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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2020, Vol. 19 Issue (1): 173-182    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62738-3
Special Issue: 杂草合辑Weed
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Herbicidal activity of Aureobasidium pullulans PA-2 on weeds and optimization of its solid-state fermentation conditions
GUO Qing-yun1, 2, 3*, CHENG Liang1, 2, 3*, ZHU Hai-xia1, 2, 3, LI Wei1, 2, 3, WEI You-hai1, 2, 3, CHEN Hong-yu1, 2, 3, GUO Liang-zhi1, 2, 3, WENG Hua1, 2, 3, WANG Jian1, 4  
1 Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, P.R.China
2 Key Laboratory of Agricultural Integrated Pest Management in Qinghai Province, Xining 810016, P.R.China
3 Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pests in Xining, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Xining 810016, P.R.China
4 State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology and Agriculture, Qinghai University, Xining 810016, P.R.China
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Fungal strain PA-2 was isolated from infected poplar leaves from the Ping’an District, Haidong City of Qinghai Province, China.  Based on the culture characteristics and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of its 16S rDNA, the strain was identified as Aureobasidium pullulans.  The culture and metabolites of strain PA-2 showed high herbicidal potential to five tested weeds Galium aparine var. tenerum, Chenopodium album, Malva crispa, Polygonum lapathifolium and Avena fatua.  For the in vitro test, 5 days after the detached leaves were inoculated with PA-2 culture, all leaves infected by the hyphae and became black and rotten.  For the in vivo test, a metabolite filtrate of PA-2 culture was sprayed over the living weed plants, and five days after inoculation, the weed plants became withered and necrotic.  Seven days after inoculation, the fresh weight reductions of G. aparine var. tenerum, C. album, M. crispa, P.?lapathifolium and A.?fatua were 87.25, 78.46, 82.25, 62.11, and 80.27%, respectively.  Galium aparine var. tenerum and M. crispa exhibited significant reductions in fresh weight.  The bio-safety test on the five crops showed no significant plant height reductions, which was also observed for wheat (Triticum aestivum), faba bean (Vicia faba), and barley (Hordeum vulgare).  By contrast, oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and pea (Pisum sativum) exhibited light spots but no significant reductions in plant height.  These results indicated that A.?pullulans could be a potential microbial herbicide for the control of the target weeds in crops.  Optimization of the carbon and nitrogen sources for cultural media and substances for solid-state fermentation indicated that PA-2 had better colony growth and spore production with the optimal carbon source of glucose (C4), nitrogen source of soybean flour (N2), and the optimal substance was wheat bran.  The results in this study provide useful information for the development of A.?pulluans PA-2 as an herbicide for bio-control of the weed.
Keywords:  A.?pullulans        weeds        biological control        crop safety        optimum media condition  
Received: 09 October 2018   Accepted:
Fund: The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31760539) and the Natural Science Foundation of Qinghai Province, China (2018-ZJ-917).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence WANG Jian, E-mail:    
About author:  GUO Qing-yun, E-mail:; CHENG Liang, E-mail:;* These authors contributed equally to this study.

Cite this article: 

GUO Qing-yun, CHENG Liang, ZHU Hai-xia, LI Wei, WEI You-hai, CHEN Hong-yu, GUO Liang-zhi, WENG Hua, WANG Jian . 2020. Herbicidal activity of Aureobasidium pullulans PA-2 on weeds and optimization of its solid-state fermentation conditions. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(1): 173-182.

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