1.6 0.60—1.54 1.04 0.2

Table 9

Evaluation grades of 92 samples"

等级 Grade 样品编号 Sample number
优Superior 6、9、10、11、12、13、14、18、23、26、27、30、33、39、40、43、44、46、49、50、52、53、54、55、56、57、58、73
中Medium 1、2、3、4、16、19、21、31、32、34、35、37、38、41、42、45、47、48、51、59、60、62、72、74、79、82、84、88、90、91
差Inferior 5、7、8、15、17、20、22、24、25、28、29、36、61、63、64、65、66、67、68、69、70、71、75、76、77、78、80 、81、83、85、86、87、89、92
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