Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2018, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (10): 1815-1829.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.10.001


TaDRO, A Gene Associated with Wheat Root Architectures, Its Global Distribution and Evolution in Breeding

WeiJun ZHANG1,2(), Tian LI1, Lin QIN1, Jing ZHAO1, JunJie ZHAO1, Hong LIU1, Jian HOU1, ChenYang HAO1, DongSheng CHEN2, YiQin WEI2, RuiLian JIN1, XueYong ZHANG1()   

  1. 1Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081
    2Institute of Crop Sciences, Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Yongning 750105, Ningxia
  • Received:2017-10-16 Accepted:2017-11-30 Online:2018-05-16 Published:2018-05-16


【Objective】 Root improvement is one of the key factors to improve stress resistance and yield of wheat. Root architecture related genes, homoeologous TaDRO, are cloned from cultivars with different root phenotypes. Molecular markers are developed to detect its relationship with important agronomic traits of wheat. which could provide technical support for wheat improvement. 【Method】 Polymorphic sites of TaDRO-A, -B and -D were detected in 21 common wheat accessions with high diversity. Physical locations of three homoeologues were determined based on the newest genome sequence of Chinese Spring. Molecular markers were developed according to the polymorphic sites at TaDRO-5A and -5B. Association analysis between genotypes and phenotypic traits were carried out in a natural population of 323 accessions. 【Result】 The three homoeologous genes of TaDRO-A, -B and -D were cloned. TaDRO-A, -B and -D were located on chromosomes 5A (426.15 Mb), 5B (381.00 Mb) and 5D (327.60 Mb), respectively. Three SNPs were detected at TaDRO-A among 21 accessions and two haplotypes were formed, Hap-5A-A and Hap-5A-C. A molecular marker, TaDRO-5A-KASP, was developed based on the SNP located at position of -2271 bp in the promoter region. Thirteen SNPs and one InDel in the promoter region, four SNPs in the coding region were detected at TaDRO-5B, formed two haplotypes, Hap-5B-Ⅰ and Hap-5B-Ⅱ. The marker TaDRO-5B-InDel was developed based on the Indel at position of -300 bp. Association analysis showed that haplotypes of TaDRO-5A were significantly correlated with plant height (PH), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and root growth angle (RGA). The genetic effects on Hap-5A-A showed RGA and TKW increasing, and root depth and PH decreasing, while those on Hap-5A-C exhibited the opposite effect. The effects of Hap-5B-Ⅰ exhibited root depth and PH increasing, and TKW decreasing, while those of Hap-5B-Ⅱ were the opposite. Hap-5A-C and Hap-5B-Ⅰ were favored haplotypes in landraces while they were non-favored ones in modern cultivars. The frequencies of Hap-5A-C and Hap-5B-Ⅰ in arid and semi-arid areas were higher than those in wet areas in China. Hap-5A-C was favored haplotype in dry regions worldwide. Frequencies of Hap-5A-A and Hap-5B-Ⅱ were increasing in breeding process, respectively.【Conclusion】 Hap-5A-C and Hap-5B-Ⅰ are associated with deeper root, higher PH and lower TKW, whereas Hap-5A-A and Hap-5B-Ⅱ behave the opposite. Wheat cultivars showed root depth and plant height decreasing in breeding process due to development of irrigation system and nitrogen industries. The developed molecular markers might be used to select the ideotypes of cultivars for higher efficiency use of water and nitrogen.

Key words: wheat, root architecture, TaDRO, haplotype, association analysis


Physical mapping of TaDRO-5A and -5B on group 5 chromosomes in wheat"

Fig. 2

Dynamic expression of TaDRO in multi-tissue at different development stages"

Fig. 3

Gene structures and development of functional markers of TaDRO-5A and -5B"

Table 1

Association analysis between haplotypes at TaDRO-5A and TaDRO-5B with agronomic traits in wheat"

2015 顺义
水WW ns ns 0.0017**
旱DS ns 0.0431* ns
水热HE 0.0310* 0.0252* 0.0011**
旱热DE 0.0165* 0.0209* 0.0223*
2016 昌平
水WW 0.0223* ns 0.0364*
旱DS ns ns 0.0017**
水WW 0.0160* 0.0342* 0.0133*
旱DS 0.0148* 0.0198* 0.0327*
水热HE 0.0108* ns 0.0095**
旱热DE 0.0243* ns 0.0122*
2016 实验室 Lab 0.04984* ns

Table 2

Association analysis between TaDRO-5A and TaDRO-5B haplotypes RL, PH, TKW and RGA in wheat"

Hap-5A-A Hap-5A-C Hap-5B-Ⅰ Hap-5B-Ⅱ
根长RL 391.07±111.56 403.21±95.13 410.91±98.80a 383.97±112.15b
株高PH 116.85±23.22B 126.30±18.53A 130.20±13.34A 111.69±24.64B
千粒重TKW 41.50±7.49A 36.77±7.66B 35.99±6.58B 43.32±7.56A
根夹角RGA 112.87±1.39a 102.61±4.66b 112.10±3.64 111.73±1.46

Fig. 4

Association analysis of haplotype effects of TaDRO-5A and TaDRO-5B for root architecture"

Fig. 5

TaDRO-5A, TaDRO-5B haplotype distribution of landraces (a,c) and modern varieties (b,d) in ten Chinese wheat ecology regions"

Fig. 6

Haplotype frequencies of TaDRO-5A and TaDRO-5B with the variation tendency in different periods in China wheat"

Fig. 7

Geographic distribution of haplotypes at TaDRO-5A (a) and TaDRO-5B (b) in six major wheat production regions worldwide"

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