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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2020, Vol. 19 Issue (5): 1363-1374    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62811-X
Special Issue: 农业生态环境-氮素合辑Agro-ecosystem & Environment—Nitrogen
Agro-ecosystem & Environment Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
The effects of water and nitrogen on the roots and yield of upland and paddy rice
ZHANG Ya-jie, XU Jing-nan, CHENG Ya-dan, WANG Chen, LIU Gao-sheng, YANG Jian-chang
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology, Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, P.R.China
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It is of great significance to study the root characteristics of rice to improve water and nitrogen (N) use efficiency and reduce environmental pollution.  This study investigated whether root traits and architecture of rice influence grain yield, as well as water and N utilization efficiency.  An experiment was conducted using the upland rice cultivar Zhonghan 3 (a japonica cultivar) and paddy rice cultivar Huaidao 5 (also a japonica cultivar) using three N levels, namely, 2 g urea/pot (low amount, LN), 3 g urea/pot (normal amount, NN), and 4 g urea/pot (high amount, HN), and three soil water potentials (SWPs, namely, well-watered (0 kPa), mildly dried (–20 kPa) and severely dried (–40 kPa).  The results showed that with decreasing SWP, the percentage of upland rice roots increased in the 0–5 cm tillage layer, and decreased in the 5–10 and 10–20 cm tillage layers, whereas paddy rice roots showed the opposite trend.  With increasing amounts of N, the yield of upland and paddy rice increased, and the percentage of root volume ratios of the two rice cultivars in the 0–5 and 5–10 cm tillage layers increased, whereas that in the 10–20 cm tillage layer decreased.  The roots of upland rice are mainly distributed in the 10–20 cm tillage layer, whereas most paddy rice roots are in the 0–5 cm tillage layer.  These results indicate that the combination of −20 kPa SWP and NN in upland rice and 0 kPa SWP and LN in paddy rice promotes the growth of the root system during the middle and late stages, which in turn may decrease the requirements for water and N fertilizer and increase rice yield. 
Keywords:  upland rice        paddy rice        root traits        root architecture        soil water potential        nitrogen  
Received: 03 March 2019   Accepted:
Fund: We are grateful for grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31671617), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300502, 2016YFD0300206 and 2018YFD0301306), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), China.
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence YANG Jian-chang, Tel: +86-514-87979317, E-mail:    
About author:  ZHANG Ya-jie, Tel: +86-514-87979361, E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

ZHANG Ya-jie, XU Jing-nan, CHENG Ya-dan, WANG Chen, LIU Gao-sheng, YANG Jian-chang. 2020. The effects of water and nitrogen on the roots and yield of upland and paddy rice. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(5): 1363-1374.

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