农业生态环境-有机碳与农业废弃物还田合辑Agro-ecosystem & Environment—SOC
|Apparent variations in nitrogen runoff and its uptake in paddy rice under straw
|Muhammad Amjad BASHIR1, 2, ZHAI Li-mei1, WANG
Hong-yuan1, LIU Jian3, Qurat-Ul-Ain RAZA4,
GENG Yu-cong1, Abdur REHIM2, 4, LIU Hong-bin1
|1 Key Laboratory of Nonpoint Source Pollution Control, Ministry of
Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese
Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, P. R.China
2 College of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University Bahadur Sub-Campus,
Layyah, 31200, Multan, Pakistan
3 School of Environment and
Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 3H5
4 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural
Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
Straw incorporation is a widespread practice to promote agricultural sustainability. However, the potential effects of straw incorporation with the prolonged time on nitrogen (N) runoff loss from paddy fields are not well studied. The current study addresses the knowledge gap by assessing the effects of straw incorporation on the processes influencing N runoff patterns and its impacts on crop yield, N uptake, total N (TN), and soil organic matter (SOM). We conducted field experiments with rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation, rice–tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) rotation, and double-rice cropping in subtropical China from 2008 to 2012. Each rotation had three N treatments: zero N fertilization (CK), chemical N fertilization (CF), and chemical N fertilization combined with straw incorporation (CFS). The treatment effects were assessed on TN runoff loss, crop yield, N uptake, soil TN stock, and SOM. Results showed that TN runoff was reduced by substituting part of the chemical N fertilizer with straw N in the double rice rotation, while crop N uptake was significantly (P<0.05) decreased due to the lower bioavailability of straw N. In contrast, in both rice–wheat and rice–tobacco rotations, TN runoff in CFS was increased by 0.9–20.2% in the short term when straw N was applied in addition to chemical N, compared to CF. However, TN runoff was reduced by 2.3–19.3% after three years of straw incorporation, suggesting the long-term benefits of straw incorporation on TN loss reduction. Meanwhile, crop N uptake was increased by 0.8–37.3% in the CFS of both rotations. This study demonstrates the challenges in reducing N runoff loss while improving soil fertility by straw incorporation over the short term but highlights the potential of long-term straw incorporation to reduce N loss and improve soil productivity.
Received: 26 September 2021
Accepted: 22 October 2021
|Fund: This research was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2021YFD1700901), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31972519), the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-01-33), and the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (2060302-05-956-1).
|About author: Correspondence WANG Hong-yuan, E-mail: email@example.com
Cite this article:
Muhammad Amjad BASHIR, ZHAI Li-mei, WANG Hong-yuan, LIU Jian, Qurat-Ul-Ain RAZA, GENG Yu-cong, Abdur REHIM, LIU Hong-bin.
Apparent variations in nitrogen runoff and its uptake in paddy rice under straw
incorporation. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 21(11): 3356-3367.
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