Triticum aestivum L. cv. Guizi 1 (GZ1) is a drought-tolerant local purple wheat cultivar. It is not clear how purple wheat resists drought stress, but it could be related to anthocyanin biosynthesis. In this study, transcriptome data from drought-treated samples and controls were compared. Drought slightly reduced the anthocyanin, protein and starch contents of GZ1 grains and significantly reduced the grain weight. Under drought stress, 16 682 transcripts were reduced, 27 766 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and 379 DEGs, including DREBs, were related to defense response. The defense-response genes included response to water deprivation, reactive oxygen, bacteria, fungi, etc. Most of the structural and regulatory genes in anthocyanin biosynthesis were downregulated, with only TaDFR, TaOMT, Ta5,3GT, and TaMYB-4B1 being upregulated. TaCHS, TaF3H, TaCHI, Ta4CL, and TaF3’H are involved in responses to UV, hormones, and stimulus. TaCHS-2D1, TaDFR-2D2, TaDFR-7D, TaOMT-5A, Ta5,3GT-1B1, Ta5,3GT-3A, and Ta5,3GT-7B1 connect anthocyanin biosynthesis with other pathways, and their interacting proteins are involved in primary metabolism, genetic regulation, growth and development, and defense responses. There is further speculation about the defense-responsive network in purple wheat. The results indicated that biotic and abiotic stress-responsive genes were stimulated to resist drought stress in purple wheat GZ1, and anthocyanin biosynthesis also participated in the drought defense response through several structural genes.