Length of grain affects the appearance, quality, and yield of rice. A rice long-grain chromosome segment substitution line Z744, with Nipponbare as the recipient parent and Xihui 18 as the donor parent, was identified. Z744 contains a total of six substitution segments distributed on chromosomes (Chrs.) 1, 2, 6, 7, and 12, with an average substitution length of 2.72 Mb. The grain length, ratio of length to width, and 1 000-grain weight of Z744 were significantly higher than those in Nipponbare. The plant height, panicle number, and seed-set ratio in Z744 were significantly lower than those in Nipponbare, but they were still 78.7 cm, 13.5 per plant, and 86.49%, respectively. Furthermore, eight QTLs of different traits were identified in the secondary F2 population, constructed by Nipponbare and Z744 hybridization. The grain weight of Z744 was controlled by two synergistic QTLs (qGWT1 and qGWT7) and two subtractive QTLs (qGWT2 and qGWT6), respectively. The increase in the grain weight of Z744 was caused mainly by the increase in grain length. Two QTLs were detected, qGL1 and qGL7-3, which accounted for 25.54 and 15.58% of phenotypic variation, respectively. A Chi-square test showed that the long-grain number and the short-grain number were in accordance with the 3:1 separation ratio, which indicates that the long grain is dominant over the short-grain and Z744 was controlled mainly by the principal effect qGL1. These results offered a good basis for further fine mapping of qGL1 and further dissection of other QTLs into single-segment substitution lines.