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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2022, Vol. 21 Issue (7): 2106-2118    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63734-6
Special Issue: 农业生态环境-肥料及施用合辑Agro-ecosystem & Environment—Fertilizer
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Increase in yield and nitrogen use efficiency of double rice with long-term application of controlled-release urea
TIAN Chang1*, SUN Ming-xue2*, ZHOU Xuan3, LI Juan2, XIE Gui-xian1, YANG Xiang-dong2, PENG Jian-wei1
1 College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University/National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, Changsha 410128, P.R.China
2 Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081, P.R.China
3 Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, P.R.China
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在湖南农业大学实验基地进行了长达5年的长期定位实验,研究施用90天释放期的聚乙烯包膜尿素对双季稻产量、氮肥利用率、土壤残留无机氮、土壤-植株系统氮平衡和经济效益的影响。本研究共设置了四个不同的施氮肥处理,包括CK(不施氮肥)、U(全量施用普通尿素)、CRU1(全量施用聚乙烯包膜尿素)、CRU2(减氮20%施用聚乙烯包膜尿素)。研究结果表明相比较全量施用普通尿素而言,全量施用控释肥能够分别提高作物产量和氮肥利用率11.0、13.5%。CRU1在晚稻上的产量和氮肥利用率的应用效果要优于早稻。研究结果表明全量施用控释肥可以提高早稻产量6.0%,可以提高早稻氮肥利用率10.2%;提高晚稻产量15.4%;,提高晚稻氮肥利用率13.8%。除此之外,CRU1与CRU2的双季稻产量和氮肥利用率没有明显的差异。此外施用控释肥处理(包括CRU1和CRU2)相较于U有较高的表观土壤残留率和作物表观氮素回收率,同时有较低的表观氮素损失,且CRU2相比较CRUI呈现出较好的的效果。在收获后,控释肥处理(包括CRU1和CRU2)能够维持土壤耕层(0-20 cm)较高的铵态氮和硝态氮浓度,并且能够减少深层土层(40-60 cm)的铵态氮和硝态氮浓度。此外,据估算施用控释肥处理还能获得较好的经济效益。总得来说,施用控释肥要比施用普通肥料在水稻产量、氮肥利用率、土壤-植株氮素平衡、经济效益上表现得更加优越,并且其中减氮施用20%控释肥处理有最优的综合效益。因此,我们认为施用控释肥能够有效解决水稻生产中的氮素管理所面临的挑战。

Abstract  Controlled-release urea (CRU) has better characteristics than conventional urea for synchronizing nitrogen (N) release with plant uptake.  Understanding the effects of CRU on crop yield and N use efficiency (NUE) has long been the key to evaluate the performance of CRU.  A long-term experiment over five consecutive years was conducted in Changsha, Hunan Province, China, to investigate the effects of polyethylene-coated urea with a 90-d release period on the yield and NUE of double rice (early and late crops are grown in the same year), the amount of residual soil mineral N and the soil–plant N balance, as well as on the economic benefits.  Four N fertilizer treatments including CK (no N fertilizer), U (conventional urea), CRU1 (polyethylene-coated urea with equal N application rate to U) and CRU2 (20% reduction in N application rate of CRU1) were established.  The results indicated that CRU1 application increased the yield and NUE of double rice by 11.0 and 13.5%, respectively, compared with U.  Higher yield and NUE of late rice were found than in early rice in CRU treatments.  Compared with conventional U, the yield and NUE of early rice in the CRU1 treatment were increased by 6.0 and 10.2%, respectively, and those of late rice were increased by 15.4 and 13.8%, respectively.  There was no significant difference between CRU1 and CRU2 in double rice yield.  Furthermore, CRU treatments (including CRU1 and CRU2) had higher apparent residual Nmin rate (ARNR) and apparent N recovery rate (ANRR), but lower apparent N loss (NS) than the conventional U treatment.  Concentrations of NH4+-N and NO3-N were greater in the surface soil (0–20 cm) and lower in the deeper soil layer (40–60 cm) with CRU treatments than in the U treatment after harvest.  Moreover, CRU application produced a greater economic benefit than conventional U application.  In general, CRU outperformed U fertilizer in terms of rice yield, NUE, soil–plant N balance, economic benefit, and CRU2 provided greater comprehensive benefits than CRU1.  It is suggested that CRU application is beneficial for solving N management challenges in the production of rice.

Keywords:  controlled-release urea        rice        yield        nitrogen use efficiency  
Received: 05 March 2021   Accepted: 14 May 2021
Fund: This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFD0200703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31872177), the Central Public-interest Scientific Institution Basal Research Fund of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (Y2020XK21), the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (2019JJ50233 and 2019JJ50337), and the Key Project of Hunan Provincial Education Department, China (20A250).
About author:  TIAN Chang, E-mail:; SUN Ming-xue, E-mail:; Correspondence YANG Xiang-dong, Tel: +86-10-82109614, E-mail:; PENG Jian-wei, Tel: +86-731-84673500, E-mail: * These authors contributed equally to this study.

Cite this article: 

TIAN Chang, SUN Ming-xue, ZHOU Xuan, LI Juan, XIE Gui-xian, YANG Xiang-dong, PENG Jian-wei. 2022. Increase in yield and nitrogen use efficiency of double rice with long-term application of controlled-release urea. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 21(7): 2106-2118.

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