Bengough A G, McKenzie B M, Hallett P D, Valentine T A. 2011. Root elongation, water stress, and mechanical impedance: A review of limiting stresses and beneficial root tip traits. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62, 59–68.
Benjamin J G, Nielsen D C. 2006. Water deficit effects on root distribution of soybean, field pea and chickpea. Field Crops Research, 97, 248–253.
Bouma T, Bryla D R. 2000. On the assessment of root and soil respiration for soils of different textures: Interactions with soil moisture contents and soil CO2 concentrations. Plant and Soil, 227, 215–221.
Bruno O M, Oliveria-Plotze R, Falvo M, Castro M. 2008. Fractal dimension applied to plant identification. Information Science, 178, 2722–2733.
Burrough P A. 1981. Fractal dimensions of landscapes and other environmental data. Nature, 294, 240–242.
Cai G, Vanderborght J, Covreur V, Mboh C M, Vereecken H. 2017. Parameterization of root water uptake models considering dynamic root distributions and water uptake compensation. Vadose Zone Journal, 17, 1–21.
Candogan B N, Sincik M, Buyukcangaz H, Demirtas C, Goksoy A T, Yazgan S. 2013. Yield, quality and crop water stress index relationships for deficit-irrigated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in sub-humid climatic conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 118, 113–121.
Chandra M, Rani M. 2009. Categorization of fractal plants. Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 41, 1442–1447.
Chun H C, Gimenez D, Yoon S W. 2008. Morphology, lacunarity and entropy of intra-aggregate pores: Aggregate size and soil management effects. Geoderma, 146, 83–93.
Chun H C, Jung K Y, Choi Y D, Lee S H, Kang H W. 2016. The growth and yield changes of foxtail millet (Setaria italic L.), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.), and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) as affected by excessive soil-water. Korean Journal of Agricultural Science, 43, 547–559. (in Korean)
Chun H C, Jung K Y, Choi Y D, Lee S H, Kang H W. 2018. Growth and yield characterization of soybean (Glycine max L.) and adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) cultivated from paddy fields with different topographic features. Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, 51, 536–546. (in Korean)
Davies W J, Wilkinson S, Loveys B. 2002. Stomatal control by chemical signaling and the exploitation of this mechanism to increase water use efficiency in agriculture. New Phytologist, 153, 449–460.
Dornbos D L, Mullen R E, Shibles R E. 1989. Drought stress effects during seed fill on soybean seed germination and vigor. Crop Science, 29, 476–480.
Earl H J. 2002. Stomatal and non-stomatal restrictions to carbon assimilation in soybean (Glycine max) lines differing in water use efficiency. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 48, 237–246.
Eghball B, Settimi J R, Maranville J W, Parkhust A M. 1993. Fractal analysis for morphological description of corn roots under nitrogen stress. Agronomy Journal, 85, 287–289.
Fitter A. 2002. Characteristics and functions of root systems. In: Waisel Y, Eshel A, Katfkafi U, eds., Plants Roots; the Hidden Half. Marcel Dekker Pub., New York. pp. 15–32.
Fitter A H, Stickland T R. 1992. Fractal characterization of root system architecture. Functional Ecology, 6, 632–635.
Franco J A, Bañón S, Vicente M J, Miralles J, Martínez-Sánchez J J. 2011. Root development in horticultural plants grown under abiotic stress conditions - A review. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, 86, 543–556.
Frederick J R, Camp C R, Bauer P J. 2001. Drought-stress effects on branch and mainstem seed yield and yield components of determinate soybean. Crop Science, 41, 759–763.
Frensch J, Hsiao T C. 1995. Rapid response of the yield threshold and turgor regulation during adjustment of root growth to water stress in Zea mays. Plant Physiology, 108, 303–312.
Fukai S, Cooper M. 1995. Development of drought-resistant cultivars using physio-morphological traits in rice. Field Crops Research, 40, 67–86.
Gimenez D, Karmon J L, Posadas A, Shaw R K. 2002. Fractal dimensions of mass estimated from intact and eroded soil aggregates. Soil and Tillage Research, 64, 165–172.
Gimenez D, Perfect E, Rawls W J, Pachepsky Y. 1997. Fractal models for predicting soil hydraulic properties: A review. Engineering Geology, 48, 161–183.
Gollan T, Passioura J B, Munns R. 1986. Soil water status affects the stomal conductuance of fully turgid wheat and sunflower leaves. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 13, 459–464.
Guo R, Hao W P, Gong D Z, Zhong X L, Gu F X. 2013. Effects of water stress on germination and growth of wheat, photosynthetic efficiency and accumulation of metabolites. In: Soriano M C H, ed., Soil Processes and Current Trends in Quality Assessment. IntechOpen. pp. 367–380.
Hati K M, Mandal K G, Misra A K, Ghosh K, Bandyopadhyay K K. 2006. Effect of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure on soil physical properties, root distribution, and water-use efficiency of soybean in vertisols of central India. Bioresource Technology, 97, 2182–2188.
Hauck A, Novais J, Grift T E, Bohn M O. 2015. Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids. SpringerPlus, 4, 424–445.
He J, Du Y L, Wang T, Tumer N C, Yang R P, Jin Y, Xi Y, Zhang C, Cui T, Fang X W, Li F M. 2017. Conserved water use improves the yield performance of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) under drought. Agricultural Water Management, 179, 236–245.
Hoogenboom G, Huck M G, Peterson C M. 1987. Root growth rate of soybean as affected by drought stress. Agronomy Journal, 79, 607–614.
Hsiao T C, Xu L K. 2000. Sensitivity of growth of roots versus leaves to water stress: Biophysical analysis and relation to water transport. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51, 1595–1616.
Huang B, Duncan R R, Carrow R N. 1997. Drought-resistance mechanism of seven warm-season turfgrasses under surface soil drying: 1. Shoot response. Crop Science, 37, 1858–1863.
Kashiwagi J, Krishnamurthy L, Crouch J H, Serraj R. 2006. Variability of root length density and its contributions to seed yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under terminal drought stress. Field Crops Research, 95, 171–181.
Kim J G, Kim S K, Lee J S. 1988. Fatty acid composition and electrophoretic patterns of protein of Korean soybeans. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 20, 263–271. (in Korean)
Klinkenberg B. 1994. A review of methods used to determine the fractal dimension of linear features. Mathematical Geology, 26, 26–46.
KSIS (Korean Statistical Information Service). 2019. Crop production survey - Statistical information report. Statistics Korea. [2020-02-01]. https://meta.narastat.kr/metasvc/index.do?confmNo=141002&inputYear=2019
Lal R. 1978. Influence of within-and between-row mulching on soil temperature, soil moisture, root development and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in a tropic soil. Field Crops Research, 1, 127–139.
Li K Y, Jong R D, Coe M T, Ramankutty N. 2006. Root-water-uptake based upon a new water stress reduction and an asymptotic root distribution function. Earth Interactions, 10, 1–22.
Mackay A D, Barber S A. 1985. Soil moisture effects on root growth and phosphorus uptake by corn. Agronomy Journal, 77, 519–523.
Monti A, Zatta A. 2009. Root distribution and soil moisture retrieval in perennial and annual energy crops in Northern Italy. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 132, 252–259.
Nielsen K L, Lynch J P, Weiss H N. 1997. Fractal geometry of bean root systems: Correlations between spatial and fractal dimension. American Journal of Botany, 84, 26–33.
Osonubi O. 1985. Responses of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to progressive soil drought. Oecologia, 66, 554–557.
Padilla F M, Pugnaire F I. 2007. Rooting deth and soil moisture control Mediterranean woody seedling survival during drought. Functional Ecology, 21, 489–495.
Park J Y, Yoo J Y, Lee M, Kim T W. 2012. Assessment of drought risk in Korea; Focused on data-based drought risk map. Korean Society of Civil Engineering, 32, 203–211. (in Korean)
Pierce S M, Koontz B, Pezeshki S R, Kroger R. 2012. Response of Salix nigra [Marsh.] cutting to horizontal asymmetry in soil saturation. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 87, 137–147.
Plotnick R E, Gardner R H, Hargrove W W, Prestegaard K, Perlmutter M. 1996. Lacunarity analysis: A general technique for the analysis of spatial patterns. Physical Review E, 53, 5461–5475.
Pozdnyakova L, Gimenez D, Oudemans P V. 2005. Spatial analysis of cranberry yield at three scales. Agronomy Journal, 97, 49–57.
Price A H, Steele K A, Gorham J, Bridges J M, Moore B J, Evans J L, Richardson P, Jones R G W. 2002. Upland rice grown in soil-filled chambers and exposed to contrasting water-deficit regimes: ?. Root distribution, water use and plant water status. Field Crops Research, 76, 11–24.
Pritchard J, Jones R G, Tomos A D. 1990. Measurement of yield threshold and cell wall extensibility of intact wheat roots under different ionic, osmotic and temperature treatments. Journal of Experimental Botany, 41, 669–1049.
RDA (Rural Development Administration). 2018a. Good Practice of Agricultural Technology; Soybean. Rural Development Administration, Jeonju, Korea. (in Korean)
RDA (Rural Development Administration). 2018b. Good Practice of Agricultural Technology; Adzuki Bean. Rural Development Administration, Jeonju, Korea. (in Korean)
Sadeghian S Y, Yavari N. 2004. Effect of water-deficit stress on germination and early seedling growth in sugar beet. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 190, 138–144.
Schachtman D P, Goodger J Q. 2008. Chemical root to shoot signaling under drought. Trends in Plant Science, 13, 281–287.
Sharon-Rubini P K, Bharathi S J, Latha B, Seethalakshmy A. 2018. Estimation of fractal dimension in the analysis of single abnormal gene structure. Taga Journal, 14, 775–781.
Sinclair T R. 1986. Water and nitrogen limitations in soybean grain production ?. Model development. Field Crops Research, 15, 125–141.
Smith T G, Lange G D, Marks W B. 1996. Fractal methods and results in cellular morphology - dimensions, lacunarity and multifractals. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 69, 123–136.
Tanaka N, Kato M, Tomioka R, Kurata R, Fukao Y, Aoyama T. 2014. Characteristics of a root hair-less line of Arabidopsis thaliana under physiological stresses. Journal of Experimental Botany, 65, 1497–1512.
Tarquis A M, Gimenez D, Saa A, Diaz M C, Gasco J M. 2003. Scaling methods in soil physics. In: Pachepsky Y, Radcliffw D E, Selim H M, eds., Scaling and Multiscaling of Soil Pore Systems Determined. CRC Press, New York.
Tatsumi J, Yamauchi A, Kono Y. 1989. Fractal analysis of plant root systems. Annals of Botany, 64, 499–503.
Thu N B A, Nguyen Q T, Hoang X L T, Thao N P, Tran L S P. 2014. Evaluation of drought tolerance of the Vietnamese soybean cultivars provides potential resources for soybean production and genetic engineering. Biomed Research International, 2014, 809736.
Turk K J, Hall A E, Asbell C W. 1980. Drought adaptation of cowpea. 1. Influence of drought on seed yield. Agronomy Journal, 72, 413–420.
Wang H, Siopongco J, Wade L, Yamauchi A. 2009. Fractal analysis on root systems of rice plants in response to drought stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 65, 338–344.
Wang J, Zhang M, Bai Z, Guo L. 2015. Multi-fractal characteristics of the particle distribution of reconstructed soils and the relationship between soil properties and multi-fractal parameters in an opencast coal-mine dump in a loess area. Environmental Earth Sciences, 73, 4749–4762.
Walk T C, Erp E V, Lynch J P. 2004. Modelling applicability of fractal analysis to efficiency of soil exploration by roots. Annals of Botany, 94, 119–128.
Whalley W R, Bengough A G, Dexter A R. 1998. Water stress induced by PEG decreases the maximum growth pressure of the roots of pea seedlings. Journal of Experimental Botany, 49, 1689–1694.
White J W, Castillo J A, Ehleringer J R. 1990. Associations between productivity, root growth and carbon isotope discrimination in Phaseolus vulgaris under water deficit. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 17, 189–198.
Yamauchi Y, Pardales Jr J R, Kono Y. 1996. Root system structure and its relation to stress tolerance. In: Nakatani M, Komaki K, eds., Potential of Root Crops for Food and Industrial Resources. Tsukuba, Japan. pp. 136–138.
Zeng Y, Gantzer C J, Payton R L, Anderson S H. 1996. Fractal dimension and lacunarity of bulk density determined with X-ray computed tomography. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 60, 1718–1724.
Zhang J, Davies W J. 1989. Abscisic acid produced in dehydrating roots may enable the plant to measure the water status of the soil. Plant, Cell & Environment, 12, 73–81.
Zhang J, Wang J, Chen J, Song H, Li S, Zhao Y, Tao J, Liu J. 2019. Soil moisture determines horizontal and vertical root extension in the perennial grass Lolium perenne L. growing in karst soil. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10, 629.
Zuo R, Agterberg F P, Cheng Q, Yao L. 2009. Fractal characterization of the spatial distribution of geological point processes. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation, 11, 394–402.