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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2022, Vol. 21 Issue (11): 3356-3367    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.08.062
Special Issue: 农业生态环境-有机碳与农业废弃物还田合辑Agro-ecosystem & Environment—SOC
Agro-ecosystem & Environment Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Apparent variations in nitrogen runoff and its uptake in paddy rice under straw incorporation
Muhammad Amjad BASHIR1, 2, ZHAI Li-mei1, WANG Hong-yuan1, LIU Jian3, Qurat-Ul-Ain RAZA4, GENG Yu-cong1, Abdur REHIM2, 4, LIU Hong-bin1
1 Key Laboratory of Nonpoint Source Pollution Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, P. R.China
2 College of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University Bahadur Sub-Campus, Layyah, 31200, Multan, Pakistan
3 School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 3H5 Canada
4 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
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摘要  秸秆还田被广泛用来提高农田的可持续生产力。但是,秸秆还田随时间变化对稻田氮素径流损失的潜在影响尚需深入研究。本研究于2008到2012年在我国亚热带地区开展了稻麦轮作、稻烟轮作和双季稻种植的田间试验,旨在评估秸秆还田对稻田氮素径流过程、水稻产量、水稻氮素吸收、土壤总氮以及有机质变化的影响。每种种植模式各设置三个等氮施用处理,分别为不施氮肥(CK)、单施化肥氮(CF)以及化肥氮和秸秆氮配施(CFS)。试验结果表明,在双季稻种植模式中,相比于单施化肥氮,秸秆氮部分替代化肥氮减少了稻田中总氮的径流损失。但是,秸秆氮较低的生物可利用性也明显降低了水稻的氮素吸收量。在稻-麦轮作和稻-烟轮作模式下,相比于单施化肥氮,化肥氮和秸秆氮配施反而在短期内使稻田总氮径流损失增加了0.9%-20.2%。但是,连续三年秸秆还田后,稻-麦轮作和稻-烟轮作模式的氮径流损失减少了2.3%-19.3%,这说明秸秆还田对减少稻田总氮损失具备长效性。同时,稻-麦轮作和稻-烟轮作模式的水稻氮素吸收量也增加了0.8%-37.3%。本研究结果表明,短期内秸秆还田对降低氮素损失和提高土壤肥力具有一定的变异性,但是长期秸秆还田具有减少稻田氮素损失和提高土壤地力的潜力。


Straw incorporation is a widespread practice to promote agricultural sustainability.  However, the potential effects of straw incorporation with the prolonged time on nitrogen (N) runoff loss from paddy fields are not well studied.  The current study addresses the knowledge gap by assessing the effects of straw incorporation on the processes influencing N runoff patterns and its impacts on crop yield, N uptake, total N (TN), and soil organic matter (SOM).  We conducted field experiments with rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation, rice–tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) rotation, and double-rice cropping in subtropical China from 2008 to 2012.  Each rotation had three N treatments: zero N fertilization (CK), chemical N fertilization (CF), and chemical N fertilization combined with straw incorporation (CFS).  The treatment effects were assessed on TN runoff loss, crop yield, N uptake, soil TN stock, and SOM.  Results showed that TN runoff was reduced by substituting part of the chemical N fertilizer with straw N in the double rice rotation, while crop N uptake was significantly (P<0.05) decreased due to the lower bioavailability of straw N.  In contrast, in both rice–wheat and rice–tobacco rotations, TN runoff in CFS was increased by 0.9–20.2% in the short term when straw N was applied in addition to chemical N, compared to CF.  However, TN runoff was reduced by 2.3–19.3% after three years of straw incorporation, suggesting the long-term benefits of straw incorporation on TN loss reduction.  Meanwhile, crop N uptake was increased by 0.8–37.3% in the CFS of both rotations.  This study demonstrates the challenges in reducing N runoff loss while improving soil fertility by straw incorporation over the short term but highlights the potential of long-term straw incorporation to reduce N loss and improve soil productivity.

Keywords:  straw return        nitrogen runoff        water pollution        rice yield        nitrogen uptake  
Received: 26 September 2021   Accepted: 22 October 2021
Fund: This research was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2021YFD1700901), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31972519), the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-01-33), and the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (2060302-05-956-1).
About author:  Correspondence WANG Hong-yuan, E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Muhammad Amjad BASHIR, ZHAI Li-mei, WANG Hong-yuan, LIU Jian, Qurat-Ul-Ain RAZA, GENG Yu-cong, Abdur REHIM, LIU Hong-bin. 2022. Apparent variations in nitrogen runoff and its uptake in paddy rice under straw incorporation. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 21(11): 3356-3367.

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