Quantification of currently attainable yield and fertilizer requirements can provide detailed information for assessing the food supply capacity and offer data support for agricultural decision-making. Datasets from a total of 5 408 field experiments were collected from 2000 to 2015 across the major wheat production regions in China to analyze the spatial distribution of wheat yield, the soil nutrient supply capacity (represented by relative yield, defined as the ratio of the yield under the omission of one of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) to the yield under the full NPK fertilizer application), and N, P and K fertilizer requirements by combining the kriging interpolation method with the Nutrient Expert Decision Support System for Wheat. The results indicated that the average attainable yield was 6.4 t ha−1, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 24.9% across all sites. The yields in North-central China (NCC) and the northern part of the Middle and Lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) were generally higher than 7 t ha−1, whereas the yields in Southwest China (SWC), Northeast China (NEC), and the eastern part of Northwest China (NWC) were usually less than 6 t ha−1. The precentage of area having a relative yield above 0.70, 0.85, and 0.85 for N, P, and K fertilizers accounted for 52.3, 74.7, and 95.9%, respectively. Variation existed in N, P, and K fertilizer requirements, with a CV of 24.8, 23.9, and 29.9%, respectively, across all sites. More fertilizer was needed in NCC and the northern part of the MLYR than in other regions. The average fertilizer requirement was 162, 72, and 57 kg ha−1 for N, P2O5, and K2O fertilizers, respectively, across all sites. The incorporation of the spatial variation of attainable yield and fertilizer requirements into wheat production practices would benefit sustainable wheat production and environmental safety.