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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2020, Vol. 19 Issue (1): 62-77    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62632-8
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Effects of uniconazole with or without micronutrient on the lignin biosynthesis, lodging resistance, and winter wheat production in semiarid regions
Irshad AHMAD1, 2*, MENG Xiang-ping1, 2*, Muhammad KAMRAN1, 2, Shahzad ALI1, 2, Shakeel AHMAD1, 2, LIU Tie-ning1, 2, CAI Tie1, 2, HAN Qing-fang1, 2   
1 Key Laboratory of Crop Physio-Ecology and Tillage Science in North-Western Loess Plateau, Ministry of Agriculture/College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, P.R.China
2 Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education/Institute of Water Saving Agriculture in Arid Areas of China, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, P.R.China
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Abstract  
Lodging stress results in grain yield and quality reduction in wheat.  Uniconazole, a potential plant growth regulator significantly enhances lignin biosynthesis and thus provides mechanical strength to plants in order to cope with lodging stress.  A field study was conducted during the 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 growing seasons, to investigate the effects of uniconazole sole application or with micronutrient on the lignin biosynthesis, lodging resistance, and production of winter wheat.  In the first experiment, uniconazole at concentrations of 0 (CK), 15 (US1), 30 (US2), and 45 (US3) mg L–1 was applied as sole seed soaking, while in the second experiment with manganese (Mn) at concentration of 0.06 g L–1 Mn, 0.06 g L–1 Mn+15 mg L–1 uniconazole (UMS1), 0.06 g L–1 Mn+30 mg L–1 uniconazole (UMS2), and 0.06 g L–1 Mn+45 mg L–1 uniconazole (UMS3), respectively.  Uniconazole sole application or with micronutrient significantly increased the lignin content by improving the lignin-related enzyme activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, tyrosine ammonia-lyase, and peroxidase, ameliorating basal internode characteristics, and breaking strength.  The spike length, spike diameter, spikes/plant, weight/spike, yield/spike, and grain yield increased and then decreased with uniconazole application at a higher concentration, where their maximum values were recorded with UMS2 and US2 treatments.  The lignin accumulation was positively correlated with lignin-related enzyme activities and breaking strength while, negatively correlated with lodging rate.  Uniconazole significantly improved the lignin biosynthesis, lodging resistance, and grain yield of winter wheat and the treatments which showed the greatest effects were uniconazole seed soaking with micronutrient at a concentration of 30 mg L–1 and 0.06 g L–1, and uniconazole sole seed soaking at a concentration of 30 mg L–1.
Keywords:  lignin biosynthesis        lodging resistance        semi-arid regions        manganese        uniconazole        wheat  
Received: 30 August 2018   Accepted: 23 December 2019
Fund: This study was supported by funding from the National High-Tech R&D Program of China (2013AA102902), the Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities, China (B12007), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31601257).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence CAI Tie, E-mail: caitie@nwafu.edu.cn; HAN Qing-fang, E-mail: hanqf88@nwafu.edu.cn    
About author:  * These authors contributed equally to this study.

Cite this article: 

Irshad AHMAD, MENG Xiang-ping, Muhammad KAMRAN, Shahzad ALI, Shakeel AHMAD, LIU Tie-ning, CAI Tie, HAN Qing-fang . 2020. Effects of uniconazole with or without micronutrient on the lignin biosynthesis, lodging resistance, and winter wheat production in semiarid regions. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(1): 62-77.

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