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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2022, Vol. 21 Issue (3): 826-839    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63501-8
Special Issue: 农业生态环境-有机碳与农业废弃物还田合辑Agro-ecosystem & Environment—SOC
Agro-ecosystem & Environment Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Dynamics of organic carbon and nitrogen in deep soil profile and crop yields under long-term fertilization in wheat-maize cropping system
Muhammad QASWAR1, 2, 3*, LI Dong-chu1, 3*, HUANG Jing1, 3, HAN Tian-fu1, Waqas AHMED4, Sehrish ALI1, Muhammad Numan KHAN1, Zulqarnain Haider KHAN5, XU Yong-mei6, LI Qian2, ZHANG Hui-min1, 7, WANG Bo-ren1, 3, Ahmad TAUQEER
1 National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land/Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, P.R.China
2 Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, P.R.China
3 National Observation Station of Qiyang Agri-Ecology System/Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qiyang 426182, P.R.China
4 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Radionuclides Pollution Control and Resources, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, P.R.China
5 Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Tianjin 300191, P.R.China
6 Institute of Soil, Fertilizer and Agricultural Water Conservation, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi 830091, P.R.China
7 College of Agriculture, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471000, P.R.China
8 School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, P.R.China
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该研究系统阐述了长期不同施肥对土壤剖面SOC和N库的影响,通过冗余分析了SOC团聚体组分及影响因素,三维表面分析深入理解剖面SOC和N库对作物产量的影响。与化肥处理相比,长期施用有机肥通过增加表土层 (0–20 cm)SOC输入、SOC储量、TN储量和土壤pH值来提高作物产量。不同施肥处理的SOC团聚体组分存在差异,所有处理SOC团聚体组分高低依次为矿物结合有机碳(mSOC)>粗自由颗粒有机碳(cfPOC)>物理保护有机碳(iPOC)>细自由颗粒有机碳(ffPOC)。施用有机肥处理的所有SOC组分含量均显著高于化肥处理。在不同SOC团聚体组分中,ffPOC对不同施肥处理的敏感性最高。单施有机肥(M)和有机无机肥配施(NPKM)显著提高了表层(0-20 cm)SOC和TN含量,与化肥处理相比,M和NPKM处理降低了深层土壤(80-100 cm)中的SOC和N含量,有利于减少养分垂直流动,从而减少养分的淋溶损失。

Abstract  Soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N) are two of the most important indicators for agricultural productivity.  The primary objective of this study was to investigate the changes in SOC and N in the deep soil profile (up to 100 cm) and their relationships with crop productivity under the influence of long-term (since 1990) fertilization  in the wheat-maize cropping system.  Treatments included CK (control), NP (inorganic N and phosphorus (P) fertilizers), NPK (inorganic N, P and potassium fertilizers), NPKM (NPK plus manure), and M (manure).  Crop yield and the properties of topsoil were measured yearly from 2001 to 2009.  C and N contents were measured at five different depths in 2001 and 2009.  The results showed that wheat and maize yields decreased between 2001 and 2009 under the inorganic fertilizer (NP and NPK) treatments.  The average yield between 2001 and 2009 under the NP, NPK, NPKM, and M treatments (compared with the CK treatment) increased by 38, 115, 383, and 381%, respectively, for wheat and 348, 891, 2 738, and 1 845%, respectively, for maize.  Different long-term fertilization treatments significantly changed coarse free particulate (cfPOC), fine free particulate (ffPOC), intramicroaggregate particulate (iPOC), and mineral-associated (mSOC) organic carbon fractions.  In the experimental years of 2001 and 2009, soil fractions occurred in the following order for all treatments: mSOC>cfPOC>iPOC>ffPOC.  All fractions were higher under the manure application treatments than under the inorganic fertilization treatments.  Compared to the inorganic fertilization treatments, manure input enhanced the stocks of SOC and total N in the surface layer (0–20 cm) but decreased SOC and N in the deep soil layer (80–100 cm).  This reveals the efficiency of manure in increasing yield productivity and decreasing risk of vertical loss of nutrients, especially N, compared to inorganic fertilization treatments.  The findings provide opportunities for understanding deep soil C and N dynamics, which could help mitigate climate change impact on agricultural production and maintain soil health.

Keywords:  carbon stock        nitrogen stock        carbon fraction        soil profile        organic amendments        long-term experiment  
Received: 28 August 2020   Accepted: 11 November 2020
CLC Number:     
Fund: This research was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300901 and 2017YFD0800101), and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Non-profit Scientific Institution, China (161032019035, 1610132020022 and 1610132020023). 
About author:  Muhammad QASWAR, E-mail:; Correspondence ZHANG Hui-min, E-mail:; WANG Bo-ren, E-mail: * These authors contributed equally to this study.

Cite this article: 

Muhammad QASWAR, LI Dong-chu, HUANG Jing, HAN Tian-fu, Waqas AHMED, Sehrish ALI, Muhammad Numan KHAN, Zulqarnain Haider KHAN, XU Yong-mei, LI Qian, ZHANG Hui-min, WANG Bo-ren, Ahmad TAUQEER. 2022. Dynamics of organic carbon and nitrogen in deep soil profile and crop yields under long-term fertilization in wheat-maize cropping system. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 21(3): 826-839.

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