Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2020, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (11): 2253-2263.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2020.11.011

• HORTICULTURE • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Quality Evaluation of ‘Fuji’ Apples Cultivated in Different Regions of China

KUANG LiXue1,NIE JiYun1,2(),LI YinPing1,CHENG Yang1,SHEN YouMing1   

  1. 1Institute of Pomology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Laboratory of Risk Assessment on Fruit Quality and Safety (Xingcheng), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/Quality Inspection and Test Center for Fruit and Nursery Stocks (Xingcheng), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Xingcheng 125100, Liaoning
    2College of Horticulture, Qingdao Agriculture University/Qingdao Key Lab of Modern Agriculture Quality and Safety Engineering, Qingdao 266109, Shandong
  • Received:2019-11-07 Accepted:2020-02-23 Online:2020-06-01 Published:2020-06-09
  • Contact: JiYun NIE


【Objective】The aim of this study was to determine the key quality indexes of ‘Fuji’ apple and to establish the comprehensive evaluation model for ‘Fuji’ apple quality. 【Method】 One hundred and seventy six ‘Fuji’ apple samples were collected from orchards of 8 main ‘Fuji’ apple producing areas, including Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Ningxia and Xinjiang. Fifteen indexes were tested for each sample, including single fruit weight, fruit firmness with skin, fruit firmness without skin, total soluble solid, soluble sugar, titratable acidity, vitamin C, sorbitol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, sweetness value, the ratio of total soluble solid to titratable acidity (RTT), the ratio of soluble sugar to titratable acidity (RST), and the ratio of sweetness value to titratable acidity. The key quality indexes of ‘Fuji’ apple were identified by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). The index weight of each quality was estimated by analytic hierarchy process. And the comprehensive evaluation model was established by grey interconnect degree analysis (GIDA). 【Result】 There was a quality difference between ‘Fuji’ apples from different areas. The quality of ‘Fiji’ apple from Xinjiang was superior to those from other areas in indexes of fruit firmness, vitamin C, total soluble solid, soluble sugar, sorbitol, fructose, sucrose, and sweetness value. The variable coefficients of ‘Fuji’ apple quality indexes of vitamin C, sorbitol, sucrose, and sweetness value were all over 30%, and that of quality index of soluble sugar was the smallest one with 9.8%. There was significant correlation coefficient (R) between some ‘Fuji’ apple quality indexes, such as the correlation coefficient between titratable acidity and RTT (-0.844) or RST (-0.854), the correlation coefficient between fructose and sweetness value (0.963), and the correlation coefficient between RTT and RST (0.941). Five quality indexes of ‘Fuji’ apple were screened to be key indexes by PCA and CA, including fruit weight (X1), fruit firmness without skin (X2), titratable acidity (X3), RTT (X4) and fructose (X5). The comprehensive evaluation model for ‘Fuji’ apple quality was established by GIDA, which was Y=0.2601X1+0.1378X2+0.0819X3+0.2601X4+0.2601X5. 【Conclusion】 Fruit weight, fruit firmness without skin, titratable acidity, RTT and fructose were the key quality indexes of ‘Fuji’ apple, and the established comprehensive evaluation model was useful and valuable for the quality evaluation of ‘Fuji’ apple produced in main producing area in China.

Key words: ‘Fuji’ apple, main producing area, quality evaluation, key index, comprehensive evaluation model

Table 1

Numbers and geographical origins of apple fruits"

Province (Autonomous region)
Main city or county
Sample number
1 河北 Hebei 辛集市 Xinji city、邢台县 Xingtai county、肥乡县 Feixiang county、抚宁县 Funing county、昌黎县 Changli county、宽城县 Kuancheng county、滦南县 Luanan county、遵化县 Zunhua county 20
2 河南 Henan 灵宝市 Lingbao city、陕县 Shaan county、虞城县 Yucheng county、民权县 Minquan county、商丘市梁园区 Liangyuan district of Shangqiu city、丰县 Feng county 14
3 辽宁 Liaoning 瓦房店市 Wafangdian city、金州 Jinzhou city、绥中县 Suizhong county、兴城市Xingcheng city、建昌县 Jianchang county 8
4 宁夏 Ningxia 中宁县 Zhongning county、吴忠市 Wuzhong city、青铜峡市 Qingtongxia city、灵武市 Lingwu city、中卫县 Zhongwei county、银川市滨河新区 Binhe new district of Yinchuan city、西夏县 Xixia county、兴庆区 Xingqing district 24
5 山东 Shandong 蓬莱市 Penglai city、栖霞市 Qixia city、烟台市 Yantai city、招远市 Zhaoyuan city、沂源县 Yiyuan county、蒙阴县 Mengyin county、沂水县 Yishui county、泰安县 Taian county、胶南市 Jiaonan city、胶州市 Jiaozhou city、海阳市 Haiyang city、文登市 Wendeng city、威海市 Weihai city、牟平县 Muping county 44
6 山西 Shanxi 平陆县 Pinglu county、万荣县 Wanrong county、临猗县 Linyi county、芮城县Ruicheng county、晋中市 Jinzhong city、吉县 Ji county 15
7 陕西 Shaanxi 白水县 Baishui county、澄城县 Chengcheng county、合阳县 Heyang county、蒲城县 Pucheng county、富平县 Fuping county、旬邑县 Xunyi county、长武县 Changwu county、淳化县 Chunhua county、彬县 Bin county、礼泉县 Liquan county、永寿县 Yongshou county、乾县 Qian county、洛川县 Luochuan county 28
8 新疆 Xinjiang 霍城县 Huocheng county、察布查尔锡伯自治县 Qapqal xibe autonomous county、霍尔果斯市 Horgos city、伊宁县 Yining county、新源县 Xinyuan county、温宿县Wensu county、阿克苏市 Aksu city、阿拉尔市 Aral city 23
合计 8 176

Table 2

Quality comparison of ‘Fuji’ apple in different regions"

SW (g)
FF (kg?cm-2)
FFS (kg?cm-2)
(mg/100 g)
TSS (%)
SS (%)
TA (%)
河北 Hebei 245.64a 6.55bc 8.72bc 2.72d 13.66cd 12.13b 0.29ab 0.35b 2.39abc 4.97c 2.97b 13.47cd 49.01ab 43.61ab 48.85bc
河南 Henan 243.55a 6.41c 8.62bc 3.47cd 13.79bcd 11.89b 0.27b 0.40b 2.63a 6.07ab 3.13b 15.75ab 55.48a 47.79a 63.44a
辽宁 Liaoning 234.80a 6.51bc 8.72bc 3.36cd 13.34d 11.42b 0.32a 0.35b 2.08c 4.61c 2.75b 12.41d 45.01b 38.20b 41.75c
宁夏 Ningxia 244.13a 7.10ab 8.75bc 4.96b 14.67ab 12.01b 0.32a 0.57a 1.61d 5.41bc 3.48b 14.30bcd 46.61b 38.14b 45.37c
山东 Shandong 254.93a 6.81abc 9.01ab 3.88bc 13.73bcd 11.71b 0.28ab 0.37b 2.55ab 5.26bc 2.90b 14.04bcd 50.50ab 43.10ab 52.09abc
山西 Shanxi 245.29a 6.86abc 8.32c 3.81cd 14.40bc 12.05b 0.28ab 0.39b 2.13bc 5.09c 3.05b 13.60bcd 51.89ab 43.46ab 49.41bc
陕西 Shaanxi 240.42a 7.29a 9.27ab 4.48bc 14.40bc 12.05b 0.32a 0.39b 2.47abc 5.91ab 3.21b 15.42abc 47.86ab 40.17b 52.13abc
新疆 Xinjiang 227.90a 7.37a 9.63a 6.37a 15.52a 12.90a 0.30ab 0.69a 2.27abc 6.43a 4.31a 17.44a 52.23ab 43.47ab 58.56ab

Table 3

Traits and distributions of substandard apples"

指标 Index 均值 Average 变幅 Range 标准差 Standard deviation 变异系数 CV (%)
单果重 SW (g) 243.9 133.2—388.1 39.0 16.0
去皮硬度 FF (kg?cm-2) 6.93 4.69—10.58 0.85 12.3
带皮硬度 FFS (kg?cm-2) 8.96 6.13—13.05 0.95 10.6
维生素C Vc (mg/100 g) 4.25 0.82—10.88 1.83 43.1
可溶性固形物 TSS (%) 14.23 8.90—18.4 1.45 10.2
可溶性糖 SS (%) 12.04 8.65—15.41 1.18 9.8
可滴定酸 TA (%) 0.30 0.15—0.56 0.06 20.0
山梨醇 Sor (%) 0.44 0.05—1.39 0.23 52.3
葡萄糖 Glu (%) 2.30 0.62—4.39 0.67 29.1
果糖 Fru (%) 5.52 1.04—8.62 1.21 21.9
蔗糖 Sucr (%) 3.24 0.28—6.57 1.06 32.7
固酸比 RTT 49.87 28.04—90.67 10.79 21.6
糖酸比 RST 42.24 23.93—75.27 9.42 22.3
甜度 Sv 14.70 2.55—22.91 3.14 21.4
甜酸比 Sv/Av 51.86 8.80—115.70 16.27 31.4

Table 4

Correlation matrix of 15 substandard apple quality indicators"

单果重SW -0.282** -0.284** -0.173* -0.156* -0.146 -0.150* 0.058 0.029 -0.080 0.008 0.055 0.070 -0.045 0.055
去皮硬度FF 0.688** 0.390** 0.485** 0.390** 0.439** 0.143 -0.062 0.079 0.058 -0.226** -0.264** 0.068 -0.263**
带皮硬度FFS 0.437** 0.450** 0.419** 0.278** 0.185* 0.155* 0.162* 0.106 -0.064 -0.081 0.174* -0.056
维生素C Vc 0.600** 0.447** 0.257** 0.502** 0.002 0.301** 0.397** 0.008 -0.074 0.352** 0.053
可溶性固形物TSS 0.735** 0.324** 0.499** -0.020 0.239** 0.342** 0.140 0.000 0.289** -0.030
可溶性糖SS 0.263** 0.455** 0.095 0.242** 0.272** 0.080 0.184* 0.283** 0.014
可滴定酸TA 0.171* -0.219** -0.035 0.174* -0.844** -0.854** 0.007 -0.684**
山梨醇Sor 0.152* 0.457** 0.553** 0.029 0.003 0.547** 0.239**
葡萄糖Glu 0.626** 0.057 0.217** 0.264** 0.597** 0.594**
果糖Fru 0.531** 0.153* 0.147 0.963** 0.676**
蔗糖Sucr -0.009 -0.047 0.722** 0.351**
固酸比RTT 0.941** 0.134 0.742**
糖酸比RST 0.123 0.741**
甜度Sv 0.672**

Table 5

Principal component analysis of 15 indicators"

指标 Index PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5
单果重 SW -0.122 -0.257 -0.256 0.499 0.718
去皮硬度 FF 0.266 0.649 0.357 -0.326 0.126
带皮硬度 FFS 0.410 0.479 0.394 -0.417 0.178
维生素C Vc 0.589 0.429 0.188 0.185 -0.138
可溶性固形物 TSS 0.602 0.470 0.403 0.258 0.060
可溶性糖 SS 0.583 0.366 0.406 0.185 0.181
可滴定酸 TA -0.045 0.915 -0.290 -0.012 0.057
山梨醇 Sor 0.683 0.217 -0.144 0.410 0.047
葡萄糖 Glu 0.513 -0.348 -0.247 -0.517 0.380
果糖 Fru 0.824 -0.136 -0.401 -0.235 -0.011
蔗糖 Sucr 0.658 0.141 -0.379 0.335 -0.290
固酸比 RTT 0.346 -0.746 0.520 0.118 -0.057
糖酸比 RST 0.318 -0.780 0.500 0.078 0.008
甜度值 Sv 0.876 -0.090 -0.440 -0.112 -0.047
甜酸比 Sv/Av 0.645 -0.734 -0.059 -0.098 -0.069
特征值 Characteristic value 4.547 4.011 1.898 1.309 0.862
方差贡献率 Variance contribution rate (%) 30.315 26.742 12.653 8.729 5.750
累积方差贡献率Cumulative variance contribution rate (%) 30.315 57.057 69.710 78.439 84.189

Fig. 1

Dendrogram of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) "

Table 6

Calibration of judgment matrix"

标度 Scale 定义Definition 说明Explain
1 同等重要Equally important 两元素具有同样重要性Both elements are equally important
3 稍微重要Weakly important 一个元素比另一个元素稍微重要One element is slightly more important than the other
5 明显重要Obviously important 一个元素比另一个元素明显重要One element is significantly more important than the other
7 重要的多More important 一个元素占主导地位One element dominates
9 绝对重要Absolutely important 一个元素的主导地位占绝对重要地位One element is absolutely dominant
2,4,6,8 介于上述相邻判断之间Somewhere in between 介于上述重要性之间Somewhere in between

Table 7

Judgment matrix and index weights"

指标 Index 可滴定酸 TA 去皮硬度 FF 单果重 SW 固酸比 RTT 果糖 Fru 权重值 Weight
可滴定酸 TA 1 2 3 1 1 0.2601
去皮硬度 FF 0.5 1 2 0.5 0.5 0.1378
单果重 SW 0.333 0.5 1 0.333 0.333 0.0819
固酸比 RTT 1 2 3 1 1 0.2601
果糖 Fru 1 2 3 1 1 0.2601

Table 8

The mean observation values of the main traits of tested apples and the ideal apples"

产地 Origin 可滴定酸 TA (%) 去皮硬度 FF (kg?cm-2) 单果重 SW (g) 固酸比 RTT 果糖 Fru (%)
X0 0.50 7.37 270.00 55.00 6.43
河北 Hebei 0.29 6.55 245.64 49.01 4.97
河南 Henan 0.27 6.41 243.55 55.48 6.07
辽宁 Liaoning 0.32 6.51 234.80 45.01 4.61
宁夏 Ningxia 0.32 7.10 244.13 46.61 5.41
山东 Shandong 0.28 6.81 254.93 50.50 5.26
山西 Shanxi 0.28 6.86 245.29 51.89 5.09
陕西 Shaanxi 0.32 7.29 240.42 47.86 5.91
新疆 Xinjiang 0.30 7.37 227.90 52.23 6.43

Table 9

The ranking of apple comprehensive test stations "

Weighted correlation degree
新疆 Xinjiang 0.7550 1
河南 Henan 0.6919 2
陕西 Shaanxi 0.6471 3
山西 Shanxi 0.5990 4
山东 Shandong 0.5958 5
宁夏 Ningxia 0.5884 6
河北 Hebei 0.5511 7
辽宁 Liaoning 0.5070 8
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